Franco Ferreiros/Final Essay/Team 16

Nicely done Franco!  Well-researched and well-written.  I certainly learned quite a bit from reading your essay. I think I would have liked to see a few images rather than just a you tube link but overall great job.  Very good biblio too. Good luck to you and in all you may do. Professor Christos

The red tide bloom that has been affecting the waters off Florida’s West Gulf Coast for the past few months is now making its presence known (on the East Coast) from Miami Beach all the way up to Palm Beach. This algae is extremely harmful to not only marine life but people as well, causing skin irritations and  respiratory problems. Should the red tide bloom settle in,  our beautiful beaches will be shut down and massive amounts of fish will die jeopardizing the marine creatures that play a vital role in our marine ecosystems.

Red tides happen when dinoflagellates explode in the water causing an algal bloom. When millions of microscopic algae are clustered in an area of the ocean, they can change the color of the water from a brownish-reddish color to a orangish-yellowish color. Now a number of different factors can cause an algal bloom to grow. Warmer surface water, low salt levels in the water, and a high nutrient content in the water are all factors that can cause a bloom to grow.

The organism at the forefront of this red tide is known as Karenia brevis, and it produces deadly neurotoxins that affect and animals central nervous systems eventually causing them to die. This is why the red tide is always associated with mass fish killings. Deaths of other species such as manatees, sharks, turtles, and dolphins are uncommon but can occur as well. This algal bloom can be very dangerous for beach goers as well. The wave action found in the beaches of Florida can break open the cells of the Karenia brevis and their toxins can be released into the air, causing raspatory irritation to anyone in the area. Also people suffering from severe or chronic respiratory problems, including asthma, should also avoid beaches since the red tide can causes serious illnesses as well. Red tides toxins can also build up in different types of mollusks such as clams and oysters. If consumed, they can lead to NSP (Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning). While this is not fatal, it can still causes symptoms of diarrhea and discomfort for about 3-4 days.

In contrast to others blooms that have happened in the past, this years is very unusual. Karenia brevis blooms typically occur in the late summer moving into the beginning of fall. This is following the same pattern of the 2004-2006 algal bloom. It first started on the west side, spreading up farther north, and eventually moving east and settling there, causing several deaths within our ecosystem as well as the closure of several shellfish harvesting areas. This years’ bloom also has a very tenacious pattern to it. This algal bloom started in October of 2017 and followed through to the Spring of 2018. By early June, the bloom re-appeared on the Southwest of the Florida coast. Following Tropical Storm Gordon, the red tide was able to spread into the panhandle and in October 2018, the red tide had made its way to the East side of the coast. Now the size of this bloom changes every week, but as of August 15, 2018, this bloom has spread over 150 miles along the east coast of Florida.

No one knows if a bloom of this size can be stopped. In the early 2000s though, an organization known as NOAA (National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration) began to do studies to see if the use of clays can be used to control red tides. Since the time of study, several different types of clay have been produced in Asia that have fewer environmental effects on the ocean. Now, the state of Florida has begun funding test to see if these new clays have any effect on stopping the red tide.

NOAA is currently the biggest organization fighting to stop this epidemic. They have already begun scientific research and have also started to give communities in Florida warnings on how to better deal with the environmental impacts, economic losses, and as well as health issues that are associated with the red tide. They also monitor year-round conditions and give accurate  forecast for the red tide through two main point, conditions reports and bulletins. Bulletins give in-depth analysis about the location of an ongoing bloom as well as forecasts of the likely development and corresponding impacts of the bloom. Conditions reports on the other hand, identify the risk of respiratory problems within a county over a 3-4 day period. Additionally, NOAA with it trained members in the marine mammal stranding network, have being diligently working on responding to marine mammals along Florida’s coastlines that have been effected by the red tide. NOAA has also funded 6.8 million dollars for new and continuing algal bloom research and have also funded tests for treatment of bird sickened by the Florida red tide.

Media outlets are also now getting involved in this as well. Newspapers like the Florida Today have been covering this for a while and they have impacted the way on how the public views this. They have in a way convinced the people to take action and help save our marine ecosystems and beautiful beaches. Since then, several cleanups have occurred along the coastlines and it now seems like people are starting to care more and more about the environment that we are currently living in. In counties like Pinellas, over 324 tons of dead fish have been collected of the coasts lines since September 7,2018. Small things like this can make a huge impact and it helps us keep our beaches clean, providing a safe environment for beachgoers and different species living on the beaches.

To conclude, this years red tide has not been like others. Karenia brevis has been killing of different marine species at an alarming fashion, but with the help or organizations such as NOAA and media outlets like the Florida Today, people have become more aware of what is going on and actually have started to help out in this situation. Time can’t tell how long this will last, but with our efforts of helping the environment it may be a lot sooner than we really think.


Video Link: 


Annotated Bibliography

Newspaper: Waymer, Jim, and Jennifer Sangalang. “Red Tide in Cocoa Beach, Satellite Beach, Melbourne Beach, Indialantic: What We Know.” Florida Today, Florida Today, 20 Oct. 2018, This Source, The Florida Today, spoke about the spread of the ride tide spread in the beaches of Northern Florida. It explains what it has been doing to the beaches and wildlife that lives as well. This newspaper also began speaking about the efforts being made by local schools to stop it from spreading even more. 

Web Article: Murphy, Paul P. “Red Tide Is Spreading in Florida. Hurricane Michael Didn’t Stop It.” CNN, Cable News Network, 20 Oct. 2018, This Source talks about the spreading of the Red tide into new areas in the past couple of days. It talks about if Hurricane Michael would have an impact on the state of the red tide and also talks about what researchers predictions were for the future of the red tide. It later gets into detail about the spreading of the tide into a new area, The Florida Keys.

My Choice: US Department of Commerce, and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. “Red Tide in Florida and Texas.” NOAA Forecast for Red Tide in Florida, 18 Feb. 2016,  This source is an approach from NOAA’s perspective of how they will tackle the difficult task of stopping the red tide. They state how this event may not even be stopped and can continue for a while. It also gives advice on what to do if a person is affected by the Red Tide.

Magazine: Depp, Ben. “Red Tide Is Devastating Florida’s Sea Life. Are Humans to Blame?” National Geographic, 9 Aug. 2018,  This Source goes more in depth in to the actual bacteria. It explains to us like many other sources how the Red Tide is destroying wild life, but unlike other sources; it explains to use how it is created and what it really does to animals and humans as well. Like the NOAA source, it also talks about what our future might be like with this bacteria.

Book: Granéli Edna, and Jefferson T. Turner. Ecology of Harmful Algae. Springer, 2008. 

Scholarly Journal: Fears, Darryl, et al. “Florida Reels as Red Tide Rolls On.” Albuquerque Journal, 28 Aug. 2018, This Source is interesting because it gives the perspective of other people that have been around or exposed to this bacteria. Like the other sources though, it goes in depth about what this algae really is and how its created. It also gives past experiences of this happening and they also give the resolution that was back then and one than can be used now.




Final Research Paper


Hi Amanda,

See comments in email, Good job!

Amanda-Victoria Gonzalez

IDS 3309


Team 11

Final Paper


The 21st century is one in which the world due to globalization is expanding at an ever increasing rate. Due to the stress of human impact on the earth’s climate the Co2 levels have began increasing at incredible rates. The changes of global warming are all around us and the general consensus held by scientists and professionals throughout the world is that humans and our unhealthy relationship with fossil fuels is what’s generating the increase in greenhouse gasses. The changes in the climate are expected to altar almost every aspect of our life regardless of how immediate the effects begin to be noticed. In order to truly save the only planet which we call home governments from all over the world must work in unison for the greater good and help stop carbon emissions or help lower them exponentially.

Traditionally when global initiatives have been undertaken the world has looked towards the United States for guidance and has expected them to lead the way. Unfortunately, that moral guidance and leadership has all but dissolved under the administration of Donald Trump. The president of The United States is a skeptic of global warming and believes that the research and data that has come forward throughout the years is all a hoax. The actions of Donald Trump are unprecedented as the US alone has decided to isolate itself from the rest of the world on matters of climate change. It was on June 1, 2017 that the world collectively gasped as Trump singlehandedly made the decision to leave the historic Paris climate accord. “President Trump announced on Thursday that the United States would withdraw from the Paris climate accord, weakening efforts to combat global warming and embracing isolationist voices in his White House who argued that the agreement was a pernicious threat to the economy and American sovereignty” (Shear).

Through the new mediums of information and the internet, voices from lawmakers, politicians, and environmentalists from all over the world unanimously shunned down the actions of the Trump administration.  Resulting from the kickback of his actions the administration began to engage in heartless display of distortion, manipulation, and fake news. “Reports of climate science being scrubbed from U.S. government websites arrived early in President Donald Trump’s tenure. And the hits keep coming. From the Environmental Protection Agency, to the Energy Department, to the State Department and beyond, references to climate change, greenhouse gases and clean energy keep disappearing” (Rainey).

The abuse of power and attempt to diminish and erase the facts led to a renaissance of civic engagement and curiosity among the American population and the world. Through the technological mediums of the internet, the population could no longer trust the word of the U.S. government and looked to alternative outlets that relied on ethos and logos to present their facts. “The two sites, and, have expanded to more than 700 entries and collectively drew more than 68,000 page views in May, a more than 50 percent increase from the year before” (Rainey).

The threat posed on the climate by the administration has resulted in a new breed of activism on part of the youth with involvement from age groups not seen politically active in recent history. “If all goes as planned, Ms. Olson will deliver her opening argument on Monday in a landmark federal lawsuit against the Trump administration on behalf of 21 plaintiffs, ages 11 to 22, who are demanding that the government fight climate change” (Shwartz) . The decision began an assault from journalists throughout the country and the world using pathos in order to stir up the emotions & humanity in people to show them the gravity of a threat that climate change denial poses to all of us as a species. On the bright side, the constant barrage of social media posts, mainstream reporting, and emphasis on climate change has ironically laid a seed in the collective conscious of Americans. Climate change which didn’t typically carry much weight in American politics has bloomed into a movement being championed by opponents of the President specifically by Democratic and Progressive parties who understand the threat that climate change poses. Thus, without Trump this emphasis on climate change might not have gained that much importance. One would have thought that after a few years and hopefully rationale people gaining the ear of the president that he would have changed his course on the climate. Unfortunately, when one thinks the president cannot sink any lower he always finds a new way to outdo himself.

Fast forward to Black Friday 2018 when the Trump administration quietly released a sobering account of future impact of climate change and the world. “The 1,656-page National Climate Assessment, which is required by Congress, is the most comprehensive scientific study to date detailing the effects of global warming on the United States economy, public health, coastlines and infrastructure. It describes in precise detail how the warming planet will wreak hundreds of billions of dollars of damage in coming decades” (Davenport). Everything released within the pages of this extensive report contradicts everything that Trump has publicly stated about climate change and in plain English states the real threats that will befall the United States and the world if concrete steps are not taken soon to combat rising temperatures.

This article was released following the catastrophic “Camp” fire which has devastated large portions of California affecting both the rich and poor showing the significance of how the climate is affecting the interior landscape of the country. In the report the prognosis expected was an increase in the severity and occurrences of the wildfires seen during the past month in California. “The scientific community is reaching growing consensus that global climate change will significantly alter future wildfire dynamics” (Syphard, Sheehan, Rustigian-Romsos, Ferschweiler). In conclusion, the threats faced by rising temperatures and climate change paint a very pessimistic future for the United States and the planet in general. All we can hope for is brave new leadership that will drastically change course.


Picture links:






The Trump Administration Scrubs Climate Change Info from Websites. These Two Have Survived., NBCUniversal News Group,

The Trump administration has banned climate change discussion except for two which refuse to not talk about global warming. They are aimed to teach their audiences about increased CO2 levels and solar power. They provide fact sheets, data sets and an overwhelming amount go scientific consensus to point out that climate change is real. The Trump administration has gone to extreme lengths in order to hide facts and details.


Boykoff, M., Maldonado, C., & Nacu-Schmidt, A. (2018). US Television Coverage of Climate Change or Global Warming, 2004-2018 – August 2018 [Data set]. Center for Science and Technology Policy Research, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder.

This is a data set of Climate change coverage over since the year 2000 on a variety of different television news networks.


Schwartz, John. “Young People Are Suing the Trump Administration Over Climate Change. She’s Their Lawyer.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 23 Oct. 2018,®ion=rank&module=package&version=highlights&contentPlacement=1&pgtype=sectionf

There are 21 plaintiffs going up against the Trump administration in court on the topic of climate change. They are claiming the governments’ actions go against their constitutional rights. The government is encouraging the use of fossil fuels and people are saying Trump is moving backwards on global warming issues.


Syphard, Alexandra D., et al. “Mapping future fire probability under climate change: Does vegetation matter?” PLoS ONE, vol. 13, no. 8, 2018, p. e0201680. Global Issues in Context, Accessed 24 Oct. 2018.

Syphard showcases recent studies about global warming and the updates. It goes into how it has affected vegetation as well as cooling and heating intervals. It also discusses how global warming and climate change may have affected the fires in California.

Jones, Laura. ”Global Warming.”Google Books,

Jones discusses how industrial and human activity has affected climate change by increasing global temperatures. It still remains a controversial topic because in order to control greenhouse gas emissions, it would come with a fine amount economic costs. Scientific research is being overlooked and as a result so is the discussion of greenhouse gas emissions.

Shear, Michael. “Trump Will Withdraw U.S. From Paris Climate Agreement”. Nytimes.Com, 2018, Accessed 29 Nov 2018.

The Trump administration has banned climate change discussion except for two which refuse to not talk about global warming. They are aimed to teach their audiences about increased CO2 levels and solar power. They provide fact sheets, data sets and an overwhelming amount go scientific consensus to point out that climate change is real.

Final Essay

Hi Denise,

Well-done!  Nicely written and thoroughly researched. Good work on what must have been a disheartening topic, but one that needs to be addressed. Best of luck to you in all you may do. Prof Christos


Denise Gonzalez-Abreu
Team 12

Thesis: Social Media and live news platforms make it easier for whistleblowers to create awareness about immigration detention centers across the country and their failure to provide proper care for detainees.


In July 2016, “the ICE average daily population exceeded 37,000 people for the first time, with 37,350 people detained.” (Chan 2017) However, with the country’s introduction to the Trump administration, the numbers only increased. “In November 2017, ICE reported that its total average daily population for FY 2018 was 39,322 people.” (Cullen 2018)

On May 7, 2018, Attorney General Jeff Sessions announced The Department of Justice’s “zero tolerance” policy for illegal entry on the Southwest border. Sessions stated that immigrants who illegally cross the border with their children will be prosecuted, and the child will be separated from the parent as required by law. (Sessions 2018) According to the Department of Homeland Security, “between May 5 and June 9, there had been 2,342 children separated from their parents.” (Fichera 2018)

The uproar began. Reporters, investigators, and citizens took to news sites and social media platforms to report on the immigration detention centers. Within days, articles flooded the internet reporting the neglect on detainees and their health. Medical Doctor, Altaf Saadi, who attended two tours of immigration detention centers, took to YouTube and blog sites to report her findings. Saadi met a detainee who suffered from Chronic Hypertension. “Although the detainee had notified the corrections staff that she suffered from chronic hypertension, it took four days for her to be given her blood pressure medication.” (Saadi 2018) Saadi’s findings weren’t the first news of malpractice coming from detention centers. For years detention centers have been held under the scrutiny of neglect and have failed to adhere by human right laws. In 2017 the American Medical Association “voted in favor of adopting new policies aimed at improving and protecting the health of immigrants and refugees who have come to the United States.” (American Medical Association 2018) Exactly one year before The Department of Justice’s decision to separate families at the border, president of the American Medical Association, M.D. Andrew W. Gurman spoke out on the health risks involved with the separation. “The separation of children from their parents who are detained while seeking safe haven causes unnecessary distress, depression, and anxiety,” (American Medical Association 2018)

The public was outraged. After countless research dedicated to exposing the mental health risks of separating families, the government did not waver in their decision. News sites took it upon themselves to report first-hand accounts made by inspectors who inspected the detention centers. Their hope was to expose the truth and create enough awareness for change to occur. The New York Times reported on a California detention center stating that “federal inspectors found that 15 out of 20 cells they inspected had what they described as nooses made of braided bedsheets hanging from vents.” (Jordan 2018)

Shortly following the reporters, the public took to social media platforms to expand on the rising awareness of border family separation. Images of crying children began to flood the internet with the hashtag #keepfamiliestogether. Instagram blogs, such as Now This News, posted videos on the lasting effects of family separation. (NotThisNews 2018)

Tweets from organizations and citizens swarmed the Twitter platform with expressive opinions on the topic. The hashtag #keepfamiliestogether became so widespread that an entire organization was born. Organization, Keep Families Together utilized pathos rhetoric to highlight personal stories of immigrant families on the Twitter platform in hopes of informing the public of the tragic event.

It worked. According to google trends, in comparison to the past five years, the topic of border family separation reached its maximum popularity in June of 2018. (Google Trends) The feedback on social media resulted in an outbreak of rallies and protests across the country.

However, the benefit of creating such awareness on social media comes at a price. In the midst of all the chatter, a single photo managed to obtain viral attention. The photo, posted on Twitter by Jose Antonio Vargas, depicted a toddler crying in a cage. Vargas captioned the photo stating, “this is what happens when a government believes people are illegal. Kids in cages.” Within minutes, the photo became one of the most popular photos in the Keep Families Together movement. However, what the public assumed was “a child confined by immigration authorities to a cage,” was actually a photo “snapped during a protest staged in front of Dallas City Hall.” (Lacapria 2018) The child was placed in a mock cage to “call attention to the Trump administration’s practice of separating families and confining undocumented children.” (Lacapria 2018) Though taken out of context, the photo certainly played its part in the echo chamber of activists.  

The internet became a platform for the loud, the outspoken, and the unstoppable. So much so that it only took 44 days for President Donal Trump to take action. “Facing the national outcry, Trump signed an executive order designed to keep migrant families together at the U.S.-Mexico border. The order, drafted by Nielsen, directed Homeland Security to keep families together after they are detained crossing the border illegally.” (Hegarty 2018)

Platforms like social media provoke the need for exposure, and it’s quite clear how well the public responds to such provocation. However, online activism comes with its consequences. As consumers, we can often get caught in the echo chamber and blind ourselves to the possibility of false proclamations. While utilizing the internet as a tool to promote truth and change, we must remember to filter the feed regardless of how convincing it may sound. The digital age may come at a cost, but the powerful voice it gives to the public is certainly worth it.



“AMA Adopts New Policies to Improve Health of Immigrants and Refugees.” Selecting & Using a Health Information Exchange | AMA, 12 June 2017.

“Border Family Separation .” Google Trends, Google, 5-y&geo=US&q=border family separation,immigration children separation.

Chan, Jennifer. “Immigration Detention Bed Quota Timeline.” National Immigrant Justice Center, 13 Jan. 2017.

Cullen, Tara T. “ICE Released Its Most Comprehensive Immigration Detention Data Yet. It’s Alarming.” National Immigrant Justice Center, 13 Mar. 2018.

Fichera, Angelo. “Q&A On Border Detention of Children.”, The Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania, 10 Aug. 2018.

Hegarty, Aaron. “Timeline: Immigrant Children Separated from Families at the Border.” USA Today, Gannett Satellite Information Network, 25 July 2018.

Jordan, Miriam. “Inspectors Find Nooses in Cells at Immigration Detention Facility.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 2 Oct. 2018.

LaCapria, Kim. “FACT CHECK: Does This Image Show a Toddler in a Cage Detained by ICE in 2018?”, 12 June 2018.

News, Guardian. “US Immigration Protests as Hundreds of Children Held in Texas Facility.” YouTube, YouTube, 17 June 2018.

“NowThis on Instagram: ‘A Video Released by the ACLU Shows the Lasting Effects of Family Separation.”.” Instagram, 28 Aug. 2018.

Saadi, Altaf. “Detention Facilities Display Dangerous Trend of Delayed and Inadequate Care.” Physicians for Human Rights, 20 June 2018.

Sessions, Jeff. “Attorney General Sessions Delivers Remarks Discussing the Immigration Enforcement Actions of the Trump Administration.” The United States Department of Justice, 7 May 2018.

Final Essay

Well-done Maria Lucia!  Good images and well-researched.  I

Resultado de imagen para Nicaragua protests

The political and economic crisis that has emerged in Nicaragua has demonstrated to the world the importance of news on the social media platform. Journalists and citizens facing censorship could only turn to this platform for sharing their country’s truth.

On April 18, 2018, civil unrest began in Nicaragua when a group of students gathered outside Managua’s University (UCA) to protest against the social security reforms mandated by president Daniel Ortega that increased taxes for all citizens. Later on, armed groups called Sandinistas and police led by the government came and repressed the students, locking them inside the university. Since then attacks to however is against the government have not stopped causing a raise rise on in Nicaragua’s death toll every day.

Resultado de imagen para Nicaragua protests

President Daniel Ortega has ruled for 11 consecutive years. He has managed to stay in power by changing the constitution to allow re-elections and made alliances with the business sector (COSEP). In Nicaragua everything seemed to be fine, no development on education or economy but citizens were comfortable until the students challenged the assumption that Ortega’s government is one that provides stability, peace and love for the community, proof of expanding the bounds of debate was the unjust decision of raising taxes when in a population of six million, most manage on less than $2 a day.

Technology and social media have become one of the essential tools for the Nicaraguan community on disseminating Daniel Ortega’s crimes. However, much information on how the government operates remains unrevealed. The current crisis in Nicaragua is a perfect example that can be used to elaborate on the “How we know what we know” perspective.

First, there is a need to know how the information was revealed. There are two versions of the story; one is from the students at the protests and the other from the government and its followers (Sandinistas). The government denied any involvement, saying that there were no more protests, and no one has died. Ortega stated that the people who caused the unrest are coup plotters backed by the United States government to overthrow him from power; however, he did not provide any proof of said plotters in the country or videos killing the students.

On the other hand, the students and citizens of Nicaragua had a different version of the events claiming that Ortega and his government are assassins, citizens keep protesting every day and being under attack just for wanting a new government for Nicaragua. Videos, photos, and recordings of people wearing the Sandinistas flags with guns on their hands shooting and hitting students or any citizen who wears a Nicaraguan flag are shown all over Facebook and Twitter.

Facebook became the platform of information for people in Nicaragua and around the world. Studies have shown that Facebook is not a community, but it has become a weapon. (interesting point!)  Twitter, served as a tool for communicating with international organizations. The youth community started to write tweets under the hashtag #SOSNicaragua that later on became viral, and the world could see it. Citizens of Nicaragua started using their phones and cameras to show the world what is happening.  

The event was built by many factors, such as secrecy and revelation. The government could not back their claims on the terrorist groups led by the United States and that no one had died when the Inter-American Commission on Human rights (OAS) provided strong reports on who is making the killing. Ortega also told the lie that nothing is happening in Nicaragua and that everything will be back to normal.

Ortega censored the media. In Nicaragua, 50% of households live in extreme poverty with no education, no access to the internet or international news and most are illiterate. These people believed and supported Ortega’s government since national TV news channels never presented videos or photos of what is happening, or they talked about the topic; instead, they reported that terrorist groups are in Nicaragua, claiming that Ortega is innocent and the students are lying.

As the crisis kept going more secrets get revealed, the business sector (COSEP) kept secret the alliance it has with the government, which is based that Ortega will be in the presidency and they will support it if Ortega benefits them too. On the citizen’s eyes, COSEP is now an ally of the government. This turned bad for individual companies in Nicaragua, citizens do not want to consume from them and now are also being charged with the Nica Act.

Ortega also lied on live Tv in a national dialogue to solve the crisis where he said that he had not ordered any killings or attacks. He was asked by student leader Lesther Aleman, to stop the armed forces but Ortega remained quiet.

Resultado de imagen para national dialogue lesther aleman

(Lesther Aleman, calling Ortega assassin on live TV)

The event was influenced by movement and technology. The student organization movement of civic alliance led by Lesther Aleman, a 20-year-old student who is doing the impossible to remove Ortega from power, has changed the way the citizens act toward the crisis by organizing massive protests and national strikes that stop all work in the country for 24-hours, which means for a day Nicaragua’s enterprises close and do not provide money to Ortega.

Technology has also altered the culture. Phones, computers, cameras and more have proved to be the best tools in communicating globally the crimes made by Ortega’s government. Technology has also changed the way citizens walk or think. In Nicaragua, students know their phone is the best weapon to expose the dictator and to provide information to the international community.

Nicaragua’s crisis has proved to be the perfect example of how powerful technology and social media has become, to even fight for democracy. The event resulted in a desirable change in the sense that Nicaraguans want democracy and by doing that they have to remove Ortega. It is a laborious process in which the economy is taking a toll on the economy, but the citizens are willing to take it until Ortega is out.

Link of video showing who is doing the killing :



Hill, Toby Stirling. “Cathedral Protests Highlight Ortega’s Broken Alliance with Nicaraguan Church.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 8 Nov. 2018,

Moreno, Dario. “Peace and the Nicaraguan revolution.” Current History, vol. 87, no. 533, 1988, p. 405+. Academic OneFile, Accessed 7 Dec. 2018.

Partlow, Joshua. “From Rebel to Strongman: How Daniel Ortega Became the Thing He Fought Against.” The Washington Post, WP Company, 24 Aug. 2018,

Editorial, Observer. “The Observer View on Nicaragua’s Critical Need for a New Direction | Observer Editorial.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 17 June 2018,

Serrels, Mark. “Calling Facebook a ‘Community’ Is Spectacularly Naive.” CNET, CNET, 21 Mar. 2018,

“2018 Nicaraguan Protests.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 29 Nov. 2018,

“Daniel Ortega.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 29 Nov. 2018,


Final paper

Hi Jarille,

Impressive images!  Your essay is well-researched, well-written and addresses an important topic.  You were successful in relating this issue to social media, however I would have liked to see a bit more use of some of the concepts discussed in class rather than a re-telling of the issue.  Overall, well-done. Keep up your good work and best of everything to you in your future. Prof Christos

Jarille Molina


Final paper

Teeam 15


Global warming and its effects on the ecosystem are terrifying enough but it’s a completely different story when it is happening in your own backyard. One of the saddest and scariest climate change issues affecting the United States and the state of Florida is the Red Tide epidemic which has been consuming the coasts of the peninsula killing off wildlife, harming the ecosystem, and showing the grim realities of climate change. With ever increasing temperatures affecting the globe and a presidential administration that denies the reality of climate change the situation for environmentally minded individuals looks bleak.

It was during the month of October 2017 that Floridians began to wake up to the crisis that was affecting the waters they grew up in. “Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission officials confirmed Wednesday that low to moderate amounts of the algae that cause red tide have now turned up off three counties along the state’s more densely populated east coast. Blooms were confirmed in Palm Beach, Martin and St. Lucie counties, marking the first appearance of red tide along Atlantic shores in more than a decade” stated Miami Herald reporter Jenny Staletovich. Through the different mediums of communication used by emergency services, the Florida coastguard began to post on their website and Twitter profile warning about the potential hazards posed by the Red Tide phenomena.

Image result for red tideThe question remains though what exactly is the Red Tide algae bloom we see affecting Florida waters. “Many organisms around the world can cause these harmful algal blooms, which are also known as red tides for their common rust-red color. In Florida, the culprit is usually the tiny, plant-like alga known as Karenia Brevis, which produces toxins, dubbed brevetoxins that cause both gastrointestinal and neurological problems when eaten. The latest bloom now stretches around 100 miles along the coast and miles offshore, often pushed into concentrated patches by winds and currents” stated National Geographic reporter Maya Wei-Haas as she observed the impact of the algae bloom on the local environment.

Image result for red tide

The algae bloom not only presents itself as a threat to the local wildlife and environment but also poses a severe health risk to the local populations and humans who frequent Florida’s beaches. “Since the weekend, beachgoers have complained about coughing, itchy eyes and other symptoms linked to red tide. Gerare Rimesso, a neurology researcher at the University of Miami, said he and his wife fled Fort Lauderdale beach after about an hour of coughing and runny noses Saturday morning” (Staletovich). Red Tide algae blooms are no new occurrence to Florida waters, having been first reported by Spanish conquistadors venturing through the panhandle and noted in journals and modes of communication of the time after many of them were affected negatively by the bloom. “Red tide cells are broken apart by wind and wave action, releasing their toxins into the air and sea spray. These airborne toxins can provoke respiratory problems such as coughing, eye irritation, sneezing, and respiratory irritation. Beachgoers, as well as coastal residents and workers, are all at risk from the aerosolized toxins. In addition, people with asthma can have changes in both symptoms and spirometry values after one hour of exposure to the airborne toxins. Both the number and the severity of symptoms increase after just one hour of exposure and symptoms can persist for several days” (Kuhar, S. E., Nierenberg, K. , Kirkpatrick, B., and Tobin, G. A. (2009). The algae blooms have been known to typically only affect the waters on the west coast of Florida as the algae live at the bottom of the Gulf of Mexico and feed off the Florida Shelf. The fact the algae bloom has spread to the Atlantic coast is what makes this not your typical occurrence.

Related image

The peculiar behavior of the Red Tide has begun to set off alarms with climate change experts asking questions such as if humans may be one of the leading causes in the increase in the algae. A variety of experts have undertaken the necessary requirements and scientific testing to help find out the causes for the bloom and the outlets that will be needed in order to help inform the public on what they can do to help curb the effects of the algae infestation. “From October 2017 through July 2018, Mote and its partners have monitored extensively for Florida red tide to augment public information on the status of the bloom. Mote and FWC have jointly collected 608 water samples through 14 days of routine coastal surveys between Tampa Bay and San Carlos Bay, Florida. The researchers derived counts of Florida red tide algae cells and data on salinity, temperature, and depth from all samples, and analyzed 228 for nutrients, toxins and the community of various other microscopic algae called phytoplankton, which have the potential to influence Florida red tide algae” (Rutger, H. 2018, 09). Officials have begun to use the mediums of the internet and social media in order to help educate the population through the use of logos what they can do to help fight the spread of the algae bloom. Websites such as have become a benchmark website for officials to post information and research on the effects of Red Tide on the health impact it has on humans and the devastating effects it has on the local wildlife population. The website has links to Facebook, Twitter, as well as Instagram and has daily updates letting citizens know the current status of the Red Tide and how to avoid it.

In conclusion, The Florida Red Tide will continue to be an ever-growing part of life here in Florida for years to come. The best thing we can do is help educate ourselves through technological mediums in order to help combat it from spreading and help protect the health of the population and the local wildlife. New methods must be created to avoid the buildup of salt in canals and local waterways education will be the key in fighting the Florida algae blooms.

Image result for red tide



                                    Annotated Bibliography:

Kuhar, Sara E., et al. “Public Perceptions of Florida Red Tide Risks.” Risk Analysis : An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis, vol. 29, no. 7, 2009, pp. 963-969. ProQuest,, doi: The journal entry “Public Perceptions of Florida Red Tide Risks,” informs the audience about the Florida red tides and how they are naturally occurring events that are increasing in frequency, duration, and severity. The article also provides information about public health, the local economy, and the ecosystems health. This source is credible and useful for my final essay because it provides essential and research information that will deliver accurate information into my essay.

Rutger, Hayley. “Red Tide: What Mote is Doing.” Sarasota Magazine, vol. 40, no. 13, 09, 2018, pp. S3-S5. ProQuest, In this magazine written by Hayley Rutger, Mote a researcher who studied Florida red tide with the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation works hard to answer questions through scientific studies about the situation of red tides. The magazines also describe credible information that can be used in my final essay. Not only does the magazine article provide information about the Florida red tide but it also provides solutions that Mote is look forward in accomplishing.

Miami Herald: Staletovich, Jenny. “Florida Confirms Toxic Red Tide Spreading along Atlantic Coast.” Miamiherald, Miami Herald, 3 Oct. 2018, In this newspaper article published through Miami Herald and written by Jenny Staletovich, the author writes an article about how Florida confirms toxic red tide spreading along Atlantic Coast.  The article informs the audience about a toxic red tide that began to spread along Florida’s Atlantic Coast. The article also explains the symptoms humans received from coming in contact with the red tide and the harms the red tide has caused. Staletovich article benefits my final essay because it provides information Florida’s sea life and surrounding ecosystem.

Florida Wildlife Conservation: “Fish and Wildlife Research Institute.” Red Tide, This source that I will be using for my final essay is a credible source because its information coming from the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission. The website provides research information from the research institute about red tides. This website can benefit my final essay because of the variety of information the website provides about red tides.

National Geographic: MAYA WEI-HAAS. “Red Tide Is Devastating Florida’s Sea Life. Are Humans to Blame?” National Geographic, 9 Aug. 2018, This source that I will be using for my final essay is a credible source because its information coming from the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission. The website provides research information from the research institute about red tides. This website can benefit my final essay because of the variety of information the website provides about red tides.







Final/ Fox acquisition/ Reynaldo

Hi Reynaldo,

You wrote a beautiful essay, thoroughly researched, excellent commentary and analysis, and I learned quite a bit after reading it, but I am sorry but you did not include any images and the assignment and rubric specifically requires them.

You did pass and I am seeing that either did not grade assignments B2 on McLuhan.  I am grading Assignment B4 based on the bibliography at the bottom of the essay, however it is not annotated as the assignment indicates.  If you did turn these assignments in and I find them once I look through the Posts I will adjust your grade further. You have been a good student overall and I am sure you will do very well in your future.

But, please do read the assignments!


Prof. Christos


The monopolization of the entertainment industry with the compliance of the media stifles diverse art through the recent acquisition of Fox entertainment.


The movie industry has changed in a way that will affect both movies ability to speak and how many will be greenlighted and made in a year and most people are oddly fine that. With the recent acquisition of Fox entertainment by Disney the industry is changing from the oligarchy it was as the big studio holders slowly erodes away. And with fewer and fewer options of studios with money to support them, screenwriters and directors will soon have compromise their vision and voice to actually work in the industry. As well the fact of limited money, time, and ability of oversight in any company no matter how big it is ensures there will be less movies coming out in the coming years. With the public media focusing on a company acquiring their IP movie rights with not much consideration of the specific meaning of the deal and it has on them, with them gaining not just IP but a thirty percent share of streaming site Hulu, the television division, and originally Blue Sky a network throughout the world with millions of users.

The way this event was shaped was through means of rhetoric and focus of concept of getting the entertainment that people want. With the forces of YouTube, Twitter, and other sources of social media all on reinforcing the focus on the IP drowning out the other terms of the deal and what they mean the consumer and very likely where they first heard it. With the industry losing one the larger studio entities the matter of fact is that there is less areas to work in with workers such as directors, screenwriters and important creatives. Finding the safety nets for them threading away with a need to be careful or lose their job like James Gunn presenting that even if you help make a multi-million franchise, heads of the studios will easily get rid of you with no serious recourse. Now when a massive conglomerate such as Disney make such a massive purchase off a another company such as Fox, government entities look into the deal with idea of antitrust and to check if there is a chance of a monopoly but with today’s more pro-corporate government deals such as these go through more easily with only minor changes to deals with both foreign and domestic.

The way people that have been getting this information is through official and unofficial channels of social media and websites, and as the deal went through with rumors and eventually text of the deal coming through with the informing of shareholders and more conventional places like the New York Times and CNN. Primarily the information has been largely correct with little to no misinformation coming from the mouse’s mouth, with few rumors that were there quickly debunked. That isn’t to say that the people talking about the IP acquisition were payed off or that they were under Disney’s sway they are largely fans of these movies and characters like the X-men, fantastic four, and just want to see them in good movies not really focusing on the bigger picture. But that means that while media can inform it does not mean it informs equally which leads to events where the general public are uninformed of events that have impacts of their favored pastime.

The rhetoric used for the reports on the acquisition have been primarily the use of pathos as it appeals the visceral reaction on hear that your favorite characters are coming home and that with the general quality of the MCU they are most likely going to be in movies that are good. The MCU, which has been having massive blockbusters with constantly favorable reviews has been a constant source of money achieving hundreds of millions of dollars to even billions. So when fans hears the news their favorites are likely to be made into these movies with quality that a decade ago was thought impossible it’s only reasonable that they would focus and speak with an emotional appeal that many would gravitate to. As the talks of the purchase arise people who are invested in there entertainment and just see good movies report those feelings with the rest of the information tinged. With no need of deception as the media by its own decision reports in a way that gave good publicity and a message saying the purchase was good for consumers with control of information.

The way this acquisition was able to happen was a multitude of events both in and out of control of Disney that has made this possible. With the heads of Disney making massive strides in their profit margins to having good instinct to generate good publicity with marketing and products. To the massive fans of franchises such as Star Wars, the MCU, the Pixar brand constant supporting them by means of creating content and constant talking about the franchisees keeping perpetual advert campaign. That’s not even mentioning that the acquisition will give them an extra thirty percent share of Hulu adding to their already thirty meaning now they own sixty percent and is the majority shareholder. To the average global citizen it mean little to them expect getting the film they want and most likely seeing films with a compromised vision. Fans satisfied and Hulu getting films and TV shows like the Simpsons or Marvel flicks exclusively. So to reiterate the recent acquisition of Fox entertainment by Disney will have ramifications on the industry as it limits the amount of movies made, and what are given greenlights with the less options to get studio backing. Insuring less films made and tipping the power scale to studio even more.


Isabelle Royer, 2013. “Blockbusters and Fiascoes in the Movie Industry: The Role of Champions on Escalation and Ultimate Results,” Post-Print halshs-00923579, HAL

Jones, John Philip, How Advertising Works in the Role Research. Sage, 1998.

Cray, Charlie “Entrenching the media monopoly” Multinational Monitor, vol. 25, no-5-6, 2004, p. 13+. Business Collection, http://link, Accessed 23 Oct. 2018.

Barnes, B. Lee, E. “in Beating Disney for Sky, Comcast Remains in the Game” nytimes, 23, Sept. 2018

Liptak, A “All the updates and implications of 21st Century Fox’s acquisition” theverge,

O’Reilly, L. “The 30 biggest media companies in the world” businessinsider, 31, May. 2018


Final Essay- Team 2

Please check the email I sent you of my paper because wordpress is not letting me paste my media properly.


China Holds Over 1 Million Muslims in Detention Centers

By Juliana Hontou


When the United Nations broke out the news that China was holding over a million Muslims in internment camps, human rights advocacy groups like International Service for Human Right, the Human Rights Watch, and several others poured all their energy into finding out the truth. While the Chinese government attempted serious efforts to keep the world from knowing about its mass incarceration, news outlets like The New York Times, Huffington Post, and Chinese journalists and advocacy groups were able to pressure China in breaking their silence and find out what exactly the Communist Party was doing in committing one of the biggest human rights violations in decades. However, despite tough efforts in forcing the Chinese government to confess to their malicious act, China was able to change its tactic by announcing that the camps were for “re-educational purposes”, as well as using poor and fake coverage to their advantage in getting the Chinese public on their side.



When the United Nations broke out the news of the internment camps, the Chinese government quickly turned to secrecy and silence as their main tactic. When asked about the subject, all Chinese officials practically answered back with “no comment”. As time went on, journalists, human rights groups, and even regular citizens grew tired of China’s silence and demanded the truth on why Muslims, mainly Uighurs, were disappearing and ending up in camps. According to Akbar Shahid Ahmed, foreign affair reporter, he states in his article, “How The World Learned China Is Holding Over A Million Muslims In Secret Prison Camps”, that journalists and activists were able to obtain information on the Chinese government’s purpose  for the camps through 3 sources- expatriate Uighurs, human rights experts, and worldwide media. Uighurs living in China also had and continues having their own very limited form of communication, mostly through the Chinese messaging app WeChat. However the government approved app is closely monitored so the Uighurs use established code-words to communicate.


Ahmed mentions that a group called the International Service for Human Rights was one of the few that supplied the UN with word on the camps by getting crucial information from activists and caseworkers that were stationed in Xinjiang. Media coverage has also played a critical role in forcing the truth out. Radio Free Asia is a U.S.-funded broadcaster which has focused primarily on Uighurs for over 20 years. This team of broadcasters was able to report major news on the Muslim subject, even becoming the first broadcasting team that reported the detention camps. To give a sense on how the Chinese government works to keep secrets from coming out, they targeted the families from the broadcasting team, arresting several members from six of the staff members of the group.

On October 16th, everything changed. China realized that it could no longer keep avoiding the accusations it was facing. Quickly, they formed a different plan and begun a type of propaganda campaign that advocated for the camps instead. In its article, “Cat leaves bag; Xinjiang”, The Economist report that the Communist Party had released a 15-minute news video shot in one of the internment camps, or as the Chinese government was now calling it, an “educational training center.” The video spun around the whole concept that these centers were helping to stop terrorism by getting rid of extremism religion. In it, featured detainees learning new subjects, baking, and playing games all while having a big smile on their face.  This video, alongside all other efforts from the party’s propaganda campaign, shows how the Chinese government used news and coverage as leverage in reporting inaccurate information to get the public to believe that what they were doing was righteous and for the betterment of society.

What news the Chinese public is exposed to is an essential question in finding out how the Chinese government has been able to partially fool them into thinking that Muslims being held in detention camps is good and lawful. It is no secret that China is known for its form of censorship, one of the biggest one being its impact on the Internet, also known as China’s Great Firewall.


In her book, “Censored: Distraction and Diversion Inside China’s Great Firewall”, Margaret Roberts emphasizes the influence that censorship plays on the Chinese public. She explains how using subtle censorship, making the user less aware that they are being censored, China has been able to thoroughly control what information the public is being fed. This plays a crucial part in influencing the public’s opinion on the Muslim situation, by only showing them what the Chinese government wants them to see. One example of how this censorship works is through China’s media monitoring system, China Clipping. From a newspaper article published in Beijing, “Media Monitors Group Acquires China Clipping”, it’s easy to see how China works to display censorship as a needed and beneficial tool to the public. The article conveys a very buoyant tone, clearly pushing to make China Clipping become a supported addition to censorship. All of this shows how China has been able to incorporate censorship smoothly into the public’s information, which has resulted in the government having the power to influence the public’s view on the detention camps that hold over a million Muslims.


However, the Communist Party does more than just censor out information that they don’t want the public to see. They also add in information that is many cases not so accurate. Luwei Rose Luqui and Fan Yang write a scholarly journal, “Islamophobia in China: News Coverage, Stereotypes, and Chinese Muslims’ Perceptions of Themselves and Islam”, that addresses the discrimination against Muslims in China. With a 10 year study on news report about Muslims in China, they show how Chinese reports display a negative view on Muslims. The study also revealed that non-Muslim Chinese citizens contain a negative stereotype on Muslims. By showing false information on Muslims, China’s public has been influenced to have negative views on them, helping President Xi Jinping and the rest of the Communist Party gather support for the detention centers they are keeping the Muslims in.


By changing their silent approach to publicly defending the camps, the Chinese government sought a way to keep Muslims in detention camps without keeping it a secret. In placing emphasis on the “educational” need for the centers, which they claim works to prevent terrorism, China has been able to keeping their mass incarnation from shutting down. Despite efforts from human rights groups, journalists, and the United Nations, China has used censorship, media, and poor coverage as key factors in dodging heavy criticism from the public and gaining their support in holding Muslims captive.


Xinjiang’s chairman, Shohrat Zakir, says the region is now “safe and stable” thanks to the camps

Works Cited



  1. Roberts, Margaret E. “Censored: Distraction and Diversion Inside China’s Great Firewall.” FIU Libraries, Princeton University Press, 2018,

(FIU Catalog- Book)


Harvard graduate, Margaret Roberts, dives deep into her work in this book by covering the system and reasoning behind China’s firewall of censorship. Through her detailed work, she explains how by placing subtle censorship on all types of media, Chinese government is able to manage Internet users from seeing what the government wants them to see. In doing this, the government is able to control the media that is fed to the public. The book serves as a tool to demonstrate how the Chinese government is able to manage what news the public is able to see about Muslims being held in internment camps.



  1. Luqiu, Luwei Rose, and Fan Yang. “Islamophobia in China: News Coverage, Stereotypes, and Chinese Muslims’ Perceptions of Themselves and Islam.” Asian Journal of Communication, vol. 28, no. 6, Dec. 2018, pp. 598–619. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/01292986.2018.1457063.

       (Database- Communication and Mass media Complete) (Scholarly journal article) 


Luqiu and Rose introduce the concept “islamophobia” in their article which deals with the discrimination on Muslims in China. Following their numerous conducted surveys and studies, they show how China, a country with over 20 million Muslims, uses news coverage and other media to give negative views on Muslims. The article plays into showing how Chinese media uses poor and inaccurate coverage to influence the public’s view on Muslims. In doing this, the government has the public on their side when they start building up an Anti-Muslim sentiment across China.


  1. “Cat leaves bag; Xinjiang.” The Economist, 20 Oct. 2018, p. 42(US). Academic OneFile

(Database- Academic OneFile) (Magazine)


In this magazine article, the author uses sarcasm to show how the Chinese Communist Party used all types of propaganda to try and convince Chinese citizens that what they were doing in those internment camps was actually helpful and good for the Muslims who were sent there. After it finally stopped denying the accusations, China stuck to their claim that the camps were for re-educational purposes, a means to rid of extremism religion. The article shows how the government can create fake stories and news to twist the public into believing that whatever bad thing they are doing is actually good.


  1. “Media Monitors Group Acquires China Clipping.” PR Newswire Asia, December 12, 2011 Monday.

      (Database- Nexis Uni) (newspaper from China) 


The newspaper article deals with introducing the media monitoring system, China Clipping, to become a part of the Media Monitors Group company. Published in Beijing, the article has a very uplifting and positive tone to it, pushing to make China Clipping look like something that will only benefit the public. The article is useful in showing what type of equipments and systems China uses to monitor the Internet and media. Most importantly, it shows how when implementing a system that will work to monitor everyday users and censor the content they will be seeing, China makes sure to release only good things about the new system to the public so that the people will support it. This type of system can be really helpful to the Chinese government when they want to monitor what type of information gets out about to the public.



  1. Ahmed, Akbar Shahid. “How The World Learned China Is Holding Over A Million Muslims In Secret Prison Camps.” The Huffington Post,, 15 Aug. 2018,

(A good Website) 


In his article, Ahmed talks about the situation going on in China with the Uighur Muslims. He provides background information on the discrimination and harsh limits that Muslims have been facing for a while in China. The article goes in depth on the tricky situations that the press and the United Nations had to go through in order to get the news out the China has been holding Muslims in internment camps.  The article shines light on the difficulties that came along in getting this story out into the public. It serves as a means to focus not on just the content that we receive, but also on how and where we are getting that content.



  1. Timm, Leo. “China Uses US Technology for Mass Surveillance.” The Epoch Times, May, 2018. ProQuest,

(Database- Ethnic NewsWatch) (A good source) 


Leo Timm writes in his article the trillions of dollars worth of technology, including surveillance systems, that the Chinese Communist Party has been able to get a hold of.  As the US learned about the human violations that China was committing against the country’s Muslims, they realized the mass number of surveillance technology that they had sold to China was being used to monitor the Muslims. Now, senators and representatives of the US are doing everything to try and stop the selling of more of these technologies to the Chinese Communist Party. The article plays a key role in showing how and where China was able to obtain such a vast number of advanced technologies that would be used to monitor the country.