Lazaro Francia Team 21 Final Paper

Hi Lazaro,

See email for comments.

 

Information, by definition, must be communicated, and our reception of it is influenced by internal and external factors. The availability and easy of accessibility of information as we know it has developed exponentially within our lifetime, faster than it ever has before since the beginning of civilization. It has never been easier to become informed, as well as share it with anyone. Something that has been kept for the elite groups of older societies in previous times is now in the palm of our hands. That being said, with such ease of access comes the flawed nature of humans – the abuse of power. As a society, we have become susceptible to waging privacy for access to services that create a fundamental part of our social interactions. No company other than Facebook can exemplify this statement more accurately: this single corporation, created by one person, is in control of the personal information of over 2 billion people all over the globe. A major event occurred mid-December of 2018, as a Facebook bug disclosed access to six million users’ private photos to third party applications. Reception by global media was utterly negative, yet the actions taken by the company are on par with its fine-tuned strategy of carefully undermining negative situation and actively deceiving the public by releasing information when it best accommodates them rather than the public.

An Application Programming Interface (or API, for short) bug such as the one being discussed is fairly common. The problem that ignites controversy is the magnitude of its impact given the substantial number of users that are available in one social network (Robinson, “Facebook Photo API Bug Exposes Photos of 6.8 Million Users.”). Facebook was originally aware of this issue on the late days of September, yet took over two months to publicly disclose it, stating the reason was that it needed time to identify the bug, contact developers, and build a proper way to notify users of the data breach (Barret, “Facebook Exposed 6.8 Million Users’ Photos to Cap Off a Terrible 2018.”). Nevertheless, Facebook will still assert that after two months, “the impact of the breach isn’t yet clear” and still hold the audacity to publicly state, without formal announcement, that they “are sorry that it happened” in a blog post by Tomer Bar, engineering director at Facebook (Al-Mulsim, “Facebook Bug Potentially Exposed Unshared Photos of Up 6.8 Million Users.”) By withholding said information the question that must be on everyone’s mind is why the secrecy?

 

Fox News deciphering the issue revolving around Facebook’s privacy problem

Moreover, this situation has been led to be believed as a last-straw for Facebook to receive a strong reprimand from global authorities over their neglect of the private information they control. As early as ten years ago, Facebook has received strong criticism from advocacy groups defending user privacy, sadly followed by general ambivalence from end users (Desharnais et. al. “Facebook: The Evolution of Privacy?.”). The Irish Data Protection Commission stated that they have commenced an investigation examining Facebook’s compliance with relevant provisions of a decree of which the company is under that could lead to a fine of up to 4 percent of its global revenue, or about $1.63 billion (Isaac and Singer, “Facebook Says Bug Opened Access to Private Photos.”) However, being the world power, billion dollar company that they so eagerly pronounce, Facebook

Channel 7 discussing the Facebook Bug and ramifications

 

While this may not come as a surprise to many given the numerous instances in which the company has taken the hot seat over users’ privacy and data breaches in the past (and especially this previous year), this particular event is worth a look at given the procedural defenses that Facebook has undergone in order to “fix” this issue. Events such as these, where the repercussions are small in comparison with others, allows one to have a better understanding of how social networking sites have created a cultural shift both in how we share and with whom we share (Schoon and Cain 70). The idea that a global company accidentally released private information of over six million people should alarm everyone rather than become a small headline on the news. The conformity of the wager between social interaction and privacy has become so engrained in our culture that its boundaries can no longer be properly aligned (Schoon and Cain 71).

It is no easy task to get a grasp of societal changes that have occurred within the past few decades, especially when it comes to the sharing of information. The ability to communicate one’s ideas, thoughts, and knowledge to the world in a matter of seconds has succumbed us to a dire need to remain socially interconnected. This would not be the case had the creation of social networks such as Facebook had not grown so exponentially at such a crucial time where change was so crucially accepted. Said companies began with a positive motive, but somewhere along the way, power overcame all other priorities. The ethos behind handling such large amounts of information is unprecedented; as one may argue they hold as much power as our governments, yet they do not tend to act under their rule. Time and time again they seem to defy the rule of law and its repercussions diminish as they hold the power to demonstrate how their actions should be portrayed. While private pictures and a website bug may not bring most of us to take action, having a closer understanding as to how big companies respond and the nonchalant attitude they show in most of these occasion should, at least, raise some eyebrows before it’s too late.

Annotated Bibliography
Al-Muslim, Aisha, and Deepa Seetharaman. “Facebook Bug Potentially Exposed Unshared Photos of Up 6.8 Million Users.” The Wall Street Journal, Dow Jones & Company, 14 Dec. 2018, http://www.wsj.com/articles/facebook-bug-potentially-exposed-unshared-photos-of-up-6-8-million-users-11544806623.
Barrett, Brian. “Facebook Exposed 6.8 Million Users’ Photos to Cap Off a Terrible 2018.” Wired, Condé Nast, 14 Dec. 2018, http://www.wired.com/story/facebook-photo-api-bug-millions-users-exposed/.
Desharnais, Yves, et al. “Facebook: The Evolution of Privacy?.” SAGE Business Cases. SAGE Publications Ltd., 2019. SAGE Knowledge. Web. 3/9/2019.
Isaac, Mike, and Natasha Singer. “Facebook Says Bug Opened Access to Private Photos.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 14 Dec. 2018, http://www.nytimes.com/2018/12/14/technology/facebook-bug-private-photos.html.
Robinson, Teri. “Facebook Photo API Bug Exposes Photos of 6.8 Million Users.” SC Media, Haymarket Media, Inc., 17 Dec. 2018, http://www.scmagazine.com/home/security-news/facebook-photo-api-bug-exposes-photos-of-6-8m-underscores-api-development-issues/.
Schoon, Eric, and Cindy I. Cain. “Facebook’s Boundaries.” Contexts, vol. 10, no. 2, 2011, pp. 70–71. JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org/stable/41960213.\

Advertisements

Tiffany Bolanos- Team 21 Final Essay

Good work Tiffany. I sent comments to the email you sent.  Nicely written and good integration of class concepts.  Well-done!

Media’s Influence on the Measles Outbreak. 

The measles outbreak that occurred on December 20th2018, re-sparked a controversial topic that has been relevant since the 19thcentury: the argument with child vaccinations and the resistance against them. The use of rhetorical statements from the CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention), social media, political representatives, and news sources are used to persuade and inform the public on the beneficial effects of vaccinations while the anti-vaccination supporters oppose the use of these substances. 

Cases and Outbreaks recorded by the CDC. Years marked with an * are cases reported from the months of December 2018 and March 2019.

Leading health organizations like the CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention) use logos to respond and correct the misinformation released on social media platforms to show the public vaccines are proven to be safe and effective. In the research articleCorrecting Misinformation by Health Organizations during Measles Outbreaks: A Controlled Experiment,organizations are known to invest in financial and human resources to close the gaps of misinformation leads from the public. These organizations also address these false statements as “myths” (Gesser-Edelsburg, Ana 4). Anti-vaccine supporters and others that are still hesitant with the use of vaccines although these health organizations have provided society with credible information. In fact, these studies reported a “backfire effect:” vaccine skeptics formed even stronger negative opinions about vaccinations after being given information intended to undermine the supposed connection between vaccinations and autism (Gesser-Edelsburg, Ana 4). For example, the measles outbreak that occurred in Minnesota in August 2017 ignited the Minnesota Vaccine Freedom Coalition. This coalition had spread false information of vaccines and was active in anti-vaccine activity.

The Washington Postuses both pathos and logos to address health crisis of the measles outbreak as well. There has been rumors that have caused havoc on medical efforts to keep the outbreaks from diseases low. In this case, the measles outbreak stirred up controversial issues about vaccines. This led to the release of false information that vaccines can lead to autism and other negative health effects. Even with increased attention to the disease’s dangers, the anti-vaccine groups “definitely are upping their outreach on the political spectrum” (Sun, Lena H. 1). Somali American children in Minnesota had a vaccination rate of 92 percent in 2004, higher than the state average, but the rate plummeted to 42 percent by 2014. (Sun, Lena H. 1). In efforts to showcase the effects of parents not vaccinating their children. The Washington Post recorded that there have been 79 measles cases in the year of 2017. With the release of this information, the amount of vaccines in Minnesota increased from 2,562 to 8,324 that were administered by 12 clinics. (Sun, Lena H. 1) 

Facebook search results for ‘vaccines’ led users to articles that promote anti-vaccine myths.

Facebook and other social media sites like Pinterest have used their platform to inform the public about these falsehoods. The Independent addressed this issue stating Facebook and their efforts to broadcast correct information. We are exploring ways to give people more accurate information from expert organizations about vaccines at the top of results for related searches (Cuthbertson, Anthony 1). Social media users mainly obtain they’re information from these applications so with the revision of the falsely claimed information becoming non-existent, the more likely people will support and follow through with giving their children vaccinations. Repetition of information, even if false, can often be mistaken for accuracy, and exposure to anti-vaccine content via social media may negatively shape user attitudes towards vaccination. (Cuthbertson, Anthony 1).

CNN reported the measles cases are increasing in Washington and have declared in a state of emergency in February 2019. 

CNN video link:   https://www.cnn.com/videos/us/2019/01/30/vaccine-exemptions-measles-outbreak-washington-erin-burnett-manu-raju-ebof-sot-vpx.cnn

TIME magazine uses ethos to clarify that there are cases to the release of false information about vaccines. They have released multiple statements of supporting the effects and benefits of vaccines throughout their posts. They have also released information on the effects of lawmakers and their opinions and decisions on anti-vaccine groups and parents. A Republican governor stated that he would not sign three bills passed by the Arizona state legislature designed to complicate and weaken state vaccine protocol (Davies, Wilder.1). With his statement released, made an impact to parents whom have been hesitant on vaccinating their children in the state. As the measles case spread, more lawmakers expressed their opinion through large social media platforms like Facebook to share their views. Lawmakers used their own credibility to express and influence the views of many others. A House of Representative for Arizona, KellyTownsendclaimedthat mandatory vaccine laws are “Communist” and expressed dismay that the people of Arizonabelieve the mandatory vaccines violate their individual sovereignty. (Davies, Wilder.1). She also stated the problem is causing great injury and that the problem is with the actual vaccine. (Davies, Wilder.1) The representative also used a source of pathos to express their views especially sympathetic stories that will compliment them. For instance, after Townsend released her statement, a Republican representative expressed their anti-vaccination views in an interview. The representative stated that attributing health problems experienced by her 22-year-old daughter to vaccines she was given as an infant (Davies, Wilder.1).

To conclude, many media outlets and health organizations had to a duty to fulfill to effectively rid of many false information posts about the measles crisis. The statements released from political representatives as well as posts from social media platforms like Facebook influenced parents whom have been hesitant on getting their children vaccinated. With these crucial decisions, this has affected the numbers of measles outbreaks and showcases how a disease can quickly resurface. The use of the rhetorical statement from the CDC and Facebook are used to support their views. The purpose of this method is to globally spread correct information and rid of false claims that vaccinations are the problem and can cause other underlying factors like autism. Without their action towards progress to decrease the percentage of children whom are not vaccinated, views given by anti-vaccination organizations and supporters would have spread like wildfire. As more protestors are facing backlash from their false claims, the truth and proven research that vaccines are save and effective are coming to light. With this change, the number of measles outbreak will soon decrease as vaccination numbers increase.

Bibliography:

  1. Gesser-Edelsburg, Ana, et al. “Correcting Misinformation by Health Organizations during Measles Outbreaks: A Controlled Experiment.” PLoS ONE, vol. 13, no. 12, Dec. 2018, pp. 1–23. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0209505.

.

2. Sun, Lena H. “Despite measles outbreak, anti-vaccine activists in Minnesota refuse to back down.” Washingtonpost.com, 21 Aug. 2017. Opposing Viewpoints in Context,

.

3. Rauf, Don. “Anti-Vaccination Debate Fuels Measles Outbreaks.” Stroke Center – EverydayHealth.com, Ziff Davis, LLC, 22 Feb. 2019, http://www.everydayhealth.com/measles/anti-vaccination-debate-fuels-measles-outbreaks/.

4. Cuthbertson, Anthony. “Facebook Is Cracking down on Anti-Vax Conspiracy Theories Fueling Measles Outbreak.” The Independent, Independent Digital News and Media, 8 Mar. 2019, www.independent.co.uk/life-style/gadgets-and-tech/news/facebook-anti-vax-page-measles-autism-vaccines-conspiracy-a8813566.html.

5. Davies, Wilder. “Amid a Nationwide Measles Outbreak Lawmaker Says Mandatory Vaccine Laws Are ‘Communist’.” Time, Time, 1 Mar. 2019, time.com/5542064/kelly-townsend-anti-vax/.

6. Larson, Heidi J. “The Biggest Pandemic Risk? Viral Misinformation.” Nature News, Nature Publishing Group, 16 Oct. 2018, www.nature.com/articles/d41586-018-07034-4.

Jessika Lathulerie group 21

Hi Jessika,

Overall well-done! Good integration of images however I would have liked to see more integration of class concepts.  Good analysis of event. 

Venezuela’s endless cry for help as their hope is constantly taken from them.

On February 22nd, 2019 in Venezuela, humanitarian aid trucks that were sent from around the world to aid the people in Venezuela, were burnt to the ground. People were shot and many were hurt badly, assumptions have been made that their own government is at fault, the people who are supposed to help are the ones causing so much pain. Medicine and food that was greatly needed completely lost, secrecy comes into this since the government keeps everything quiet even though everyone is conscious of their actions, they will not admit it.

As the citizens of Venezuela were suffering from hunger and illnesses, desperate for help, their own president and government were sabotaging the little hope they had, the humanitarian aid trucks that had been sent worldwide were burnt to the ground along with their hopes. At Cucuta, Colombia, the border of Venezuela, the security forces fired gas canisters at the protesters, citizens protesting for their lives; desperate for help. Even though no concrete proof was presented that their president Nicolas Maduro was responsible for the fires, eyewitnesses confirmed that the fires started when Maduro’s armed forces blocked the entrance meant for the humanitarian aid trucks. Not only was almost all the aid lost, but hundreds were injured and two were killed. Violence is being used from both parties, the government and the people which has brought the country nothing but tragedies, including families from all around the world that have lost their loved ones in a fight for their freedom.

All around the world, media has been spread of the families suffering, countless people dying while fighting for their freedom, going out and protesting for their lives and for their families. Seeing such inhumane activities happening to innocent people creates a sense of pathos, seeing such tragedy’s moves people around the world that see the footage to want to help, or at least attempt to. As resources for survival become scarcer, Venezuelans have no choice but to take extreme measures to survive such as having to eat rotten meat, breaking into zoos to steal animals such as buffaloes, tapirs and peccaries, and getting into garbage trucks to find enough food for their families. 

Disregarding how disgusting eating raw meats and having to go dumpster diving affects the citizens mentally, the toll it takes on their health is an even bigger one, considering that medicine is also not available to them. The humanitarian aid trucks were the little hope that many had been waiting for for years, and in minutes everything was completely lost.

Venezuelan’s situation reaches every type of social media, from twitter, to Instagram, to Facebook, and the news which allows every type of audience no matter what age or where they are to be aware of the situation. The situation has pushed millions of people to immigrate all around the world. Logos is incorporated here because of all the charts that proof that millions who loved their homes had to run away from it, if they wanted a chance to survive, living their loved ones behind, who were not as lucky. It states the facts that so much loss and torture the population is suffering that the only solution is leave everything behind, which is something that not everyone has the chance to do which leaves them no option but to stay behind and fight, it is either keep swimming or drown for them.

https://www.straitstimes.com/sites/default/files/articles/2018/08/27/venezuela-migration-diplomacy-politics-immigration-1220582.jpg

Not long after the burning of the trucks, the situation got nothing but worse. On March 7th, almost every state suffered a blackout for a whole week, which led the little food that they had available to them go bad, and many deaths, including babies since the hospitals could not keep vital equipment working. The blackout had no explanation whatsoever, President Nicolas Maduro later claimed that the United States were behind it ” engaging in a demonic plot force him from power by crippling the countries electricity system with an imperialist “electromagnetic attack” ” Phillips, Tom. “US Pulls All Staff from Venezuela as Maduro Blames Blackout on ‘Demonic’ Trump Plot.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 12 Mar. 2019

 

Accusations always have more than one side, more than one point of view, some have been that the United States was actually in charge of the attack of the humanitarian aid trucks, with so many accusations a definite answer on who was behind it is still unknown. Ethos allows credibility to be built in the people here since Nicolas Maduro and Marco Rubio are both well known people of power, that pointed fingers at each other blaming each other. https://images.app.goo.gl/hLF7BgCRfSjyUGo66

Every day is a new fight for the citizens of Venezuela, a fight for their lives as if that was something normal that we should do, fight to keep breathing. Waking up and hoping that they wont get robbed or shot just for walking in the streets, hoping they can find anything to eat or drink, hoping that they have electricity to cook or for their newborn child can live longer than a day because the machines do not work and hoping to have water so they can be able to use the bathroom and take showers. All these normal and necessary stuff to survive on a daily basis is something that they do not have, something that their own government has taken from them, their freedom. Tragedy after tragedy and Venezuela still can not see the light all they see is their loved ones pass and their hopes getting burned down.

Bibliography

Jones, Sam. “Venezuela Blackout: What Caused It and What Happens next?” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 13 Mar. 2019, www.theguardian.com/world/2019/mar/13/venezuela-blackout-what-caused-it-and-what-happens-next.

Venezuela has experienced blackouts for years, but this was the worst bone affecting almost every single state. For days no type of electricity was available, not even water, the food went bad and overall the situation did nothing but get worse.

The situation of not having food or electricity available has led the population to find desperate ways to be able to eat and to live another day, one being having to eat raw meat or anything that they can find.

staff, Common Dreams. “US Blamed Venezuelan President for Burning AID Trucks. Wrong.” Common Dreams, 10 Mar. 2019, www.commondreams.org/news/2019/03/10/us-blamed-venezuelan-president-burning-aid-trucks-wrong.

Accusatyioons have been made abpout different people being behind the tear gas and bburning of humanitarian trucks. Although a legitimate answer has not been given, after the US accused the government of vemnezuela they now believe it was the US themselves behind the attcack.

Crime in Venezuela has become a common every-day matter. In the whole world Venezuela can be considered one of the countries with the most violent deaths. Years of violence have gone by and it only gets worse and worse.

Flaherty, Mary Grace, and Leslie F. Roberts. “Internet Searching Produces Misleading Findings Regarding Violent Deaths in Crisis Settings: Short Report.” SpringerLink, Springer, 15 Feb. 2019

At the arrival of Hugo Chavez, Venezuela’s situation has collapsed little by little followed by Nicolas Maduro which has left people in desperate situations that sometimes end in violence and deaths. Shortages of food have left people desperate and has led them to do inhumane things such as eating out if garbage trucks. The crisis does not stop here, it only keeps growing.

“Venezuela’s Deepening Crisis.” Taylor and Francis Online, http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13567888.2017.1358535?scroll=top&needAccess=true.

Final Essay – Valentina Tzvetanov IDS3309 Team 21

Good work Valentia!  Good analysis, great images, good writing style and good incorporation of class concepts. Well-done!

 

In December 2018, news about Russia targeting black voters during the 2016 presidential campaign broke. The different ways the media covered this story manipulated the message and consequently public opinion. The fact that African Americans a targeted population for voter suppression and manipulation is not new to society. However, although this has happened before, the way the public treats this issue today is different. Different channels take a different approach using the rhetorical triangle to create authenticity and credibility of the information they report to their audience.

In his book, “Keeping down the Black Vote: Race and the Demobilization of American Voters,” Frances Fox Piven uses logos to discuss how black voters have been suppressed in the last 25 years. He constructs logical arguments to convince his audience that African American votes are still undermined by politicians who use new overwhelming rules, inaccurate registration records, and abuse felon disenfranchisement laws among many other techniques to manipulate the black vote. Piven’s book shows that things have not changed much in the past 25 years. One thing that can’t be ignored, however, is the medium used to suppress African American votes. As the book examines, politicians were required to strategically plan out crucial tactics to achieve their desired results. Today, due to the internet and social media, manipulating votes is much easier than ever before. In the case of the 2016 presidential campaign, the public found out that now even other countries can meddle in domestic politics and take advantage of voters’ manipulation.

Though Piven’s book is very informative about this matter, it is unlikely that the general public will reference his arguments on a day-to-day basis. People receive news from so many different channels that it is hard at times to sort the noise out. In this digital age, society relies heavily on news delivers online. At times, readers can find themselves only reading one side of the story and not being informed enough. The British journal, Guardian, published an article discussing the Russian interference and how they took advantage of the racial tensions in the U.S. The article establishes ethos as it is published in a scholarly journal. Thus, the readers are assured to get an objective analysis of the issue. Moreover, since the article is published in London, this gives a different perspective on the conflict. It is an outside view of the problem. The article uses objective language and leaves it up to the reader to draw their own conclusion. Another article that uses the same technique to deliver the news is “What Russia Learned About Black Voters From America” by the Daily Intelligencer. The approach the authors take in this case is not to analyze what happened but rather how easy it is for such an issue to occur. By comparing and contrasting African Americans to other ethnic and religious groups, the authors lay out a series of arguments to emphasize how vulnerable existing laws are to such attacks.

In contrast, The Moscow Times published an article assuring their Russian readers that all accusations are false. In a very short and concise article, they inform the public that Kremlin dismisses any allegations about Russia’s meddling in U.S. presidential elections. The authors also use logos but with a different strategy. Their main argument is that there is a lack of details to even take the allegations seriously. Moreover, the article is only three sentences long. This makes the article sound very assuring because it avoids any distractions from the main point. It appears like this matter should not even be taken seriously and does not deserve a full-length detailed article explaining anything. The article simply announces that Kremlin dismisses any accusations. It gives the impression that the newspaper is stating a fact that cannot be argued or discussed any further. This is vastly different than the way the New York Times handles the issue. The New York Times published a very detailed argument breaking down the event. It uses ethos in their advantage. Readers know that it is a reliable source of information and that the NYT has people constantly fact-checking and providing the most accurate information possible. The article published lays the foundation of a healthy discussion. Readers comment and explain their point of views. The comments range from simply arguing that the election was rigged to analysis the similarities to how the Republican Party suppresses Democratic votes in southern states.  

The truth is that many people will not go out of their way to dig deeper into something they hear about. Moreover, many only consume news from social media sites and don’t even visit accredited sources to verify any information. This is why the entertainment industry has shifted from simply entertaining to also pointing out important and newsworthy issues. For example, The Daily Show with Trevor Noah dedicated an episode talking about Russia’s targeting of black voters. Although the host takes a sarcastic approach to the issue and makes fun of the way Americans handle a problem of such magnitude, he also shows and discussed the news covered on several news channels. This opens the eyes of many viewers to different sources of information and encourages them to read more about the problem on their own. Moreover, Trevor Noah emphasizes social media tactics, such as the posting of memes of celebrities, to encourage black voters not to vote. He shows exact examples of how votes were manipulated. Many articles don’t refer to that. Instead, they rather simply lay out the allegations and don’t provide specific examples. This shows that today there are also many valuable non-traditional sources of information that bring up important issues in society.

In conclusion, the medium that delivers news to us has a great impact on how we perceive that news. A person in Russia may read the 3-sentence article in The Moscow Times and rest assure that Russia has nothing to do with the allegations. In contrast, someone who reads the New York Times would engage in a long and detailed article and probably be encouraged to comment with their personal opinion. The entertainment industry also tries to help sort through the noise and bring up important issues. In the end, it is up to the individual to stay informed, identify fake news, and draw their own conclusion about global events.

 

Work Cited

Piven, Frances Fox, et al. Keeping down the Black Vote : Race and the Demobilization of American Voters. New York : New Press : Distributed by W.W. Norton, 2009., 2009. FIU Library Cataloghttp://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=cat06026a&AN=fiu.020171625&site=eds-live.

“Race and Russian interference: Senate reports detail age-old tactic; Efforts to influence 2016 election show focus on black voters and a familiar targeting of America’s problem with racism.” Guardian [London, England], 24 Dec. 2018. Academic OneFilehttp://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A566995638/AONE?u=miam11506&sid=AONE&xid=eaa069cf. Accessed 7 Mar. 2019.

Reuters. “Kremlin Rejects New U.S. Reports Alleging Russian Election Meddling.” The Moscow Times, 18 Dec. 2018, Web, www.themoscowtimes.com/2018/12/18/kremlin-rejects-new-us-reports-alleging-russian-election-meddling-a63875. Accessed 7 Mar. 2019

Shane, Scott, and Sheera Frenkel. “Russian 2016 Influence Operation Targeted African-Americans on Social Media.” The New York Times, 17 Dec. 2018, The New York Times , www.nytimes.com/2018/12/17/us/politics/russia-2016-influence-campaign.html. Accessed 7 Mar. 2019

The Daily Show with Trevor Noah. YouTube, 18 Dec. 2018, YouTube, www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dexs-nlAvhA. Accessed 7 Mar. 2019

“What Russia Learned About Black Voters From America.” Daily Intelligencer, 18 Dec. 2018. General OneFilehttp://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A566049064/ITOF?u=miam11506&sid=ITOF&xid=d4ae9431. Accessed 7 Mar. 2019.

Tiffany Bolanos-Team 21. Final Essay

 

Media’s Influence on the Measles Outbreak. 

The measles outbreak that occurred on December 20th2018, re-sparked a controversial topic that has been relevant since the 19thcentury: the argument with child vaccinations and the resistance against them. The use of rhetorical statements from the CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention), social media, political representatives, and news sources are used to persuade and inform the public on the beneficial effects of vaccinations while the anti-vaccination supporters oppose the use of these substances. 

 

Cases and Outbreaks recorded by the CDC. Years marked with an * are cases reported from the months of December 2018 and March 2019.

Leading health organizations like the CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention) use logos to respond and correct the misinformation released on social media platforms to show the public vaccines are proven to be safe and effective. In the research articleCorrecting Misinformation by Health Organizations during Measles Outbreaks: A Controlled Experiment,organizations are known to invest in financial and human resources to close the gaps of misinformation leads from the public. These organizations also address these false statements as “myths” (Gesser-Edelsburg, Ana 4). Anti-vaccine supporters and others that are still hesitant with the use of vaccines although these health organizations have provided society with credible information. In fact, these studies reported a “backfire effect:” vaccine skeptics formed even stronger negative opinions about vaccinations after being given information intended to undermine the supposed connection between vaccinations and autism (Gesser-Edelsburg, Ana 4). For example, the measles outbreak that occurred in Minnesota in August 2017 ignited the Minnesota Vaccine Freedom Coalition. This coalition had spread false information of vaccines and was active in anti-vaccine activity.

Facebook search results for ‘vaccines’ led users to articles that promote anti-vaccine myths.

The Washington Postuses both pathos and logos to address health crisis of the measles outbreak as well. There has been rumors that have caused havoc on medical efforts to keep the outbreaks from diseases low. In this case, the measles outbreak stirred up controversial issues about vaccines. This led to the release of false information that vaccines can lead to autism and other negative health effects. Even with increased attention to the disease’s dangers, the anti-vaccine groups “definitely are upping their outreach on the political spectrum” (Sun, Lena H. 1). Somali American children in Minnesota had a vaccination rate of 92 percent in 2004, higher than the state average, but the rate plummeted to 42 percent by 2014. (Sun, Lena H. 1). In efforts to showcase the effects of parents not vaccinating their children. The Washington Post recorded that there have been 79 measles cases in the year of 2017. With the release of this information, the amount of vaccines in Minnesota increased from 2,562 to 8,324 that were administered by 12 clinics. (Sun, Lena H. 1) 

Facebook and other social media sites like Pinterest have used their platform to inform the public about these falsehoods. The Independent addressed this issue stating Facebook and their efforts to broadcast correct information. We are exploring ways to give people more accurate information from expert organizations about vaccines at the top of results for related searches (Cuthbertson, Anthony 1). Social media users mainly obtain they’re information from these applications so with the revision of the falsely claimed information becoming non-existent, the more likely people will support and follow through with giving their children vaccinations. Repetition of information, even if false, can often be mistaken for accuracy, and exposure to anti-vaccine content via social media may negatively shape user attitudes towards vaccination. (Cuthbertson, Anthony 1).

CNN reported the measles cases are increasing in Washington and have declared in a state of emergency in February 2019. 

CNN video link:   https://www.cnn.com/videos/us/2019/01/30/vaccine-exemptions-measles-outbreak-washington-erin-burnett-manu-raju-ebof-sot-vpx.cnn

TIME magazine uses ethos to clarify that there are cases to the release of false information about vaccines. They have released multiple statements of supporting the effects and benefits of vaccines throughout their posts. They have also released information on the effects of lawmakers and their opinions and decisions on anti-vaccine groups and parents. A Republican governor stated that he would not sign three bills passed by the Arizona state legislature designed to complicate and weaken state vaccine protocol (Davies, Wilder.1). With his statement released, made an impact to parents whom have been hesitant on vaccinating their children in the state. As the measles case spread, more lawmakers expressed their opinion through large social media platforms like Facebook to share their views. Lawmakers used their own credibility to express and influence the views of many others. A House of Representative for Arizona, KellyTownsendclaimedthat mandatory vaccine laws are “Communist” and expressed dismay that the people of Arizonabelieve the mandatory vaccines violate their individual sovereignty. (Davies, Wilder.1). She also stated the problem is causing great injury and that the problem is with the actual vaccine. (Davies, Wilder.1) The representative also used a source of pathos to express their views especially sympathetic stories that will compliment them. For instance, after Townsend released her statement, a Republican representative expressed their anti-vaccination views in an interview. The representative stated that attributing health problems experienced by her 22-year-old daughter to vaccines she was given as an infant (Davies, Wilder.1).

To conclude, many media outlets and health organizations had to a duty to fulfill to effectively rid of many false information posts about the measles crisis. The statements released from political representatives as well as posts from social media platforms like Facebook influenced parents whom have been hesitant on getting their children vaccinated. With these crucial decisions, this has affected the numbers of measles outbreaks and showcases how a disease can quickly resurface. The use of the rhetorical statement from the CDC and Facebook are used to support their views. The purpose of this method is to globally spread correct information and rid of false claims that vaccinations are the problem and can cause other underlying factors like autism. Without their action towards progress to decrease the percentage of children whom are not vaccinated, views given by anti-vaccination organizations and supporters would have spread like wildfire. As more protestors are facing backlash from their false claims, the truth and proven research that vaccines are save and effective are coming to light. With this change, the number of measles outbreak will soon decrease as vaccination numbers increase.

Bibliography:

  1. Gesser-Edelsburg, Ana, et al. “Correcting Misinformation by Health Organizations during Measles Outbreaks: A Controlled Experiment.” PLoS ONE, vol. 13, no. 12, Dec. 2018, pp. 1–23. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0209505.

.

2. Sun, Lena H. “Despite measles outbreak, anti-vaccine activists in Minnesota refuse to back down.” Washingtonpost.com, 21 Aug. 2017. Opposing Viewpoints in Context,

.

3. Rauf, Don. “Anti-Vaccination Debate Fuels Measles Outbreaks.” Stroke Center – EverydayHealth.com, Ziff Davis, LLC, 22 Feb. 2019, http://www.everydayhealth.com/measles/anti-vaccination-debate-fuels-measles-outbreaks/.

4. Cuthbertson, Anthony. “Facebook Is Cracking down on Anti-Vax Conspiracy Theories Fueling Measles Outbreak.” The Independent, Independent Digital News and Media, 8 Mar. 2019, www.independent.co.uk/life-style/gadgets-and-tech/news/facebook-anti-vax-page-measles-autism-vaccines-conspiracy-a8813566.html.

5. Davies, Wilder. “Amid a Nationwide Measles Outbreak Lawmaker Says Mandatory Vaccine Laws Are ‘Communist’.” Time, Time, 1 Mar. 2019, time.com/5542064/kelly-townsend-anti-vax/.

6. Larson, Heidi J. “The Biggest Pandemic Risk? Viral Misinformation.” Nature News, Nature Publishing Group, 16 Oct. 2018, www.nature.com/articles/d41586-018-07034-4.

Fake News – IDS 3309 Team Assignment 3 – Team 21

THE TRUTH IS OUT… 400 girls gone missing during Ultra Music Festival

By Team 21
April 2, 2019

MIAMI — A female festival attendee came forward to testify that she has witnessed girls gone missing during the Ultra Music Festival this past weekend in Miami due to the victims being drugged and lured away.

The witness, whose name remains anonymous as long as she is cooperating with the investigation, said in an interview that she saw several girls being handed out drugs and later taken away.

Among the 60,000 people who were crossing the bridge on foot due to the lack of reliable transportation, some girls were selected to use Ultra’s VIP boat service to avoid any casualties because of the girls’ high intoxication levels. The girls have since been reported missing.

Roughly 400 electronic dance music female fans have gone missing between March 29 and 31 after attending the music festival. Reports about the missing attendees did not come to surface until the festival was over.

“I feel like they didn’t want to do anything about it. They refused to look into any of the reports assuring us that our friends would come back soon. I wonder now how much Ultra was actually involved in all of this,” Michael Cohen, festival attendee, said.

According to witness testimony, girls were seen being taken into a boat from Virginia Key, which was supposed to safely transport them across the water. However, they never made it back to their friends.

The investigation has not proven yet if the boats responsible for transporting these girls were actually a part of the official Ultra transportation or a scam. However, many speculate that sex trafficking may be behind the mysterious disappearance of all victims.

The main witness in the investigation confirmed that she received a call from one of her friends, Claire Cornell, claiming to be abducted in the Bahamas before the call dropped abruptly. The police have not reported any leads yet, but similar claims were made by other festival attendees as well.

A video of the missing girl surfaced showing a stranger mixing drugs in her drink without her knowledge or consent.

Several female attendees said in an interview that they were given drugs by strange-looking men and were promised to use the VIP boat service and skip the long waiting lines for the shuttles. “There’s a lot of strange-looking people at Ultra, but they just looked too sketchy to me. When they saw I wasn’t buying it, they moved right to the next girl,” another female attendee recalls.

The reported victims are all girls between the ages of 18 and 22. Records show that Ultra Music Festival officials were notified about the first missing person as early as Saturday at 9:15 a.m.

No actions were taken to organize a search. More than 60 reports were filed on March 30. By March 31, there were over 300 reports filed. However, none of them were taken seriously until the day after the festival was over. Ultra 2019 ended with a total of 400 reports of missing girls.

“There was no signal in the area, and we couldn’t reach our friend. We filed a report but were told that she’s probably still drunk from the night before and would come back soon,” Maria Gonzalez recalls.

Several other EDM fans reported that drugs were being handed out by undercover dealers. There are no reports linking the dealers to Ultra, but some suspect that festival officials let in the dealers on purpose.

“It’s a music festival and people want to have fun. Drugs are being handed out left and right. You don’t even have to look or ask for them,” festival attendee Cohen recalls.

“My friend was really drunk, and an employee escorted her to a boat. But after walking 3 miles across the bridge, I didn’t find her. She wasn’t in the hotel either and when I tried calling, her phone was already turned off,” Gonzalez said.

Concerned families and friends are demanding answers and hope to see their loved ones soon.

The question now is — Is it the lack of security at Ultra Music Festival that led to all these disappearances, or was Ultra actually actively involved?

Reflective Paragraph:

We decided to choose Ultra Music Festival for our fake news article because it’s something very recent. The festival itself is very popular and any news about it is being followed by many young people. The festival already raised concerns by being compared to the failure of Fyre Festival. The event is already being watched and judged by many festival enthusiasts online. For our article we used ethos as we cited directly what several festival attended witnessed. We also used pathos as the sensational news appeal our audience’s feelings by reporting about a large number of missing girls who may have allegedly been involved in sex trafficking. Our audience is mainly teens because they are the largest population of people interested in music festivals and also the ones who follow the news about the event closely. The hook for the readers was to state the main sensation in the headline. We lure them in by telling them that there is something very sketchy and concerning going on behind the scenes at Ultra. We grab their attention because we talk about drugs, sex trafficking, and abduction that is happening while everyone is having a good time at the festival. We maintain credibility by providing direct quotes from festival attendees as well as referencing the investigation.

Credits:

Valentina Tzvetanov – Writer & Editor

Lazaro Francia – Analyst

Gabriel Reina – Media Research

Arianna Moss – Analyst

Tiffany Bolanos – Analyst

Jessika Lathulerie – Analyst

Oh wow, this is hysterical, great job !!! I followed this festival in the media and you certainly did a fantastic job on covering this in a timely and very realistic fashion.  An enjoyable read all around!! 

Excellent work Team #21!!!!!!  This just may be the best Fake News assignment I have ever read.

Tiffany Bolanos- Team 21- Final Essay Draft.

Good work Tiffany! Please add images and you need a stronger conclusion.  Feel free to resend if you like!

 

The measles outbreak that occurred on December 20th2018, re-sparked a controversial topic that has been relevant since the 19thcentury: the argument with child vaccinations and the resistance against them. The use of rhetorical statements from the CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention), social media, lawmakers, and news sources are used to persuade and inform the public on the beneficial effects of vaccinations while the anti-vaccination supporters oppose the use of these substances. 

Leading health organizations like the CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention) use logos to respond and correct the misinformation released on social media platforms to show the public vaccines are proven to be safe and effective. In the research articleCorrecting Misinformation by Health Organizations during Measles Outbreaks: A Controlled Experiment,organizations are known to invest in financial and human resources to close the gaps of misinformation leads from the public. These organizations also address these false statements as “myths” (Gesser-Edelsburg, Ana 4). Anti-vaccine supporters and others that are still hesitant with the use of vaccines although these health organizations have provided society with credible information. In fact, these studies reported a “backfire effect:” vaccine skeptics formed even stronger negative opinions about vaccinations after being given information intended to undermine the supposed connection between vaccinations and autism (Gesser-Edelsburg, Ana 4). For example, the measles outbreak that occurred in Minnesota in August 2017 ignited the Minnesota Vaccine Freedom Coalition. This coalition had spread false information of vaccines and was active in anti-vaccine activity.

The Washington Postuses both pathos and logos to address health crisis of the measles outbreak as well. There has been rumors that have caused havoc on medical efforts to keep the outbreaks from diseases low. In this case, the measles outbreak stirred up controversial issues about vaccines. This led to the release of false information that vaccines can lead to autism and other negative health effects. Even with increased attention to the disease’s dangers, the anti-vaccine groups “definitely are upping their outreach on the political spectrum” (Sun, Lena H. 1). Somali American children in Minnesota had a vaccination rate of 92 percent in 2004, higher than the state average, but the rate plummeted to 42 percent by 2014. (Sun, Lena H. 1). In efforts to showcase the effects of parents not vaccinating their children. The Washington Post recorded that there has a been 79 measles cases in the year of 2017. With the release of this information, the amount of vaccines in Minnesota increased from 2,562 to 8,324 that were administered by 12 clinics. (Sun, Lena H. 1)

Facebook and other social media sites like Pinterest have used their platform to inform the public about these falsehoods. The Independent addressed this issue stating Facebook and their efforts to broadcast correct information. We are exploring ways to give people more accurate information from expert organizations about vaccines at the top of results for related searches (Cuthbertson, Anthony 1). Social media users mainly obtain they’re information from these applications so with the revision of the falsely claimed information becoming non-existent, the more likely people will support and follow through with giving their children vaccinations. Repetition of information, even if false, can often be mistaken for accuracy, and exposure to anti-vaccine content via social media may negatively shape user attitudes towards vaccination. (Cuthbertson, Anthony 1).

TIME magazine uses ethos to clarify that there are cases to the release of false information about vaccines. They have released multiple statements of supporting he effects and benefits of vaccines throughout their posts. They have also released information on the effects of lawmakers and their opinions and decisions on anti-vaccine groups and parents. A Republican governor stated that he would not sign three bills passed by the Arizona state legislature designed to complicate and weaken state vaccine protocol (Davies, Wilder.1). With his statement released, made an impact to parents whom have been hesitant on vaccinating their children in the state. As the measles case spread, more lawmakers expressed their opinion through large social media platforms like Facebook to share their views. Lawmakers used their own credibility to express and influence the views of many others. A lawmaker from Arizona known as KellyTownsendclaimedthat mandatory vaccine laws are “Communist” and expressed dismay that the people of Arizona. (Davies, Wilder.1). She also stated the problem is causing so much injury and the problem is the vaccines being used. (Davies, Wilder.1) Lawmakers also used a source of pathos to express their views especially sympathetic stories that will compliment them. For instance, after Townsend released her statement, a Republican expressed their anti-vaccine views in an interview. The representative stated  that attributing health problems experienced by her 22-year-old daughter to vaccines she was given as an infant(Davies, Wilder.1).