Final Assignment Team 20

Hi Daniel,

Good work! Well-written, good analysis, good integration of class concepts, good images. Very impressive. Thanks!


Daniel Blanco

IDS 3309 Final Essay

South Korea is known for being a patriarchal society. Women have had a hard time speaking out against men that have done wrong against them. For example, Korea’s traditional gender roles has made it easy for men to get away with crimes against women, especially sexual harassment and assault. In April 2018, former South Korean governor An Hee-Jung (Fig. 1) was found not guilty of raping his secretary multiple times in 2017. During this period, women in South Korea were observing and getting inspired by the #MeToo movement in Hollywood to speak out against their abusers and tell their story (Lee Suh-yoon). With the rise of the #MeToo movement and South Korea’s changing views on sexual assault cases, the ruling was overturned and Governor An was found guilty on 9 of the 10 charges brought against him in this case.

Fig 1. News story of An Hee-Jung being found guilty and sentenced to 3 years in prison.

South Korea’s traditional gender roles have been prevalent for many years. According to Robert Rudolf, Korean women still face obstacles in getting jobs as simple as men do. Women have to deal with longer shifts, unequal pay, and deficits in child care. South Korea ranks 33 of 35 countries in the ratio between men and women in the work force (Fig 2). Rudolf continues by explaining how South Korea’s achievements in economic and technological development do not help with making changes to these strong traditional gender roles, leading Korea to be known as a technological powerhouse with patriarchal values (Rudolf 59-61). This historical evidence serves as proof of how the values in Korea are shaped, leading to how cases against women were treated.

A historic event that brought Korea to the international limelight was the Kwon Insook case. Kwon was a former student activist working in a factory. Female student activists were on a blacklist that made it harder to get work, causing her to borrow someone else’s ID card to get the factory job. Kwon was arrested and taken to a detective infamous for his torturous methods, Moon Guidong. After refusing to answer his questions, Moon took off her clothes and sexually assaulted her. The public came to learn about this story after Kwon told fellow inmates who spread it to the mass media. Women’s organizations formed a committee to bring Moon to justice with organized rallies and campaigns. However, the government responded to the incident by announcing that these “radical groups” were making up this story to spread their views. After that, 166 lawyers teamed up to defend Kwon in court and demanded an open trial. Kwon was released from prison after the trial and Moon was sentenced to five years in prison. In response to the ruling, Kwon, along with other female activists, viewed the case as a political issue regarding the government’s treatment toward political protestors (Jung 13-14). This case shone a light at the Korean government’s deceptive behaivor toward cases against their objectors. The Korean public were able to see how the case was unfairly treated with the massive attention it was getting in the mass media.

In more recent news, the #MeToo movement was properly introduced to South Korea by prosecutor Seo Ji-Hyun. In an interview with TIME Magazine, Seo claimed that at a funeral in 2010, a senior male colleague groped her multiple times. When she tried to report the assault to her managers, they responded with performance audits that were given to a lower-level branch. Years later, Seo saw the #MeToo movement take off in Hollywood; she was finally able to see that she was not alone, and that the situation was not her fault. Inspired, she attempted to have an investigation opened but no progress was made. Months later in January 2018, a frustrated Seo wrote an open letter on her workplace intranet sharing her story, signing the bottom with #MeToo. She also went on a broadcast program that day and told her story to a public audience. Her appearance on the program triggered a major movement. Many women who saw the program came out to speak against actors, film directors, and many other men. The Korea Women Hotline’s president estimated that Seo’s appearance saw a 23% increase in calls to the hotline (Haynes). In 2019, the prosecutor Seo accused, Ahn Tae-Geun, was sent to prison for two years. He was charged with preventing Seo from getting work opportunities after she tried to report the assault (Choe).

The Seo Ji-Hyun case did not just bring a movement to South Korea; it began to change people’s minds on how they view sexual assault cases. After the case became public and the movement spread throughout the country, people began to believe that the victims are never at fault when it comes to sexual assault cases. While not much has been done legally to change the treatment of these types of cases, the public’s view has shifted, and that is simply the start of a change in how sexual assault cases in South Korea are treated.

Fig. 4 Seo Ji-Hyun interview with TIME Magazine.

Sexual assault cases have brought many faults in South Korea’s government to the public eye. The one variable that the cases have in common is the mass media. When the cases were brought to the public, action was taken to bring the assaulters to justice. In the cases previously mentioned, once the public got a hold of the information presented in the cases, they began to speak out against the treatment of the cases. At first, the government tried to defend their actions and shift the blame toward the other party. Once enough attention was brought to the opposition, action was taken, and the women were able to punish their assaulters. After her case was brought to light, Seo Ji-Hyun noted the the general public’s view toward sexual assault cases is now more supportive of the victims, believing that it’s not the victim’s fault for putting themselves in the situation. The #MeToo movement has properly made its mark in South Korea, changing the traditional gender roles that have built the country in the first place.

Figures 2 and 3 are pictures and will be sent through email.


Under The Eye- Final Essay

By: Lailah Johnson

Hi Lailah,  Very interesting and unusual topic. I’m giving you some extra points for originality. Images are incredible and well-integrated in the text.  Thorough analysis, overall, good job!!!

The Chinese government is implementing a social credit-system that infringes upon the liberties of Chinese citizens due to its use of mass surveillance and big data analysis technology. They will monitor all of the action’s of Chinese citizens in an attempt to control society and its behavior.Social media, video technology, and computer analysis systems have shaped the way information is shared and received. This accessibility is what allowed China to get to this point as a society. Not to say that they are inherently bad or good but the mediums as they are; cell phones, cameras, and social media sites, have set the precedence for these events. One could argue that the government may see nothing wrong with this supposed invasion of privacy because everything is already being broadcast anyway. Despite sounding like the plot of a sinister governmental operation, this social credit system is no secret. The government isn’t hiding anything from the public and there are even articles published almost weekly about the updates of the program(Beijing Youth Daily). The social credit system is an attempt to create a society with virtually no secrets. Through this effort they hope to create a more sincere society
Big data and mass surveillance are the two tools that the Chinese government will use to monitor its citizens (Jiang, Fu). Through the use of big data, people’s habits will be tracked through social media using data aggregation from various sources either with or without their knowledge. They will keep note of your spending habits and your social and political attitudes(Jiang, Fu). The mass surveillance will manifest itself through the government’s access to the cameras located all over China(Economist). These will be used to watch your every move. A facial recognition system is also being created that will work in tandem with this entire operation. The government will also closely examine your passport and tax records, in an attempt to understand your travel habits and your financial standing(Economist).

This nationwide social-credit system was created with the intention of creating a better society through trustworthiness, compliance and sincerity. The Chinese government believes that if people are monitored closely and if they are faced with harsh consequences, they will have no choice but to live honest lives where they always obey the laws, written or otherwise (Hunwick). The origins of this system however are connected to an even harsher reality, the treatment of the Uyghurs in the Republic of China. They are an ethnic minority group who receive poor treatment because of their practice of Islam. Thousands to millions of Uyghurs are being forced into “re-education camps, in the Northern regions of China in an attempt to brainwash them into being “upstanding Chinese citizens. A system was created to keep track of all of the prisoners, this program was the basis of the credit system that will oversee the future of China. It was reported that Chinese citizens who suppress the display of religious practices such as public prayer, will receive benefits from the program. Some sources argue that the true reason for this system is to force the business corporations in China to “behave better”. Because these corporations will be watched by potentially disgruntled employees as well as the government, they will be forced to adhere to policies that ensure better treatment of employees, benefit the economy and decrease corruption.

The consequences of this system are more far-reaching than the title itself entails. It is implied that China will know everything about everyone all of the time but what they will do with this knowledge is highly concerning. The information that the government will gather will dictate the direction of a person’s entire life. Under the system, everyone will start of with the same amount of points, then depending on your behavior you will either lose or gain points. The amount of points that you have will determine access to things such as schools, jobs and financial loans(Economist). Lower scores will see people branded with travel bans that indicate their ability to utilize planes, trains or buses as public transportation with extreme cases including a hold being placed on your passport barring you from leaving the country(Economist). Your score will even affect your friendships and relationships, determining who you will be able to marry because your score will be representative of your social status (Economist).

It feels as though the countries who are following this developing situation feel quite strongly about it, but the domestic response has yet to be seen, and because it is China, the world may never know how the Chinese citizens feel. The liberal democratic West seems to have come to a consensus that China operates under a totalitarian regime and that the implementation of this system is a complete invasion of privacy and infringes upon the right of Chinese citizens. The Western world is distressed by this situation because they believe that if China becomes the next global hegemon, this is the future for the rest of the world. The domestic response to this program may never be known because the Chinese government censors any form of political dissent especially online. One article however, details the hope that some citizens have for the program. Some of them believe that this highly-regulated system will do away with the rampant corruption in all aspects of society(Hunwick). They believe that now people will gain opportunities based on merit not on connections and money.
This social-credit system, now being labeled “Sesame Credit” will serve the purpose of ensuring safety and order across the nation of China. The wheels are already in motion and it is set to be fully operational in all of mainland China by the year 2020. In less than a year, privacy will see its last day in China, and only time will tell the true effects that this system will have on society and the repercussions it may have on the rest of the world.


Works Cited

Beijing Youth Daily. “Opinions On Strengthening the Fine Management of the City.” Beijing Youth Daily 31 January 2019. Document.

China Invents the Digital Totalitarian State.” The Economist, The Economist Newspaper, 17 Dec. 2016, OneFile

Creemers, Rogier. “China’s Social Credit System: An Evolving Practice of Control.” Social Science Research Network (2018).

Hunwick, Robert Foyle. “How Do You Control 1.4 Billion People? – China’s social credit system, which becomes mandatory in 2020, aims to funnel all behavior into a credit score..” New Republic, The: Web Edition Articles, sec. Latest, 25 Apr. 2018. NewsBank

Jiang, M. and Fu, K. (2018), Chinese Social Media and Big Data: Big Data, Big Brother, Big Profit?. Policy & Internet, 10: 372-392. doi:10.1002/poi3.187 .Wiley Online Library

Liang, F. , Das, V. , Kostyuk, N. and Hussain, M. M. (2018), Constructing a Data‐Driven Society: China’s Social Credit System as a State Surveillance Infrastructure. Policy & Internet, 10: 415-453. doi:10.1002/poi3.183. Wiley Online Library

Julia Thomas – Team 17 Final Essay

I emailed you the Final Essay.


Julia Thoms – Team 17 Final

Read essay in email – comments there.

From November 30th – December 2nd, pop star Nick Jonas and global Indian actress, Priyanka Chopra got married in a festive cultural weekend which was talked about on many media platforms globally.  This event challenges critical perspective by the arrangement of two cultures coming together to celebrate love, despite the fact that secrecy was enforced at the wedding.

Jonas, starting his career with the Jonas Brothers during 2005, was adored by many gaining him loyal fans from all over the world. Chopra also started her career at a young age and is loved by many, especially fans from India after being crowned Miss World in 2000. Also, an Indian woman recognized by Time and UNICEF who shutdown stereotypes of Indian men being superior  – a traditional status of Indian women for centuries. Two big celebrities in their perspective countries getting married calls for an inevitable media frenzy party.

Unlike other couples, this couple uses Instagram to communicate their relationship with their fans. From the start of their romance, both Jonas and Chopra teased their fans of millions by commenting on each other’s post flirtatiously.


Their romance continues on with both posting videos and pictures of each other – making their relationship official. This establishes ethos as they both take it to their personal accounts to address dating rumors to maintain their trust between fans and to end all speculations to provide credibility to their relationship.
When director, Ali Abbas Zafar, ex-director of Chopra`s Bollywood comeback film used suspicious puns in his Twitter post explaining to Chopra`s fans why she isn’t signed onto the film, he grabbed people’s attention to now having them gossip on what’s stirring.

August 2018, both Jonas and Chopra take it to Instagram to publicly announce their engagement. This sends fans globally into a juxtaposition of happiness, heartbreak, and jealousy.

Within these comments, it is visible that their public image reaches at a global level as comments are also written in Spanish and Portuguese, making this post of information travel globally regardless if it is a negative comment.
This also brought awareness to their relationship as celebrities like Kate Upton and Lilly Singh were commenting their congratulatory message; this comment is now visible to Chopra`s, and Jonas`s fans as well as Singh`s and Upton`s many followers on their Instagram accounts. The pathos displayed in the engagement post exuded emotions of love and passion causing fans and friends anticipation for the big day and being invested in the couple every step of the way.

As “Nickyanka” starts trending as their couple name, the couple challenges bound of debate as people were criticizing that every event leading up to their wedding and the wedding itself was for publicity and financial opportunity. Writer at Rolling Stone says, “ When most A -list celebrities start dating, they tend to avoid publicly broadcasting their relationship milestones if they can help it, citing a desire for privacy.” Nickyanka were criticized for sponsored content on their Instagram as they took social media to effortlessly promote brands like Tiffany & Co., LimeBike, Elit Vodka, and Amazon when posting about their prewedding parties. Even Chopra`s custom Ralph Lauren wedding gown with a train of 75 foot was seen as publicity logos stunt. As these claims were spreading, people were being influenced by this manipulative news affecting how some people view this couple. “They love each other. They also love brands”.


Chopra and Jonas both coming from different cultures and religions, Chopra; Indian and Hindu, Jonas; American and Christian celebrated their love by celebrating both cultures in their wedding.

For their pre-wedding ceremonies that included the sangeet and mehendi – two traditional Hindu events before the wedding got many congratulatory messages on their Instagram from a  variety of people who have their own demographics of followers.

As these diverse influencers like Alia Bhatt, Michelle B Jordan, and Michelle Lee post their congratulatory comments, this allows people of different ethnicities to be aware of the ceremony and how different cultures coming together in marriage is acceptable. This also educates both Indian society about American traditions and vice versa,  American communities learning about the Indian traditions, all in the betterment of society to help end racists comments and ignorance at a global level.

Indian culture is traditionally known to marry within your own culture, and if you don’t you are looked down upon society. According to IMDiversity, 92% of Indian women marry within the Indian culture, so to see a prominent figure of India marry outside will show fellow Indians how their idol is accepting which can influence their actions and be more openminded as for other cultures with the same mindset.


The wedding of Chopra and Nick challenges assumptions of two different cultures being able to come together despite religious differences, age and being able to exchange cultures.  Chopra already being  10 years older than Jonas and was the talk of the town, but both couples also marrying outside of their culture into different religions is a taboo concept that society has a hard time digesting. Though, Nickyanka brings all those assumptions to a norm by publicizing their wedding and sharing about each other’s traditions during interview shows and using Instagram as their source of global communication. Nickyanka`s’ wedding brings light to controversial topics of religious differences, age just being a number and cultural remarks. Jonas Talking about the traditional wedding ceremony on Jimmy Fallon Chopra on Ellen sharing about the three – day wedding to Nick Jonas

Chopra talks about keeping their ceremony private and secretive to cherish beautiful moments with the family and each other. In terms of secrecy, Chopra said, at the wedding phones were taken away. Regardless of this action, images of the ceremony were still circulating the internet as Jonas and Chopra were in the limelight of eager fans and common people to just see how the wedding was going to take place in terms of critical perspective.

Here is a glimpse of the wedding covered by People Magazine.




















Mediactive 1-3 Rhetoric BY: Jamilka Gibson Team 24

An interesting analysis of his use of rhetoric. Note spelling of author’s name.


Dan Gillmor’s use of rhetoric in Mediactive is heavy. Such use is to support his opinion of America, a “collective fact-checking failure”. Chapter one begins with an email which Gillmor checks off as fiction and says he has the facts to prove it. However, does not support his accusation, citing he will give us his resources much later in chapter three. Gillmor uses ethos as his verification tool expecting us to label him credible on the matter at hand

            In chapter 2 Gillmor speaks of CNN’s iReport, a media outlet edited by semi-anonymous contributors. He felt that readers weren’t well educated on the accuracy of the information thus labeling any individuals who are to make personal or financial decisions from what they see on the site idiots. This is a strong representation of pathos. Although working with unaccredited information is not wise, Gillmor gives his strongly worded personal view.

            Chapter three is logos heavy, it focuses on sourcing trustworthy information outlets once you get past the author’s bias. In chapter one Gillmor tell us of a misinforming email that he will later rectify factually by a website names snopes. Gillmor tells of a student’s Wikipedia hoax in representation of the inaccuracy behind Wikipedia. Logos is used as his viewpoint is supported by the 2009 news story. Astudent managed to post false information on Wikipedia which was later used by news publication and spread across the media. Resulting in many being misinformed.

            Gillmor’s most convincing argument in my view comes from chapter two when he gives his active user principles for media consumption. He begins be letting it be known that these principles in his view are common sense and by no way a standard to the topic thus utilizing ethos. His key points are skepticism, exercising judgment, opening your mind, continue to question and learn the techniques. Gillmor sets his basis for becoming media- active which helps to dissect his rhetorical ideas while reading along.

Gillmor’s first three chapters seem to be filled with massive amounts of pathos. He rarely supports his claims or information with valuable sources. Instead giving his opinion or the opinion of others as his source of credibility. His use of logos is very minimal and when it is utilized results back to him inputting his opinion. The body of work is his composition, so ethos is to be expected. However, ethos seems to overpower the first three chapters of Mediactive. Despite this, Gillmor does rhetoric effectively. Gillmor’s use of ethos is powerful as he gives you the feeling of a very knowledgeable individual on the subject at hand.

Victoria Martinez, 48 hours Blackout Essay, IDS 3309, Team 6

Victoria –

Excellent piece. Very thoughtful analysis of Deresiewicz and your experience. Overall, your writing is good. A final edit would be useful. Omit needless words.


In the article “The End of Solitude” by William Deresiewicz, he explains how solitude has disappeared in our society. He stresses this has happened due to the want of being desire to be connected or known. Technology and modernism of our society, play a major role in the to e nonexistence of solitude.

Deresiewicz, says technology is “taking away our privacy”, which is true. We are constantly relying on what technology has to offer to make us feel as if we are connected with everything, rather than finding solitude without having technology. Our lives revolve around everyone else’s life, (good) like Deresiewicz stated, “We live exclusively in relation to others and what disappears from our lives is solitude.” His example of the teenage girl sending 3,000 text messages within a one-month period, is a prime example of how we do not put time into solitude. It has become a thing in this day in age known as a cultural norm. 

In the article, Deresiewicz talks about the history of solitude. He says it was used for religious practice in order to find and hear God, but he said solitude was not accomplished until the Romantic Period, where writers like Rousseau and Thoreau and more, find it to be a physical necessity. Solitude was desired, but that has all changed, due to the developments in technology that have been made, such as the television. Childhood changed, Deresiewicz said. Nowadays not very many children play outside. They use the T.V. as there resource of connection, rather than finding solitude in simply just being alone without T.V. As a result of the T.V., internet arrived.

The internet has made solitude impossible for many. Our The theme of our age, postmodernism, is the desire to be recognized. With the internet that is possible. It is a constant stream of contact, which keeps us “wired in to the electronic hive” as Deresiewicz has quoted, and disconnected from solitude. With the internet comes a variety of outlets that we use, such as, Instagram Facebook, Twitter, Snapchat and much more. There is always a concern of how many likes we get on a picture on Instagram or how many friends we have on snapchat. Before all these distractions, solitude was a norm. It was easy to be alone but not lonely. Now, that is unheard of.

When I did the 48 hours of no apps, T.V., video games, etc, I found myself more alone than ever. It was really like being disconnected from the world. I am so used to the constant urge to check my phone for Instagram feed or simply just watch Netflix, but without all of that, sadness and loneliness crept up on me. Not being connected, made solitude isolation. Being alone was being lonely. I definitely can relate to what Deresiewicz said that now solitude is just loneliness and boredom to us, because that is what came upon me. I found myself trying to do other activities, such as, exercising or taking people’s shifts at work, to avoid being by myself.  Solitude was harder to do than I thought.

Technology is without a doubt, a necessary intrusion of our solitude. My experience is just one example that solitude is being lonely and I need news in order to feel apart of life. Having the internet and other ways to involve myself with the world, is what makes me feel connected. That is how many of us live our lives and that is what our generation has made our therapy.

Final Paper Joanna

Name: Joanna Ravachi

Professor: Lauren Christos

Course: How we know what we know

Date: 03-19-2019

Venezuelan Crisis

Venezuela has been in a leadership crisis for a very long time. Currently, the country is in a stalemate where two leaders Nicolas Maduro and Juan Guaido are competing against each other. What is at stake is the presidency; Nicolas Maduro does not want to exit the seat of power while Juan Guaido is forcing his way in. Guaido has the backing of the people and the international community who have stepped in to pressure Maduro out of office. The Venezuelan people and the international community, support Guaido’s ideologies to restore peace in the country and end the humanitarian crisis that has seen a mass exodus. Venezuelans led by Guaido have led a number of protests to pressure Maduro to exit office. During the protests by the opposition in Venezuela on January 23rd2019, the President of the National Assembly of Venezuela, Juan Guaido, offered compromises to the Venezuelan people by swearing in front of everyone that he will fight for a better Venezuela and he will change the government for a new one.

The situation in Venezuela has been aided by the information systems in the country and the outside world. The deep focus of the situation by the international media prompted the increased demonstrations in the country. Many international media houses have focused on Guaido’s agenda of restoring democracy in a bid to end the authoritarian leadership. The Telegraph, a UK based newspaper, terms Guaido as the “interim president” of Venezuela. In the newspaper report, the focus was on Guaido’s strategies to restore Venezuela’s democracy. According to the article, Juan Guaido is focusing on taking control of the military as a way to take over from Maduro who has led to the destabilization of the country through his unproductive and authoritarian rule. The article also focuses on Guaido’s ideologies of restoring democracy (Alexander and Cody). The call on the military who are backing Maduro to defect is a strategy to strip Maduro of power.

The international community is another factor that has influenced the situation in Venezuela. Many western countries have thrown their support behind Juan Guaido. The main reason for this massive support is to protect democracy from authoritarian leadership led by Maduro. Therefore, they do not wish to lose Venezuela in communist ideals. According to the Guardian Magazine “European countries including the UK, Spain, France, Germany, Sweden, and Denmark have recognized Juan Guaidó as the interim president of Venezuela in a coordinated move made after a deadline for Nicolás Maduro to call presidential elections expired” (Jones and Patrick). The UK becomes the second after America to declare Juan Guaido as the interim president of the South American nation. This gives him a lot of leverage in winning against Nicolas Maduro.

The main focus of the international community is to build a stable country. The first step to achieve this is to support Juan Guaido, a candidate whose main aim is to restore power to the people. Guaido does not share the authoritarian ideologies as the previous Venezuelan leaders, and therefore, it would be easier for the international community to work with him. Chavez and his predecessor effected populist strategies to propel them to power. Moreover, they engaged in dubious and bloody ways to rise to power. According to Ryan Brading’s book Populism in Venezuela, democracy in the country had been compromised especially during Chavez’s administration when he wanted to rule indefinitely after the 2007 elections (Brading 135). The main concern for the international community is to end the old regime and starts a new one that is popularized by democracy. This could only work for them when they have an ally, and thus the support of Juan Guaido.

The role of the media, in this case, is to popularize Guaido’s ideologies, and therefore, makes him identified more by the people. They see him as the right person to deliver them from the high cost of living, intense corruption, and humanitarian crisis. A number of sources have compared Nicolas Maduro’s leadership as the ripple effect of Hugo Chavez. He exhibits Chavez’s an authoritarian leadership that plunged Venezuela into corruption and many other upheavals. According to an article assessing the situation in Venezuela, the author states that Nicolas Maduro is still holding on to the dysfunctional opposition whose main ideologies were to manipulate elections (Buxton 3). The information systems both in Venezuela and the international community have antagonized Maduro. The support Guaido enjoys not only popularizing him but also makes him a hero to many people in and outside Venezuela. His ideologies are based on correcting the wrongs written by Maduro. He hopes to restore democracy and end the humanitarian crisis, corruption, and improve the economy.

The freedom of information is a challenge in Venezuela. The government during Chavez and Maduro’s regimes have been in constant conflict with the media. The government restricts the freedom of information and sensors what to be expressed by the media. According to an article assessing the relationship between the government and the media, there has been a poor relationship between the two and this has seen violence being effected against the media personnel. The article argues that there should be a balance between a reasonable regulation of media and rights protection to avoid conflicts and biases (Carney). The suppression of freedom of information in the region leads to the media houses to focus more on the popularization of the interim president Juan Guaido.

The situation in Venezuela is critical, and the support by the international community on Juan Guaido is influenced by the need for restoring democracy in the country. The poor leadership that has crippled the economy of the nation led to a humanitarian crisis, and the relationship between the media and the government are some of the factors that put pressure on Nicolas Maduro to exit. Information systems are popularizing the Venezuelan situation in a bid to pressure Maduro out of power. Both the local and the international media as the right person to save the country have popularized the interim president. Therefore, this gives him an advantage over Maduro.

Work Cited

Alexander, Harriet, and Cody Weddle. “Venezuela’s ‘Interim President’ Urges Military To Defect Amid Promise Of Possible Amnesty For Nicolas Maduro”. The Telegraph, 2019,

Brading, Ryan. Populism In Venezuela. Routledge, 2013.

Buxton, Julia. “Situation Normal In Venezuela: All Fouled Up”. NACLA Report On The Americas, vol 49, no. 1, 2017, pp. 3-6. Informa UK Limited, doi:10.1080/10714839.2017.1298235.

Carney, Molly. “Balancing Regulation And Rights In Venezuela’S Media War Molly Carney”. Loyola Of Los Angeles International And Comparative Law Review, vol 35, 2013, pp. 273-312., Accessed 9 Mar 2019.

Jones, Sam, and Patrick Wintour. “EU Countries Recognise Juan Guaidó As Interim Venezuelan Leader”. The Guardian, 2019,