Fake News Article – Team 19

FIU Cutting Out Study Abroad Program

Editor: Leandro Moreyra
Media: Alexandra Fernandez
Writer/Researcher: Angelica Blanco
Writer/Researcher: Keenan Thompson

Link to PDF version with images: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1PIIWMv70Gn9HnYi6ARxidG_a3C3b46o2/view?usp=sharing

Miami, FL – Florida International University is cutting funding to the Study Abroad program beginning in 2020. After crunching some numbers, administrators from the school decided that the program was too costly to remain on the budget. The school is still willing to accept the credits completed abroad if students want to take a semester in another county, but FIU will not be subsidizing any of the costs.

For many students at FIU, the study abroad programs have offered many impactful opportunities in various countries including France, China, India, Germany.

Those in charge of the program have already begun gathering signatures for a petition to push forward an appeal in an attempt to have this new decision rescinded.

Image result for signing petitions

“This decision to cut funding from the Study Abroad program is not compliant with the type of world-view we try to promote here at FIU – that of cultural sharing and awareness. We can’t be an ‘International’ university if we confine ourselves to our own borders just because some higher-up is pinching pennies,” said an FIU administrator that wishes to remain anonymous.

 Clearly, there is dissent in the ranks with regard to this controversial decision and according to a student survey, over 94% of the student body strongly opposes the budget cuts. Outcry is coming in especially loud from students who are currently studying abroad.

Santiago Martinez, 20, is now stuck between a rock and a hard place. Martinez is studying business in Munich, Germany and has nothing (but) for praise for the program.

“The Study Abroad Program has allowed me to gain a better understanding of how business is conducted in Europe and will help me better participate in international relations. When I apply for jobs after completing my MBA, my future employers will see that I’m a well-educated man who isn’t afraid to broaden his horizons and look at the big picture,” said Martinez.

From 250 – 130 special engineering and architecture scholarships in Italy, Japan, and India have been cut. Due to the reduced number of beneficiaries, students are now forced to get a loan or be outstanding enough to receive one of the meager scholarships left.

Akane Underwood, 43, had the following to say on the matter:

“I’ve been teaching contemporary architecture, urbanism, and urban culture in Japan for seven years now. Students learn a lot from the program and gain a lot of experience for their future endeavors. It looks great on their transcripts and resumes. It upsets me that these students’ opportunities are being taken away and I must also decide between going home to a possibility of a job or staying in Japan and starting over.”

According to Forbes Magazine, the average price of tuition per semester abroad is $31,270. Since 49.33% of the US makes less than $30,000 annually, half of our country is automatically placed at a monumental disadvantage.

What might this mean for the future of the university? Will FIU see a decrease in admission applications as high school students see an administration that cares more about the bottom line than their future? And how will this affect the incoming flow of annual donations from alumni?

Image result for study abroad

Our reasoning behind choosing this topic is because many students here at FIU, including members of our own Team 19, have expressed great interest in the study abroad program. Most students understand that study abroad is expensive, but looks great on a resume and is a very fun experience. Thus, a fake news article about losing the chance to study abroad would have really struck home for students who want to learn more about the rest of the world and also for the higher-ups of FIU administration that have to worry about declining admission applications. We used pathos to appeal to the reader’s sense of sympathy by adding quotes from a student who pities those who won’t get the chance to do what he did and from a teacher who was sent to Japan to teach. Also, the comment about half the country being at a disadvantage is meant to inspire outrage in the reader. We appealed to the reader’s sense of logos by adding statistics on the average cost of study abroad and average income in the U.S. Finally, we referenced Forbes Magazine to convince the reader that we were getting information from credible sources – ethos.


Well-done!  A timely topic given the state of funding overall for universities.  It’s nice to read a post when student’s are invested in their university.  Good work, good images, good job!


48-hour News Blackout

Thesis: Medium has created a blackout in our solidarity.

The article, “The End of Solitude”, suggests that the camera has enabled the celebrity culture. The idea of celebrity culture is the desire for the outside world to desperately be part of a celebrity’s world by being fixated on their every move.  The computer creates connectivity which when both are combined, we get what is notably known as social media.  This new conversion feeds into our desire to be connected, visible and relatable. Our validation now comes from the idea of being known. The idea of being alone has become something much fear, taking a negative connotation.  People try to avoid solitude by using fillers to take away the feeling of aloneness.
Deresiewicz argues that media is taking away our ability to be alone. It substitutes the loneliness by making us busy and consumed. Deresiewicz describes privacy and one’s ability to be alone as our riches. He supports his idea of the value of being alone by using examples of historical people who have had divine encounters during their period of aloneness. Contributing that while we are in a state of isolation our inner being/soul is trying to reach out from what is slowly becoming a ghost in a shell. He later states “For the still, small voice speaks only in the silence” when we are alone with ourselves, we allow our senses to be utilized. We allow time for our own ideas to be formulated and our thought process to function.
We detoxify ourselves from a virtual reality and get a visible glimpse of our own reality which is exactly what occurred to me during the 48-hour blackout. I was confronted with the fact that I depend on the medium more than I care to admit. I found myself trying to stay busy by doing other activities that will take my mind off the desire to read the news or go on social media. The first day I was a bit anxious, I would unconsciously search for news or social media and would have to stop myself from going to the site which got me thinking, have I been focused on connecting on the extensions of my human abilities instead?
I also realized, that many of the conversations I usually engage with my peers are connected to the news or things that are happening around the world. Countless times I would have to stop them from sharing some insight on a story. One the second day, however, the anxiousness was diminishing. There were times I would get the urge to read a news article but for the most part, the ease of not having the burden of keeping up with all this information was refreshing.
Avoiding news is very difficult, especially when its news about a tragedy that has hit home. Which leads me to the next argument, the news is vital because it gives us an awareness of what is going on around us and how it affecting us. This shows that news is indeed a necessary intrusion to our solitude. However, it is valid that news can create more solitude by making us think for ourselves. What we do with the information we receive through news can definitely provoke us to create our own opinion on the facts given. Making us reflect on what we just saw or read.

Final Essay Draft Team #19

Hi Ashley,

Good work, please add images!  Good writing style, good content, good job overall. One thing though is I’m missing connection with the class concepts in  your essay.  You have told me a lot about what is going on with R.Kelly and so forth but I’d like to see more about how you analyze this topic in light of say secrecy, McLuhan, and such.  

Alexandra Fernandez                                                                                     3/16/2019

IDS3309                                                                                                      Rough Draft

2019 has been a dramatic year for the world of pop culture. With the rise of the internet era and the golden age of social media, what has been left in the darkness is finally being brought out to the light. With the crumbling and dynamic changes in our institutions happening on the daily one of the biggest bulldozers is that of the #MeToo movement. It has been a gigantic wakeup call to the establishment and powerbrokers that have victimized the helpless for far too long. The #MeToo movement has been credited for taking down powerful figures such as Harvey Weinstein and Bill Cosby, which had abused their power for years with impunity. The #MeToo movement seems to suck in a new person every day. The movement is something that forces us as Americans to reflect on who we idolized and challenges us to separate the art from the actions committed by the people. The most recent scandal is that of notorious R&B singer R. Kelly and the King of Pop Michael Jackson. The revelations, which have arisen about both artists, have shocked and appalled many people as well as fans. The media has played an integral role in revealing the dark truth of what they have been doing for years.

The media as well as Hollywood had always winked and nodded at the possibilities of both Kelly and Jackson being sexual abusers since the early 2000s. One could easily look back and see infamous Chappelle Show sketches making fun of Kelly and the allegations that he urinated on an underage fifteen-year-old girl. The same scenario was happening with Jackson on the show South Park for his affinity towards playing alone with underage boys. The reality is none of this is funny or humorous as people were victimized and worse being that most victims were underage. What ties both of these cases together is that they were revealed by the #Metoo movement and after the premiere of explosive documentaries. “One of the main goals of the Me too Movement™ is to give young women, particularly young women of color from low wealth communities, a sense of empowerment from the understanding that they are not alone in their circumstances” as stated by Michelle Rodino in the Communication & Critical/Cultural Studies.

The victims of R. Kelly came primarily from this background. They had the courage to speak out against their former abuser in the documentary “Surviving R.Kelly.” The media has been a strong medium in giving women a voice to speak out against abusers and giving them a platform to be listened too. The blowback resulted in a number of other victims of R. Kelly coming out eventually leading to his arrest and him being charged with ten counts of sexual abuse, with three of them against minors. R. Kelly’s entire history of sexual abuse against minors was brought into the limelight and deservedly had his reputation and career destroyed. “In 2001, a witness had conversations with Robert Kelly and Robert Kelly’s associates where the witness was asked to retrieve videotapes showing Robert Kelly having sexual intercourse with the victim in this case”—identified by the state as R.L.—“when she was fourteen years old” as stated by Jim DeRogatis of the New Yorker. In as little as two months, R. Kelly’s net worth dropped from $150 million to $1 million.

In the Michael Jackson case, the allegations against him have been raised posthumously. The damning documentary that premiered a few months ago destroyed the image of Jackson. “Leaving Neverland” profiles two men who say Michael Jackson sexually abused them when they were children. Jackson faced several allegations that he molested young boys dating back to 1993, but was never convicted of any charges” as stated by Shaila Dewan of the New York Times. The reported details of child sexual abuse shocked the country as a childhood hero for millions was vilified and the rumors that had since been forgotten were now in your face. 

The media and the many forms of technology we see today spread the news like wildfire. As the stories of the victims and the pathos narrative we saw a fire begin and the #Metoo Movement provided the gasoline. The media landscape has taken drastic steps to remove the legacy of Michael Jackson. For example “In the shadow of the “Neverland” premiere, Jackson’s music — including his work with the Jackson 5 and The Jacksons — has dipped noticeably in popularity. From March 3-5 (the documentary premiered on March 3), the singer’s album sales fell by 39 percent and his combined song and album sales faced a drop of 8,000, according to Billboard” as stated by Anna Tingley of Variety Magazine. Jackson has also been removed from past episodes of the Simpsons and radio stations nationwide have pulled his music.

The recent series of events have raised questions on social media as fans of both artists have come out staunchly defending them especially Jackson. “Meanwhile, a vast global army of fans have mounted defenses on social media. Jackson supporters have flooded the internet with rebuttals to the documentary, questioning the credibility and motives of Robson and Safechuck” as stated by Tom Dart of the Guardian.  The allegations have forced people all over the world to step out of their comfort zone and confront the reality that was happening.The media has exposed two scenarios that many would have preferred to remain blissfully ignorant about. America now faces soul searching and coming to grips with the figures we regarded once as heroes “ Michael Jackson’s legacy is bigger than Michael Jackson, right?” said New York Times critic-at-large Wesley Morris on the Daily podcast. “We can’t cancel Michael Jackson because canceling Michael Jackson means canceling America in some way. Not just our love of [the] music, but our sense of who we are as a people.” (Dart, Tom.) America finds itself in a state of mourning but should we feel ok to mourn idols even with all the bad they have done.

Final Paper Rough Draft 1

Well-done! Just add some images to support your text and you’re good.


Freedom is a concept so vital to living a happy life that our own nation was created by defying the British monarchy that ruled over the colonies on this continent. So many people fought and died for our right to live freely and upon their victory, we became the “land of the free.” Despite this, we are not the only country to grant protection of the constituents’ freedom. The great majority of the world has, by now, become “free” in that the people elect those who would rule them. However, India is just one example of far too many that this doesn’t always turn out as well as it’s supposed to. Although India’s constitution guarantees freedom of expression, law enforcement officials in Kashmir shut down internet services in local areas to conceal information on the killing of three militants along with several non-combatants and inhibit communication between outraged civilians who were protesting the killings.

To begin with, the Kashmiri police tried to conceal information about the casualties to stop the spread of misinformation that would aggravate the situation. Just like the famous Telephone Game, if one person tells their friends that they saw the police were shooting at people, they might tell someone else that the police shot those people and things would spiral out of control until eventually you have someone proclaiming that the cops are murdering innocents indiscriminately. Thus, law enforcement officials decided to conceal the death and injury of civilians in this incident for the time being to prevent angry protestors from accidentally escalating the situation into full-blown riots. While this is a commonly employed tactic, it only works if you can actually conceal the information and furthermore is technically illegal under the Indian Constitution – which protects information exchange by granting freedom of expression (Vijayakumar and Vijayakumar). Although some were left without internet, many others still managed to get online and tell all who would listen about what they’d just witnessed. In fact, Mirwaiz Omar – the chairman of the separatist group Hurriyat Conference – tweeted a call to action for a march on a military camp in defiance of law enforcement (Reuters 1). Consequently, the authorities attempted the exact same tactic of information concealment, but on a grander scale: train services and mobile services were suspended in the entire Kashmiri Valley.

Moreover, Indian authorities seem to understand that controlling media is key in controlling what the people think and do. The day after Mirwaiz Omar’s tweet, they issued a statement urging the people to “not to fall prey to such designs of anti-national forces. The Indian Army is always with the people of Kashmir and would foil all such evil attempts of terrorist-separatist-Pakistan nexus to pit the civilian population against the security forces,” (Ehsan). Here, they call the separatists evil and “anti-national” to appeal to the audience’s sense of pathos. By issuing this statement as a warning “not to fall prey,” they also play on the audience’s sense of pride and seek to implant the idea of gratitude towards the government for helping them avoid this “trap.” In doing this and restricting internet access, they demonstrate an understanding of McLuhan’s ideas surrounding the concept of the medium being just as important as the message itself. Citizens of Kashmir could still call their friends to talk one-to-one, but in removing access to the internet law enforcement officials prevented mass sharing of ideas by people with an angry mob mentality. Along with the unofficial curfew enforced on the valley, this restriction likely prevented the previously threatened march that may have turned into a riot – what with tensions so high.

Also, Indian legislature places restrictions on the Internet but is lacking in regulations that would provide accountability. The IT Act has “[a] complete absence of checks and balances for the powers given to authorities like Computer Emergency Response Team India (cERT-I),” (Saeshu 2). Such rules further paint a picture of a government that wants dominion over the most popular medium for information exchange. The citizens have noticed this as well and the Indian government is aware of their unrest. One has to wonder if the government truly is in the right when the constituents that it’s meant to protect throw stones at law enforcement to defend separatist militants (Slater and Naseem).

To conclude, Kashmiri police restricted internet services in areas surrounding the shooting that killed three separatist militants and many civilians to temporarily conceal information on the casualties and prevent further civil unrest. However, the chairman of these separatist forces used this as an opportunity to try and rally support through twitter. This incident is simply one example of how the media is used to sway the minds of the public. What does this mean on a global scale? Because the Kashmiri law enforcement was acting with the backing of the Indian government, it sets a precedent for law enforcement infringing on the constituents’ right to communicate freely if they think it will prevent the spread of civil unrest – which is a very vague condition. By that logic, the police can shut down the internet in the area where someone’s having a block party at night. In limiting the flow of information they also handicap not just what we know, but also how we know what we know.


Ehsan, Mir. “Kashmir protests: Army asks people not to march towards Srinagar HQ on Monday.” Hindustan Times 16 December 2018: 1-3. Internet. 9 March 2019. <https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/kashmir-protests-army-asks-people-not-to-march-towards-srinagar-hq-on-monday/story-lG3idjzTjGWGKOSYbZlGFN.html&gt;.

Fareed, Rifat. “Protests in Kashmir after civilian shot dead by Indian troops.” Al Jazeera 27 September 2018: 1. Internet. 9 March 2019. <https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2018/09/anti-india-protests-clashes-kashmir-shepherd-killed-180927075436034.html&gt;.

Rao, Nagesh. “India cracks down as Kashmir demands freedom.” GreenLeft Weekly 2 September 2016: 14. Internet.

Reuters. “Seven Civilians Killed as Indian Police.” The New York Times 15 December 2018: 1-2. Web. 9 March 2019. <https://www.nytimes.com/2018/12/15/world/asia/india-kashmir-protest.html&gt;.

Saeshu, Geeta. “Poor Guarantee of Online Freedom in India.” Economic and Political Weekly (2012): 14-16. Internet. 9 March 2019. <https://www-jstor-org.ezproxy.fiu.edu/stable/23214889?seq=3#metadata_info_tab_contents&gt;.

Slater, Joanna and Ishfaq Naseem. “2018 is the deadliest year in a decade in Kashmir. Next year could be worse.” The Washington Post 23 December 2018: 1-3. Internet. 9 March 2019. <https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/asia_pacific/2018-is-the-deadliest-year-in-a-decade-in-kashmir-next-year-could-be-worse/2018/12/22/493ff2e4-03bb-11e9-958c-0a601226ff6b_story.html?noredirect=on&utm_term=.30e8a04ea603&gt;.

Vijayakumar, JK and Manju Vijayakumar. “Right to Information and Freedom of Expression.” Vijayakumar, JK and Manju Vijayakumar. Information, Communication, Library and Community Development. Festschrift Volume for Prof. C P Vashist. New Delhi: B R Publishing, 2004. 1-6. Text. 9 March 2019.

Individual Assignment: Annotated Bibliography Team 19

Good job,good sources, good annotations. 

Thesis: “The #Metoo movement has changed the cultural landscape in the US as we know it. The most recent celebrities to be affected by the movement are now disgraced rap artist R.Kelly and the deceased pop star Michael jackson. How does the media influence the reputation of celebrities and how has it played a role in giving victims a voice?”

1.Book: Traister., Rebecca. Good and Mad : the Revolutionary Power of Women’s Anger . New York : Simon & Schuster, 2018.     FIU Green Library General Collection — HQ1421 .T73 2018 

This book talks about the power that a woman has. The book highlights the injustices that have been done to women. The #metoo movement is a perfect example of women harnessing their anger after years of abuse within various industries. The times up movement is also a great example against societal patriarchy found in the book.

2. Scholarly journal: Rodino-Colocino, Michelle. “Me Too, pass:[#]MeToo: Countering Cruelty with Empathy.” Communication & Critical/Cultural Studies, vol. 15, no. 1, Mar. 2018, pp. 96–100. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/14791420.2018.1435083. I found this scholarly journal in the communication and media complete database.

The article examines how Tarana Burke’s Me Too movement has countered cruelty of sexual harassment and assault. According to author, the cruelty with which U.S. president Donald Trump has been manipulating policy and referring to women is a king of public cruelty. The author says that burke’s movement is based on empathy. This article will be great help for the final.

3. Populer trade magazine: DeRogatis, Jim, and Jim DeRogatis. “‘They’ve Got Him!”: The Emotional Scene at the R. Kelly Hearings.” The New Yorker, The New Yorker, 25 Feb. 2019, www.newyorker.com/news/news-desk/theyve-got-him-the-emotional-scene-at-the-r-kelly-hearings.

This article in the New Yorker talks about the recent arrest of R. Kelly. R.Kelly has long been known to be serial rapist abusing underage teen girls as young as 14. R. Kelly is the most recent male power figure to be taken down by the movement as his victims have come out publicly speaking against him.


4. Newspaper: Dewan, Shaila. “Michael Jackson, R. Kelly and the Lingering Questions About Child Sex Abuse Cases.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 8 Mar. 2019, www.nytimes.com/2019/03/08/us/child-sexual-abuse-questions.html.

The New York Times article talks about child sexual abuse that happened under both R. Kelly and Michael Jackson. The #Metoo movement has highlighted the perversions and horror that occurred both with R. Kelly underage girls and with underage boys at Neverland Ranch with Michael Jackson. Questions are raised if the legacies of these artists will ever be tarnished considering whats been done.

5.Good website: Tingley, Anna, and Anna Tingley. “’Leaving Neverland’: Everything That’s Happened Since the Michael JacksonDocumentary Premiered.” Variety, Variety, 9 Mar. 2019, variety.com/2019/film/news/michael-jackson-leaving-neverland-tarnishes-legacy-1203159023/.

Variety talks about the recent unraveling concerning Michael Jackson following the “Leaving Neverland Documentary”. Since the premiere of the documentary on HBO. Streaming and sales of Jackson have dramatically dropped. He has been taken out of episodes. Radio stations have dropped his music due to external pressure. Who knows where this will continue.

6. Source of your choice:Dart, Tom. “America Faces Soul-Searching over Michael Jackson.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 9 Mar. 2019, www.theguardian.com/music/2019/mar/09/america-michael-jackson-pop-legacy-leaving-neverland.

The Guardian article forces fans of the king of pop to face the reality of what he has done. Many fans have been hesitant to believe the documentary and the late singer’s accusers. The media has been relentless in its coverage on the accusations against the singer. This is a good source highlighting how media helps shift public opinion.



Well-done Keenan, Good sources, good annotations!


Thesis: Automatic fuel tax increases by the French President Emmanuel Macron’s green policy, along with the French governments inadequate understanding of the needs of their citizens, “Les gilets jaunes” (the yellow vest) violently took action in their protest to halt the ruling.


 Agency, Reuters News. “Dozens Arrested after ‘Yellow Vests’ Clash with Police in Paris.” The Telegraph, Telegraph Media Group, 1 Dec. 2018, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2018/12/01/dozens-arrested-yellow-vests-clash-police-paris/.

The author, researcher of this article expresses how the ‘yellow vest’, in their third week of pretest, the about of protester and arrest has increased. The police force has increased their protection by resorting to using tear-gas and rubber bullets battle against the protesters. The pretest has also spread to near-by countries such as Belgium, as they are affected for the French president’s actions as well.

Berman, Sheri. “What France’s ‘Yellow Vests’ Protests Say about Emmanuel Macron.” The Washington Post, WP Company, 5 Dec. 2018, http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/monkey-cage/wp/2018/12/05/what-frances-yellow-vests-protests-say-about-emmanuel-macron/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.eda3f2f5f1a6.

Hundreds of thousands of French people have turned out in recent weeks to protest the energy policy of President Emmanuel Macron’s government. the diesel tax increase was merely a trigger; the real cause of the massive outpouring of anger and frustration lies deeper. The movement highlights tensions and weaknesses built into Macron’s presidency. The diesel tax increase reflected the French president’s desire to cut carbon emissions and make the French economy more environmentally friendly. But in a country suffering economically, such a goal is bound to run into opposition.

CIA: The World Factbook: France. (2013). CIA World Fact Book, 51, 243–248. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.fiu.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=98677542&site=ehost-live&scope=site

The article offers information on France, including its geography, people and society, and government. Key facts given include the country’s natural resources, ethnic groups, and constitution. Also discussed are the energy sector, military, and transnational issues facing the country such as international disputes, refugees and domestically displaced persons, and drug trafficking.

Sassi, Franco. “Global Public Health Challenges, Fiscal Policies, and Yellow Vest. .” Global Public Health Challenges, Fiscal Policies, and Yellow Vest. , 23 Feb. 2019, pp. p.745 -p.746. 2p., Global public health challenges, fiscal policies, and yellow vest.

Information on topics discussed at the 24th Conference of Parties (COP) Climate Change Conference that was held in Katowice, Poland in December 2018 is presented. Topics discussed include adoption of the Paris Agreement, the repeal to the increase of carbon taxes following protests from yellow vest protesters, and the health benefits of environmental taxes like taxation on alcohol, tobacco, and junk foods.

 Tessier, Benoit. “As French Govt Holds Firm on Diesel Tax, Where Do ‘Yellow Vest’ Protests Stand?” France 24, France 24, 28 Nov. 2018, www.france24.com/en/20181128-france-government-diesel-tax-yellow-vest-protest-macron-climate-change-philippe.

“Yellow Vest” protesters have called for renewed demonstrations in Paris on Saturday, as the French government holds firm on plans to increase a direct tax on diesel fuel in the coming year. French Prime Minister Édouard Philippe refused on Wednesday to give into mounting pressure to abandon the tax hike, which is due to come into effect on January 1, 2019. Because Macron’s concessions failed to impress the movement’s leaders, an increase of violence around many popular destinations in Paris have seen tremendous destruction caused by protesters.

Viscusi , Gregory, and William Horobin . “Yellow Vest Protests Could Cut Into French Economy If They Last.” Bloomberg.com, Bloomberg, 29 Nov. 2018, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-11-29/yellow-vest-protests-could-cut-into-french-economy-if-they-last.

The movement — initially focused on higher gasoline taxes — has led to almost two weeks of roads, fuel depots, and warehouses being sporadically blockaded. Finance Minister Bruno Le Maire has warned of a “serious economic impact” and said France’s reputation is being damaged. The protests in France have hurt retail sales and contributed to a decline in consumer confidence. If they continue, there may be a broader hit to the economy.

Thesis Statement – Final Draft

Good topic! Accepted

Although India’s constitution guarantees freedom of expression, law enforcement officials in Kashmir shut down internet services in local areas to conceal information on the killing of three militants along with several non-combatants and inhibit communication between outraged civilians who were protesting the killings.