Final Paper

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Final Paper Assignment; Team 19

YELLOW VEST PROTEST FUELED BY PRESIDENT MACRON’S RHETORIC

Comments and review in email.

Automatic fuel tax increases by the French President Emmanuel Macron’s green policy, along with the French governments inadequate understanding of the needs of their citizens, “Les gilets jaunes” (the Yellow Vest) violently took action in their protest to halt the ruling. Because of President Emmanuel’s actions towards the citizens, the rhetoric used could be categorized as ethos, pathos, logos and the role of social media in activism.

France is currently experiencing its worst riots that it has seen in decades. This all started with an online petition posted back in May. People angered by the governments’ plans to raise fuel taxes to fight pollution, called to lower-priced instead. The movement is disproportionally made up of the less well-off but enjoys the support of a fairly broad range of citizens. It was not organized by any political party or existing political or civil society organization but instead spread rapidly via social media, kick-starting the movement. With the use of many social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram, the petition eventual drew hundreds of thousands of supporters snowballing into a full-fledged protest movement against the government policies. Similar movements have spread to other parts of Europe, and the president even considered declaring a state of emergency (Agency, Reuters 1). The existent of the governments discontent caught the government off-guard, causing protesters to revolt for their stations to then clash with polices. Setting hundreds of cars on fire, burning buildings, and looting nearby stores.

How do we know this? News stories, books, interviews, and scholarly articles are all written in order to inform people about the “Yellow Vest” movement.

Assistant teacher Sandrine Lemoussu, 45, said “The people are in revolt,” she said. “The anger is rising more and more, and the president despises the French. We aren’t here to smash things, but the people have had enough.”

Emmanuel Macron’s rhetoric and persona has caused the biggest impact among many France citizens. His aloof personal style and several well-publicized disparaging remarks to those less well-off, including that they should “stop whining” and simply “cross the street to find a job”— lead growing numbers of citizens to view him the “president of the rich.” The use of the rhetorical triangle is quite evident in the presidents’ language. Pathos and logos are shown together as he completely disregards the thoughts and feelings of many French citizen that are constantly struggling to make ends meet (pathos), while also applying reasoning not only with his comments on the job market, but more specifically in relation to the reasoning behind the movement. President Macron mentioned that the fuel tax has short-term affects but in the long run it will ultimately benefit the country (logos). Ethos is also used by President by referring to how easily he is making it seem for people to get a job. Some people may believe he’s authority over the situation as a creditable person because of his knowledge.

As the protests swelled, the Yellow Vests’ anger became increasingly aimed at Macron and, more generally, at an establishment that seems unwilling or unable to address their needs (Berman, Sheri 1).

Macron has shown little to no remorse for his actions. The “Yellow Vest” movement reflects his inability thus far to convince people he has the polices or personality to lead the nation in a more efficient way.

Back in October, Jacline Mouraud, 51, expressed her grievances in a video she posted to her Facebook page. She called out the president “Monsieur Macron” for the rising price of diesel, the traffic radars proliferating on French roads and a congestion tax being mooted for big cities in order to fight pollution. Mouraud’s appeal clearly struck a chord: it racked up 6.2 million views and more than 263,000 shares on Facebook.

Just in a week, the “Yellow Vest” movement flourished on the social network, spurring more than 1,500 Facebook-related events locally and across the country on the first day of mass protects alone, on November 17 (McNicoll, Tracy 1).

A French social media journalist called Facebook founder Mark Zuckerburg the Yellow Vest movement’s “best ally”.

“The movement has without a doubt been helped by the new Facebook algorithm that overemphasizes content from groups to the detriment of content posted by pages (and therefore by media outlets),” Glad wrote for the left-leaning daily Libération. “After a few likes for a group, we find ourselves submerged with that group’s content in our news feeds. The new also pushed the “Yellow Vests” into a ‘filter bubble’ in which they hardly see content anymore that isn’t yellow.” (Tessier, Benoit 1)

Violence from the protest in France has made it difficult for reporters to cover the story due to threats from many of the protesters. With that being said, Facebook groups have stepped in to provide coverage in support of their cause. The media platforms semblance of transparency and urgent feedback has led the movement’s urge to create their own rules.

In fact, the “Yellow Vest” movement protesters have played an interesting roll in the usage of media. Several of the protests host Facebook Live segments to talk about the issues that they may face. It was reported that their audiences could reach in the millions. The France news calls into question the legitimacy of their information. “Fake New” has been spread through this movement with postings of old protest images unrelated to the “Yellow Vest” movement, misleading articles, and News outlets are finding it quite difficult to debunk false or unverified information that is put on their live streams because it was already viewed by millions, changing their outlook on the subject is arduous.

Facebook live video via YouTube here or (https://videos.mysimpleshow.com/KreapC1bnr)

The protest has not only caused a physical increase in traffic but also digitally as well. According to SimilarWeb.com, a site that analysis several French news sites in 2018, from the months of September to December there was a 14.9% increase in online traffic compared to 2017. The main drive of the traffic was from organic keyword searches people are searching in relation to the “Yellow Vest” protest (Marks, Ilana 1).

In Conclusion, many of the media outlets and their coverage of the “Yellow Vest” protest has played a significate roll in how the France citizens reacted to this situation. Because of social media platform and how quickly new can break, an out pour of support for the protest rang-out to an uncontrollable amount, making it challenging for the France media to have a handle on the situation. Just a few months after the protest started, president Macron made a decision to halt the fuel tax hike because of the backlash from the protesters and the media. As the protest continues, there has been a shift in the needs of the protesters. Before they wanted to stop the fuel tax increase along with the increase of the cost of living, now they are advocating for Macron to step down as president. It’s interesting to see how impactful the use of media can be. Over time, it will be more challenging for outlets to control the narrative over the people.

Work Cited

 Agency, Reuters News. “Dozens Arrested after ‘Yellow Vests’ Clash with Police in Paris.” The Telegraph, Telegraph Media Group, 1 Dec. 2018, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2018/12/01/dozens-arrested-yellow-vests-clash-police-paris/.

Berman, Sheri. “What France’s ‘Yellow Vests’ Protests Say about Emmanuel Macron.” The Washington Post, WP Company, 5 Dec. 2018, http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/monkey-cage/wp/2018/12/05/what-frances-yellow-vests-protests-say-about-emmanuel-macron/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.eda3f2f5f1a6.

Sassi, Franco. “Global Public Health Challenges, Fiscal Policies, and Yellow Vest. .” Global Public Health Challenges, Fiscal Policies, and Yellow Vest. , 23 Feb. 2019, pp. p.745 -p.746. 2p., Global public health challenges, fiscal policies, and yellow vest.

 Tessier, Benoit. “As French Govt Holds Firm on Diesel Tax, Where Do ‘Yellow Vest’ Protests Stand?” France 24, France 24, 28 Nov. 2018, www.france24.com/en/20181128-france-government-diesel-tax-yellow-vest-protest-macron-climate-change-philippe.

Viscusi , Gregory, and William Horobin . “Yellow Vest Protests Could Cut Into French Economy If They Last.” Bloomberg.com, Bloomberg, 29 Nov. 2018, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-11-29/yellow-vest-protests-could-cut-into-french-economy-if-they-last.

MCNICOLL, Tracy. “French Prime Minister Offers to Meet ‘Yellow Vest’ Protesters.” France 24, 28 Nov. 2018, www.france24.com/en/20181128-france-pm-philippe-yellow-vest-protesters-paris-macron.

Marks, Ilana. “French Media Invests in Yellow Vest Movement with Organic Strategies.” Similarweb Blog, 15 Jan. 2019, http://www.similarweb.com/blog/french-media-yellow-vest-movement-organic-strategies.

Why Our Memory Fails Us Analysis- Keenan Thompson

Well-done!

 

Thesis statement: In the New York Times article,” “Why Our Memory Fails Us” by Christopher F. Chabris and Daniel J. Simons, both authors us the aspects of the rhetorical triangle (logos, pathos, and ethos) in a unique way by providing a unique out-take on how our memory can sometimes betray us.

Professors Chabris and Simons used logos by examining the messaging and arguments presented, logical reasoning, pathos rhetoric offers different perspectives of their experiences showcased throw emotions, ethos appeals to the tone of the article making the speech within the work more reliably or credible. Therefore, the credible. Therefore, the rhetorical themes are exposed in different examples through this article.

Chabris and Simmons use ethos as a way to present an explained of fallacies told through our memory. An example of ethos came up when they discussed Dr. Tyson recollection of a quote he took from former President Bush. Dr. Tyson relied mostly on notes written and public discourse. This mixture is harmful to the accuracy of a writer. How the public reacts to any situation, whether is positive or negative, they most report exactly what transpired; ultimately, they are defying the code of ethics “We have an abstract understanding that people can remember the same event differently,” and Chabris and Simmons. Ethos is also reflected in the case of Hillary Clinton’s trip to Bosnia. As First Lady, she ditched the welcome ceremony as she evaded a sniper attack on her way onto her plane. Her memory made a distant connection to an attack that transpired nearby, but this tragedy wasn’t near her and her life wasn’t at risk.

Chabris and Simmons also use pathos as a way to represent how an audience feels or experiences a message. They used an example of former President Bush. He gave a tribute to the lost astronauts in the Columbus space explosion. Bush, in his speech, mentioned God several times through his emotional speech.

Logos is reflected as a way for Chabris and Simmons to present an argument by recalling certain events that may or may not have happened the way we remember them. They said, “we then rely on confidence as a signal of accuracy — in ourselves and in others.”

In summary, the three areas of analysis, logos, ethos, and pathos are a unique way to analyze an article from a different perspective. This article’s structure has arguments that create a pathway for the readers to approach the content.  The top three Editors’ Picks comments contributed a significant outlook for the readers. One of the top comments went into greater detail on Chabris and Simmons article by sharing their own personal opinions by saying, “negative experience to active malice instead of an honest mistake. However, it’s far more often a mistake.” The comment section is a great way for other readers to take part in an intellectual debate on the topic. Logos and Ethos were seen the most, as many comments provide evidence for their claims. I like the way the New York Times ranked comment section, especially, have Dr. Neil Tyson with the top comment since he is mentioned in the article.

Fake News Article – Team 19

FIU Cutting Out Study Abroad Program

Editor: Leandro Moreyra
Media: Alexandra Fernandez
Writer/Researcher: Angelica Blanco
Writer/Researcher: Keenan Thompson

Link to PDF version with images: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1PIIWMv70Gn9HnYi6ARxidG_a3C3b46o2/view?usp=sharing

Miami, FL – Florida International University is cutting funding to the Study Abroad program beginning in 2020. After crunching some numbers, administrators from the school decided that the program was too costly to remain on the budget. The school is still willing to accept the credits completed abroad if students want to take a semester in another county, but FIU will not be subsidizing any of the costs.

For many students at FIU, the study abroad programs have offered many impactful opportunities in various countries including France, China, India, Germany.

Those in charge of the program have already begun gathering signatures for a petition to push forward an appeal in an attempt to have this new decision rescinded.

Image result for signing petitions

“This decision to cut funding from the Study Abroad program is not compliant with the type of world-view we try to promote here at FIU – that of cultural sharing and awareness. We can’t be an ‘International’ university if we confine ourselves to our own borders just because some higher-up is pinching pennies,” said an FIU administrator that wishes to remain anonymous.

 Clearly, there is dissent in the ranks with regard to this controversial decision and according to a student survey, over 94% of the student body strongly opposes the budget cuts. Outcry is coming in especially loud from students who are currently studying abroad.

Santiago Martinez, 20, is now stuck between a rock and a hard place. Martinez is studying business in Munich, Germany and has nothing (but) for praise for the program.

“The Study Abroad Program has allowed me to gain a better understanding of how business is conducted in Europe and will help me better participate in international relations. When I apply for jobs after completing my MBA, my future employers will see that I’m a well-educated man who isn’t afraid to broaden his horizons and look at the big picture,” said Martinez.

From 250 – 130 special engineering and architecture scholarships in Italy, Japan, and India have been cut. Due to the reduced number of beneficiaries, students are now forced to get a loan or be outstanding enough to receive one of the meager scholarships left.

Akane Underwood, 43, had the following to say on the matter:

“I’ve been teaching contemporary architecture, urbanism, and urban culture in Japan for seven years now. Students learn a lot from the program and gain a lot of experience for their future endeavors. It looks great on their transcripts and resumes. It upsets me that these students’ opportunities are being taken away and I must also decide between going home to a possibility of a job or staying in Japan and starting over.”

According to Forbes Magazine, the average price of tuition per semester abroad is $31,270. Since 49.33% of the US makes less than $30,000 annually, half of our country is automatically placed at a monumental disadvantage.

What might this mean for the future of the university? Will FIU see a decrease in admission applications as high school students see an administration that cares more about the bottom line than their future? And how will this affect the incoming flow of annual donations from alumni?

Image result for study abroad

Our reasoning behind choosing this topic is because many students here at FIU, including members of our own Team 19, have expressed great interest in the study abroad program. Most students understand that study abroad is expensive, but looks great on a resume and is a very fun experience. Thus, a fake news article about losing the chance to study abroad would have really struck home for students who want to learn more about the rest of the world and also for the higher-ups of FIU administration that have to worry about declining admission applications. We used pathos to appeal to the reader’s sense of sympathy by adding quotes from a student who pities those who won’t get the chance to do what he did and from a teacher who was sent to Japan to teach. Also, the comment about half the country being at a disadvantage is meant to inspire outrage in the reader. We appealed to the reader’s sense of logos by adding statistics on the average cost of study abroad and average income in the U.S. Finally, we referenced Forbes Magazine to convince the reader that we were getting information from credible sources – ethos.

 

Well-done!  A timely topic given the state of funding overall for universities.  It’s nice to read a post when student’s are invested in their university.  Good work, good images, good job!

48-hour News Blackout

Thesis: Medium has created a blackout in our solidarity.

The article, “The End of Solitude”, suggests that the camera has enabled the celebrity culture. The idea of celebrity culture is the desire for the outside world to desperately be part of a celebrity’s world by being fixated on their every move.  The computer creates connectivity which when both are combined, we get what is notably known as social media.  This new conversion feeds into our desire to be connected, visible and relatable. Our validation now comes from the idea of being known. The idea of being alone has become something much fear, taking a negative connotation.  People try to avoid solitude by using fillers to take away the feeling of aloneness.
Deresiewicz argues that media is taking away our ability to be alone. It substitutes the loneliness by making us busy and consumed. Deresiewicz describes privacy and one’s ability to be alone as our riches. He supports his idea of the value of being alone by using examples of historical people who have had divine encounters during their period of aloneness. Contributing that while we are in a state of isolation our inner being/soul is trying to reach out from what is slowly becoming a ghost in a shell. He later states “For the still, small voice speaks only in the silence” when we are alone with ourselves, we allow our senses to be utilized. We allow time for our own ideas to be formulated and our thought process to function.
We detoxify ourselves from a virtual reality and get a visible glimpse of our own reality which is exactly what occurred to me during the 48-hour blackout. I was confronted with the fact that I depend on the medium more than I care to admit. I found myself trying to stay busy by doing other activities that will take my mind off the desire to read the news or go on social media. The first day I was a bit anxious, I would unconsciously search for news or social media and would have to stop myself from going to the site which got me thinking, have I been focused on connecting on the extensions of my human abilities instead?
I also realized, that many of the conversations I usually engage with my peers are connected to the news or things that are happening around the world. Countless times I would have to stop them from sharing some insight on a story. One the second day, however, the anxiousness was diminishing. There were times I would get the urge to read a news article but for the most part, the ease of not having the burden of keeping up with all this information was refreshing.
Avoiding news is very difficult, especially when its news about a tragedy that has hit home. Which leads me to the next argument, the news is vital because it gives us an awareness of what is going on around us and how it affecting us. This shows that news is indeed a necessary intrusion to our solitude. However, it is valid that news can create more solitude by making us think for ourselves. What we do with the information we receive through news can definitely provoke us to create our own opinion on the facts given. Making us reflect on what we just saw or read.

Final Essay Draft Team #19

Hi Ashley,

Good work, please add images!  Good writing style, good content, good job overall. One thing though is I’m missing connection with the class concepts in  your essay.  You have told me a lot about what is going on with R.Kelly and so forth but I’d like to see more about how you analyze this topic in light of say secrecy, McLuhan, and such.  

Alexandra Fernandez                                                                                     3/16/2019

IDS3309                                                                                                      Rough Draft

2019 has been a dramatic year for the world of pop culture. With the rise of the internet era and the golden age of social media, what has been left in the darkness is finally being brought out to the light. With the crumbling and dynamic changes in our institutions happening on the daily one of the biggest bulldozers is that of the #MeToo movement. It has been a gigantic wakeup call to the establishment and powerbrokers that have victimized the helpless for far too long. The #MeToo movement has been credited for taking down powerful figures such as Harvey Weinstein and Bill Cosby, which had abused their power for years with impunity. The #MeToo movement seems to suck in a new person every day. The movement is something that forces us as Americans to reflect on who we idolized and challenges us to separate the art from the actions committed by the people. The most recent scandal is that of notorious R&B singer R. Kelly and the King of Pop Michael Jackson. The revelations, which have arisen about both artists, have shocked and appalled many people as well as fans. The media has played an integral role in revealing the dark truth of what they have been doing for years.

The media as well as Hollywood had always winked and nodded at the possibilities of both Kelly and Jackson being sexual abusers since the early 2000s. One could easily look back and see infamous Chappelle Show sketches making fun of Kelly and the allegations that he urinated on an underage fifteen-year-old girl. The same scenario was happening with Jackson on the show South Park for his affinity towards playing alone with underage boys. The reality is none of this is funny or humorous as people were victimized and worse being that most victims were underage. What ties both of these cases together is that they were revealed by the #Metoo movement and after the premiere of explosive documentaries. “One of the main goals of the Me too Movement™ is to give young women, particularly young women of color from low wealth communities, a sense of empowerment from the understanding that they are not alone in their circumstances” as stated by Michelle Rodino in the Communication & Critical/Cultural Studies.

The victims of R. Kelly came primarily from this background. They had the courage to speak out against their former abuser in the documentary “Surviving R.Kelly.” The media has been a strong medium in giving women a voice to speak out against abusers and giving them a platform to be listened too. The blowback resulted in a number of other victims of R. Kelly coming out eventually leading to his arrest and him being charged with ten counts of sexual abuse, with three of them against minors. R. Kelly’s entire history of sexual abuse against minors was brought into the limelight and deservedly had his reputation and career destroyed. “In 2001, a witness had conversations with Robert Kelly and Robert Kelly’s associates where the witness was asked to retrieve videotapes showing Robert Kelly having sexual intercourse with the victim in this case”—identified by the state as R.L.—“when she was fourteen years old” as stated by Jim DeRogatis of the New Yorker. In as little as two months, R. Kelly’s net worth dropped from $150 million to $1 million.

In the Michael Jackson case, the allegations against him have been raised posthumously. The damning documentary that premiered a few months ago destroyed the image of Jackson. “Leaving Neverland” profiles two men who say Michael Jackson sexually abused them when they were children. Jackson faced several allegations that he molested young boys dating back to 1993, but was never convicted of any charges” as stated by Shaila Dewan of the New York Times. The reported details of child sexual abuse shocked the country as a childhood hero for millions was vilified and the rumors that had since been forgotten were now in your face. 

The media and the many forms of technology we see today spread the news like wildfire. As the stories of the victims and the pathos narrative we saw a fire begin and the #Metoo Movement provided the gasoline. The media landscape has taken drastic steps to remove the legacy of Michael Jackson. For example “In the shadow of the “Neverland” premiere, Jackson’s music — including his work with the Jackson 5 and The Jacksons — has dipped noticeably in popularity. From March 3-5 (the documentary premiered on March 3), the singer’s album sales fell by 39 percent and his combined song and album sales faced a drop of 8,000, according to Billboard” as stated by Anna Tingley of Variety Magazine. Jackson has also been removed from past episodes of the Simpsons and radio stations nationwide have pulled his music.

The recent series of events have raised questions on social media as fans of both artists have come out staunchly defending them especially Jackson. “Meanwhile, a vast global army of fans have mounted defenses on social media. Jackson supporters have flooded the internet with rebuttals to the documentary, questioning the credibility and motives of Robson and Safechuck” as stated by Tom Dart of the Guardian.  The allegations have forced people all over the world to step out of their comfort zone and confront the reality that was happening.The media has exposed two scenarios that many would have preferred to remain blissfully ignorant about. America now faces soul searching and coming to grips with the figures we regarded once as heroes “ Michael Jackson’s legacy is bigger than Michael Jackson, right?” said New York Times critic-at-large Wesley Morris on the Daily podcast. “We can’t cancel Michael Jackson because canceling Michael Jackson means canceling America in some way. Not just our love of [the] music, but our sense of who we are as a people.” (Dart, Tom.) America finds itself in a state of mourning but should we feel ok to mourn idols even with all the bad they have done.

Final Paper Rough Draft 1

Well-done! Just add some images to support your text and you’re good.

 

Freedom is a concept so vital to living a happy life that our own nation was created by defying the British monarchy that ruled over the colonies on this continent. So many people fought and died for our right to live freely and upon their victory, we became the “land of the free.” Despite this, we are not the only country to grant protection of the constituents’ freedom. The great majority of the world has, by now, become “free” in that the people elect those who would rule them. However, India is just one example of far too many that this doesn’t always turn out as well as it’s supposed to. Although India’s constitution guarantees freedom of expression, law enforcement officials in Kashmir shut down internet services in local areas to conceal information on the killing of three militants along with several non-combatants and inhibit communication between outraged civilians who were protesting the killings.

To begin with, the Kashmiri police tried to conceal information about the casualties to stop the spread of misinformation that would aggravate the situation. Just like the famous Telephone Game, if one person tells their friends that they saw the police were shooting at people, they might tell someone else that the police shot those people and things would spiral out of control until eventually you have someone proclaiming that the cops are murdering innocents indiscriminately. Thus, law enforcement officials decided to conceal the death and injury of civilians in this incident for the time being to prevent angry protestors from accidentally escalating the situation into full-blown riots. While this is a commonly employed tactic, it only works if you can actually conceal the information and furthermore is technically illegal under the Indian Constitution – which protects information exchange by granting freedom of expression (Vijayakumar and Vijayakumar). Although some were left without internet, many others still managed to get online and tell all who would listen about what they’d just witnessed. In fact, Mirwaiz Omar – the chairman of the separatist group Hurriyat Conference – tweeted a call to action for a march on a military camp in defiance of law enforcement (Reuters 1). Consequently, the authorities attempted the exact same tactic of information concealment, but on a grander scale: train services and mobile services were suspended in the entire Kashmiri Valley.

Moreover, Indian authorities seem to understand that controlling media is key in controlling what the people think and do. The day after Mirwaiz Omar’s tweet, they issued a statement urging the people to “not to fall prey to such designs of anti-national forces. The Indian Army is always with the people of Kashmir and would foil all such evil attempts of terrorist-separatist-Pakistan nexus to pit the civilian population against the security forces,” (Ehsan). Here, they call the separatists evil and “anti-national” to appeal to the audience’s sense of pathos. By issuing this statement as a warning “not to fall prey,” they also play on the audience’s sense of pride and seek to implant the idea of gratitude towards the government for helping them avoid this “trap.” In doing this and restricting internet access, they demonstrate an understanding of McLuhan’s ideas surrounding the concept of the medium being just as important as the message itself. Citizens of Kashmir could still call their friends to talk one-to-one, but in removing access to the internet law enforcement officials prevented mass sharing of ideas by people with an angry mob mentality. Along with the unofficial curfew enforced on the valley, this restriction likely prevented the previously threatened march that may have turned into a riot – what with tensions so high.

Also, Indian legislature places restrictions on the Internet but is lacking in regulations that would provide accountability. The IT Act has “[a] complete absence of checks and balances for the powers given to authorities like Computer Emergency Response Team India (cERT-I),” (Saeshu 2). Such rules further paint a picture of a government that wants dominion over the most popular medium for information exchange. The citizens have noticed this as well and the Indian government is aware of their unrest. One has to wonder if the government truly is in the right when the constituents that it’s meant to protect throw stones at law enforcement to defend separatist militants (Slater and Naseem).

To conclude, Kashmiri police restricted internet services in areas surrounding the shooting that killed three separatist militants and many civilians to temporarily conceal information on the casualties and prevent further civil unrest. However, the chairman of these separatist forces used this as an opportunity to try and rally support through twitter. This incident is simply one example of how the media is used to sway the minds of the public. What does this mean on a global scale? Because the Kashmiri law enforcement was acting with the backing of the Indian government, it sets a precedent for law enforcement infringing on the constituents’ right to communicate freely if they think it will prevent the spread of civil unrest – which is a very vague condition. By that logic, the police can shut down the internet in the area where someone’s having a block party at night. In limiting the flow of information they also handicap not just what we know, but also how we know what we know.

Bibliography

Ehsan, Mir. “Kashmir protests: Army asks people not to march towards Srinagar HQ on Monday.” Hindustan Times 16 December 2018: 1-3. Internet. 9 March 2019. <https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/kashmir-protests-army-asks-people-not-to-march-towards-srinagar-hq-on-monday/story-lG3idjzTjGWGKOSYbZlGFN.html&gt;.

Fareed, Rifat. “Protests in Kashmir after civilian shot dead by Indian troops.” Al Jazeera 27 September 2018: 1. Internet. 9 March 2019. <https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2018/09/anti-india-protests-clashes-kashmir-shepherd-killed-180927075436034.html&gt;.

Rao, Nagesh. “India cracks down as Kashmir demands freedom.” GreenLeft Weekly 2 September 2016: 14. Internet.

Reuters. “Seven Civilians Killed as Indian Police.” The New York Times 15 December 2018: 1-2. Web. 9 March 2019. <https://www.nytimes.com/2018/12/15/world/asia/india-kashmir-protest.html&gt;.

Saeshu, Geeta. “Poor Guarantee of Online Freedom in India.” Economic and Political Weekly (2012): 14-16. Internet. 9 March 2019. <https://www-jstor-org.ezproxy.fiu.edu/stable/23214889?seq=3#metadata_info_tab_contents&gt;.

Slater, Joanna and Ishfaq Naseem. “2018 is the deadliest year in a decade in Kashmir. Next year could be worse.” The Washington Post 23 December 2018: 1-3. Internet. 9 March 2019. <https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/asia_pacific/2018-is-the-deadliest-year-in-a-decade-in-kashmir-next-year-could-be-worse/2018/12/22/493ff2e4-03bb-11e9-958c-0a601226ff6b_story.html?noredirect=on&utm_term=.30e8a04ea603&gt;.

Vijayakumar, JK and Manju Vijayakumar. “Right to Information and Freedom of Expression.” Vijayakumar, JK and Manju Vijayakumar. Information, Communication, Library and Community Development. Festschrift Volume for Prof. C P Vashist. New Delhi: B R Publishing, 2004. 1-6. Text. 9 March 2019.