Bet or Fold?

Shantall Suarez. Team 16. Final essay.

Hi Shantall,

Good work! A well-written and thorough essay. Good analysis too.  Your images are integrated nicely into the essay. Your integration of class concepts is clearly defined. Nice job!

The recent summit between President Trump and Dictator Kim Jong Un regarding North Korea’s nuclear disarmament did not result in a settlement. Various media outlets presented both biased and unbiased views of this meeting, creating the uneasy concept that this second failed attempt at reconciling may be pushing towards a possible World War III.  

            Under President Trump’s leadership, many citizens of the United States have questioned his decision-making skills. With a sensitive subject such as having a potential World War III, Donald Trump refuses to settle for less in regards to North Korea denuclearizing. According to Congressional Research Service, the Trump administration responded to their hostility by adopting a  “maximum pressure” policy that sought to coerce Pyongyang into changing its behavior through economic and diplomatic measures. This specific section of this CRS Report clarifies its intentions and attempts with North Korea through the country’s allies and southern region’s involvement. The information provides a comprehensive timeline from an unbiased perspective. The Congressional Research Service uses an informational approach when covering The United States’ relationship with North Korea. In regards to the most recent summit event in hopes of achieving North Korea’s disarmament, a person can formulate a clear understanding, and be more knowledgeable about the event beyond news coverage, due to this chronologically organized spectrum of affairs. 

Nagasaki Bomb, 1945

 It is no theory that there is secrecy between the U.S government and its’ people. The controversial argument is, what the many factors are in considering before informing the public of the current events happening in regards to their security and safety.  Authors Rubin and Cummings examine how the media portrays the message of “news” to the public. They refined this study with a few factors to consider. If the significance of the stories were deflected by journalists; whether the stories were used as vehicles by the journalists to challenge government policy in the nuclear arena; whether in covering these stories journalists found appropriate and effective images to represent the effects of the nuclear war and lastly, the quality of the coverage.  With the help of Marshall McLuhan, identifying how these stories were delivered to the public is effortless. The mediums include news channels, major newspapers, news magazines, and specialized journals. Following their analysis of the coverage, many aspects influence the message. Among major news networks such as CBS and NBC, ABC shared the story differently in terms of the time frame. That’s how media controls what the people know and how they know it. For example, NBC covered four different stories on the Nuclear Winter Article for a total of 5 minutes and twenty seconds.  ABC covered the same story three times for a total of two minutes and forty seconds. Within the time frame that is chosen to be dedicated to certain topics, it is easier to create a biased conclusion. While many stand behind the Freedom of Information Act, it is clear that networks refuse to engage more than they do when it comes to a potential nuclear war because it is “too politically divisive and too frightening to the audience to be ‘newsworthy’, television may be a ‘silent willing partner of the government in keeping nuclear issues below the threshold of national consciousness”.

TIME is a popular global magazine that covers every single topic and aspect that fulfills the curiosity. In order to reach the largest audience, the person who delivers an article’s message must write from an unbiased perspective. In regards to President Trump and Kim Jong Un, Laignee Barron writes of the recent summit and its’ unsuccessful results in obtaining North Korea’s sign off on denuclearization. The columnist emphasizes President Trump’s intentions by simply not interjecting their own. Many others covering the same story placed their own opinions or used specific words to include their own point of view. The strategy potentially causes a reader to be conflicted when the truth is twisted and warped to someone else’s agenda. In addition to writing from an impartial position, Barron also authoritatively encourage the readers to “Watch the Press Conference” in the article’s title. 

            The Washington Post is a well-known reliable source for Americans. Josh Rogin titles his article “Trump got played by Kim Jong Un – again”. The title itself is very biased, the position implied is that the President of the United States is a fool. This title almost completely defines the saying “fool me once, shame on you. Fool me twice, shame on me”. Following the title are words that create a tug of war between the news that should be delivered and HOW the news is being delivered. This article clearly supports the President Trump’s incompetence in making executive decisions for the people of his nation. Sentences like “he real question is: Did Kim plan it this way? Did he lure Trump to Hanoi only to set demands he knew the United States could never agree to, while holding Trump’s hand so he would acquiesce? There’s plenty of evidence that’s exactly what happened.” impose the idea. 

President Trump and Kim Jong Un shaking hands

            While using sources from one’s very own country may be biased considering political views, Daily NK News tackles this story headline from a different perspective. Ahn Jong Sik, a specialist reporter in North Korea illustrates “Is North Korea ready to face the music ad denuclearize?”. This articles informs the reader of its need-to-know facts rather than what they want you to know. Which, ideally is how the news should deliver news. Reporter Sik covers many conversations in his article. The specialist reporter covers topics of what was spoken in the meeting between both leaders,  determining if the failure of the second summit could be a step closer to North Korea’s moment of truth, and the exchange of sanctions being lifted for the dismantling of the nuclear facility of Yongbyon. This article covers everything you need to know about the second failed summit and the possible outcomes and reasons from it.

             In a world where the exposure is uncontrollable and rapid, it is hard to distinguish what is real from what is not. But, with the right resources and knowledge, it all starts to make sense.

 

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

  1. Chanlett-Avery, Emma. Manyin, Mark E. Nikitin, Mary Beth D. Campbell, Caitlin E. Will Mackley. Congressional Research Service.North Korea: U.S Relations, Nuclear Diplomacy, and International Situation.July, 2018. In this piece, the authors make a timeline in regards to North Korea’s growth in weapon technology and relationship with the U.S since the Cold War. The team of authors formulate an analysis of North Korea as well, including president Trump’s negotiations and sanctions against the communist country
  2. Rubin, David M and Cummings, Constance. “Nuclear War and Its Consequences on Television News”. Journal of Communication. Winter 1989. Communications and Mass Media Complete. Authors Rubin and Cummings, illustrate about the untruthful acts of news/television. Specifically, they cover the idea that the threat of nuclear war is potentially too politically divisive and too frightening for the audience of the U.S. Therefore, it is best the citizens not know about the nuclear issues the nation experiences. 
  3. Barron, Laignee. “President Trump and Kim Jong Un’s Summit Ended Early Without a Deal. Watch the Press Conference”. TIME Magazine.February 28, 2019. Time Magazine’s very own Laignee Barron, informs the readers about the inconclusive summit meeting between both powerful leaders. This article, states that Trump is in no rush for a deal. As long as there’s no testing in Kim Jong Un’s facilites in the meantime.
  4. Rogin, Josh. “Trump got played by Kim Jong Un – again”.The Washington Post.February 28, 2019. Columnist Josh Rogin illustrates as though Trump is being played for a fool in the denaturalization of Kim Jong Un’s facility. His perspective is that Kim Jong Un is playing hard to get to extend his time in advancing his nuclear technology. Evaluating this strategy, the deal of lifting all sanctions in exchange for partial facility shutdowns is a bad deal for the U.S.
  5. Sanger, David E and Wong, Edward. “How the Trump-Kim Summit Failed: Big Threats, Big Egos, Bad Bets”. nytimes.com, https://www.nytimes.com/2019/03/02/world/asia/trump-kim-jong-un-summit.html.* In awareness of Kim Jong Un’s ability to hide pieces of its’ nuclear program in tunnels around the country, president Trump did not settle for the shutdown of some of many nuclear facilities in exchange for the relief of all sanctions on North Korea. Kim Jong Un is clearly testing the water with president trump, but the U.S president seems to be 2 steps ahead. 
  6. Sik, Ahn John. “Is North Korea ready to face the music and denuclearize?”. dailynk.com. https://www.dailynk.com/english/is-north-korea-ready-to-face-the-music-and-denuclearize/ Ahn John Sik talks about the endless possibilities about the denuclearization deal between president Trump and Kim Jong Un. He covers the basis of what North Korea’s intentions truly are on the matter and the hand that the U.S will be dealt with in settling with the dismantling of just some nuclear facilities. We analyze the many perspectives, and the steps in order to achieve a successful denuclearization of North Korea. 
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Under The Eye- Final Essay

By: Lailah Johnson

Hi Lailah,  Very interesting and unusual topic. I’m giving you some extra points for originality. Images are incredible and well-integrated in the text.  Thorough analysis, overall, good job!!!

The Chinese government is implementing a social credit-system that infringes upon the liberties of Chinese citizens due to its use of mass surveillance and big data analysis technology. They will monitor all of the action’s of Chinese citizens in an attempt to control society and its behavior.Social media, video technology, and computer analysis systems have shaped the way information is shared and received. This accessibility is what allowed China to get to this point as a society. Not to say that they are inherently bad or good but the mediums as they are; cell phones, cameras, and social media sites, have set the precedence for these events. One could argue that the government may see nothing wrong with this supposed invasion of privacy because everything is already being broadcast anyway. Despite sounding like the plot of a sinister governmental operation, this social credit system is no secret. The government isn’t hiding anything from the public and there are even articles published almost weekly about the updates of the program(Beijing Youth Daily). The social credit system is an attempt to create a society with virtually no secrets. Through this effort they hope to create a more sincere society
Big data and mass surveillance are the two tools that the Chinese government will use to monitor its citizens (Jiang, Fu). Through the use of big data, people’s habits will be tracked through social media using data aggregation from various sources either with or without their knowledge. They will keep note of your spending habits and your social and political attitudes(Jiang, Fu). The mass surveillance will manifest itself through the government’s access to the cameras located all over China(Economist). These will be used to watch your every move. A facial recognition system is also being created that will work in tandem with this entire operation. The government will also closely examine your passport and tax records, in an attempt to understand your travel habits and your financial standing(Economist).

This nationwide social-credit system was created with the intention of creating a better society through trustworthiness, compliance and sincerity. The Chinese government believes that if people are monitored closely and if they are faced with harsh consequences, they will have no choice but to live honest lives where they always obey the laws, written or otherwise (Hunwick). The origins of this system however are connected to an even harsher reality, the treatment of the Uyghurs in the Republic of China. They are an ethnic minority group who receive poor treatment because of their practice of Islam. Thousands to millions of Uyghurs are being forced into “re-education camps, in the Northern regions of China in an attempt to brainwash them into being “upstanding Chinese citizens. A system was created to keep track of all of the prisoners, this program was the basis of the credit system that will oversee the future of China. It was reported that Chinese citizens who suppress the display of religious practices such as public prayer, will receive benefits from the program. Some sources argue that the true reason for this system is to force the business corporations in China to “behave better”. Because these corporations will be watched by potentially disgruntled employees as well as the government, they will be forced to adhere to policies that ensure better treatment of employees, benefit the economy and decrease corruption.

The consequences of this system are more far-reaching than the title itself entails. It is implied that China will know everything about everyone all of the time but what they will do with this knowledge is highly concerning. The information that the government will gather will dictate the direction of a person’s entire life. Under the system, everyone will start of with the same amount of points, then depending on your behavior you will either lose or gain points. The amount of points that you have will determine access to things such as schools, jobs and financial loans(Economist). Lower scores will see people branded with travel bans that indicate their ability to utilize planes, trains or buses as public transportation with extreme cases including a hold being placed on your passport barring you from leaving the country(Economist). Your score will even affect your friendships and relationships, determining who you will be able to marry because your score will be representative of your social status (Economist).


It feels as though the countries who are following this developing situation feel quite strongly about it, but the domestic response has yet to be seen, and because it is China, the world may never know how the Chinese citizens feel. The liberal democratic West seems to have come to a consensus that China operates under a totalitarian regime and that the implementation of this system is a complete invasion of privacy and infringes upon the right of Chinese citizens. The Western world is distressed by this situation because they believe that if China becomes the next global hegemon, this is the future for the rest of the world. The domestic response to this program may never be known because the Chinese government censors any form of political dissent especially online. One article however, details the hope that some citizens have for the program. Some of them believe that this highly-regulated system will do away with the rampant corruption in all aspects of society(Hunwick). They believe that now people will gain opportunities based on merit not on connections and money.
This social-credit system, now being labeled “Sesame Credit” will serve the purpose of ensuring safety and order across the nation of China. The wheels are already in motion and it is set to be fully operational in all of mainland China by the year 2020. In less than a year, privacy will see its last day in China, and only time will tell the true effects that this system will have on society and the repercussions it may have on the rest of the world.

 

Works Cited

Beijing Youth Daily. “Opinions On Strengthening the Fine Management of the City.” Beijing Youth Daily 31 January 2019. Document.

China Invents the Digital Totalitarian State.” The Economist, The Economist Newspaper, 17 Dec. 2016, http://www.economist.com/briefing/2016/12/17/china-invents-the-digital-totalitarian-state.Academic OneFile

Creemers, Rogier. “China’s Social Credit System: An Evolving Practice of Control.” Social Science Research Network (2018).

Hunwick, Robert Foyle. “How Do You Control 1.4 Billion People? – China’s social credit system, which becomes mandatory in 2020, aims to funnel all behavior into a credit score..” New Republic, The: Web Edition Articles, sec. Latest, 25 Apr. 2018. NewsBank

Jiang, M. and Fu, K. (2018), Chinese Social Media and Big Data: Big Data, Big Brother, Big Profit?. Policy & Internet, 10: 372-392. doi:10.1002/poi3.187 .Wiley Online Library

Liang, F. , Das, V. , Kostyuk, N. and Hussain, M. M. (2018), Constructing a Data‐Driven Society: China’s Social Credit System as a State Surveillance Infrastructure. Policy & Internet, 10: 415-453. doi:10.1002/poi3.183. Wiley Online Library


Yesenia Montenotte Team 16-Final Paper

Hi Yesenia,

Wonderful and explicit images! You tackled a complex topic and really investigated the cause of the event.  Well-done!  Good writing style, good incorporation of class concepts, and excellent work.  I am so pleased that you did so well on this assignment.  Good intro and conclusion, good body of essay. 

one note: anti-government not antigovernment

 

 

When Nicolás Maduro was reelected as the President of Venezuela, despite the country being in a major financial and humanitarian crisis, it was reported that the election was rigged. Many believed that the election proved that there was a power vacuum within the country and constituted for the National Assembly Leader to step in. Due to this, Juan Guaidó declared himself president of Venezuela in an attempt to bring democracy to the country and improve the quality of life for all citizens (Specia). Delivering the news is important because the outlet’s perspective is the main factor that influences how that information is portrayed. When the Venezuelan presidential crisis occurred, and Juan Guaidó declared himself the interim president, the presentation of this news around the world through social media and major news broadcasts was noticeably influenced by whether the country is opposed to systems resembling communism, their perception on basic human rights, and future plans that would benefit their country’s agenda.

Many countries, including the United States and Russia, have given their opinion on the Venezuelan presidential crisis. The main difference that distinguishing all of the countries positions is the country’s governmental system that is currently employed. The United States, for example, is a democracy and is in favor of Juan Guaidó, while Russia, who has more of a dictatorship, is supporting Nicolás Maduro. The United States and Russia have been the countries most involved in the crisis, but for what reason?

The United States and Venezuela established diplomatic relations in 1835. They had a very healthy relationship, especially since Venezuela has the largest oil reserves and was a source of oil for the United States. However, once the Cold War was on the brink of ending, their relations began to wither (Corrales, Romero). Once Hugo Chavez came into power to Venezuela in 1999, the relationship between the two countries worsened as the international environment was also changing (Corrales, Romero). Their relations have since then have not improved and continue to be strained despite the United States supporting the people of Venezuela. This strain has caused the United States to support Juan Guaidó during the current presidential crisis in hopes of improving the issues that Venezuelan citizens are currently experiencing. The United States’ involvement has caused countries such as Russia and China to step in and support Nicolás Maduro, the president in which many democracies do not support.

It appears as though the countries that support either Nicolás Maduro or Juan Guaidó choose sides depending on if their own current governmental system resembles communism or not. Other factors such as their perception on basic human rights and the country’s future plans that would benefit their country’s agenda are also taken into account when they announce whom they support.

However, the issue with this is the deliverance of information. Many individuals in the United States were under the impression that Nicolás Maduro burned a convoy that was filled with aid for the millions of citizens who were suffering from illness and hunger in Venezuela. This news was distributed in major news outlets and social media within the United States, but footage obtained by The New York Times claims that the information was entirely false (Casey et al). Based on the information obtained by The New York Times, they came to the conclusion that an antigovernment protestor accidentally set fire to the convoy with a Molotov cocktail. This situation is a perfect example of the course How We Know What We Know and how important it is to ensure that the information that we are given is as accurate as possible.

Russia has been very influential in Venezuela since the diminishing of the relations with the United States. In order to have influence in the country today, Russia has invested money, military weaponry, implemented aggressive foreign policies, and promoting anti-Washington governments in not just Venezuela, but many countries in Latin America (Sanchez). Russia has done this in order to cause the United States to have very limited, if any, influence in the country to their own advantage.

Countries present the news around the world through social media and major news broadcasts with their perception of the crisis based on their environments. In a TIME magazine titled “Venezuela’s Crossroads,” Ciara Nugent describes the issue from the stance of not supporting Nicolás Maduro. Nugent writes the article with both logos and pathos. Nugent is capable of providing statistics that prove her stance is not solely based on emotion. In the article it mentioned that Guaidó “appears to have given Venezuela its first real chance to restore democracy since its socialist experiment collapsed” (Nugent). The article is written from the perspective of an individual who does not support governmental systems opposite of democracies.

A Chinese website, China Daily, looks at the presidential crisis from a completely different perspective. The article is written from the perspective of an individual who believes Guaidó is in the wrong for declaring himself as president. The article states that Venezuela’s future should be decided by its own people, not outside powers” (Xiaowei). Xiaowei believes that the United States is only involving itself within the presidential crisis so that they may install a government that is US-friendly like it once was. The author also claims that Russia does not want to be involved in any other current affairs, but is only involving themselves because the United States has.

The crisis in Venezuela has escalated to the point where countries like Russia have made threats to the United States. The article written by Ana Vanessa Herrero and Neil MacFarquhar shows the severity of the situation due to their use of ethos. The authors do not take a side in their article; they are just explaining what is going with China, Russia, Venezuela, and the United States. Within the article it is said that after the military leader in Venezuela gave his support to Maduro, Putin and Russia “dispatched a small group of aircraft to Venezuela in a show of solidarity with Mr. Maduro, including two Tu-160 nuclear-capable bombers that flew more than 6,000 miles” (Herrero, MacFarquhar). Russia used their aircrafts as a message to the United States saying their military also supports Maduro so it they should not intervene using any military forced of their own.

In conclusion, countries involved in the Venezuelan presidential crisis take sides that will benefit their country’s agenda in the long run. Each country has a different take on the issue because of their own governmental system and this translates into how that information is disseminated.

Casey, Nicholas, et al. “Footage Contradicts U.S. Claim That Nicolás Maduro Burned Aid Convoy.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 10 Mar. 2019 

Corrales, Javier, and Carlos A Romero. U.S.-Venezuela Relations Since the 1990s: Coping with Midlevel Security Threats. Routledge, 2013.

Sanchez, W.Alejandr. “Russia and Latin America at the Dawn of the Twenty-First Century.” Journal of Transatlantic Studies (Routledge), vol. 8, no. 4, Winter 2010, pp. 362–384. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/14794012.2010.522355.

Nugent, Ciara. “Venezuela’s Crossroads.” Time, vol. 193, no. 6/7, Feb. 2019, pp. 42–47. EBSCOhost.

Herrero, Ana Vanessa, and Neil Macfarquhar. “Russia Warns U.S. Not to Intervene in Venezuela as Military Backs Maduro.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 24 Jan. 2019.

Xiaowei, Wang. “Intervention Won’t Resolve Venezuela Crisis.” China Daily, China Daily, 9 Mar. 2019.

Specia, Megan. “What Is Happening in Venezuela? How It Got Here and Why It Matters.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 24 Jan. 2019.

Team 16 Assignment #3- Yesenia Montenotte, Lailah Johnson, Shantall Suarez, Alexandra Bello, Laurenth Espitia

Senate Proposing Law That Will Turn Parents Who Do Not Vaccinate Their Children Into Criminals

A new law has been proposed in the Senate that will punish the parents of unvaccinated children. The bill is due for review in the upcoming weeks and is coming out following the county-wide public ban on unvaccinated minors in Rockland County, New York.  The ban was in result of a measles outbreak in the area consisting of 157 reported cases. So far the public-ban has led to 500 reported vaccinations within the first 24 hours alone.

The potential law will see that parents who have not vaccinated their children after they have reached the age of one, will be faced with criminal charges including negligence and reckless endangerment. Punishments will range from fines or jail time to the placement of children into Child Protective Services.

The “anti-vaxxer” movement is full of parents that are knowingly withholding their children from receiving any vaccines. According to them, there is a link between autism and childhood vaccinations. They also believe there is a connection with other brain disorders, although there is no evidence to support their claims.

Some parents are unhappy with the amount of vaccine their kids receive at such young ages. By the age of two, some kids have gotten as many as twenty-three shots. Studies show that the reasoning behind the multitude of shots is that young children are much more vulnerable to diseases and the immunity acquired from their mother’s breast milk has worn off.

According to Center for Disease Control (CDC), if only a few people get vaccinated it is much easier for a disease to spread causing a possible outbreak versus more people being vaccinated and making it easier to contain a disease.

Vaccines are used to prevent certain diseases, such as pertussis and chickenpox. Due to vaccines keeping the number of cases in the country low, some diseases have successfully faded from relevancy. Government officials fear that if we stop using vaccines altogether, those few cases that exist will quickly turn into hundreds and thousands of cases across the United States.

The “anti-vaxxer” movement also puts into question whether or not vaccines are necessary if a person finds themselves perfectly healthy without them. While there is no evidence to prove that the lack of vaccines causes harm, there is still doubt concerning its’ effectiveness.

One must also consider other factors when referring to a weak immune system other than not being vaccinated. Some examples include weather conditions,  surrounding environment, allergies, and DNA play a role. Many are reconsidering following their government blindly based on their current excellent health status due to not vaccinating. But, this new law will not give a choice to those not abiding by the law.

While many parents feel that their children should not be obligated to receive vaccinations, government officials predict that without proper reinforcement, the circumstances may become life-threatening. The end result of this looming threat to public health is a governmental intervention that will see U.S citizens be forced to vaccinate their children or face the consequences.

Reflective paragraph

The topic of this article was chosen because of the popularity of the “anti-vaxxer” movement. There is a growing problem with anti-vaxxers that is causing an outbreak of seemingly eradicated illnesses such as measles and chickenpox. The rhetorical appeal is ethos when mentioning that the ban was a result of a measles outbreak in the area consisting of 157 reported cases. Americans are the principal audience because of the prevalence of these issues in today’s society. The true events Rockland County, NY gives credibility to this story and shows that government intervention is possible. This is likely to go viral and grab the reader’s attention since it such a prevalent topic and it affects almost everyone in the country or indirectly so everyone will be interested. The article would go viral because I would enrage many groups of people, it would enrage the “anti-vaxxers”  because they would be forced to “poison” their children and it would enrage libertarians who believe the government should have as little control of society as possible.

 

Yesenia Montenotte: Edited paper, wrote paragraphs 3-6, and added images to news story.

Lailah Johnson: Edited paper, wrote first two paragraphs, and did part of reflective paragraph.

Shantall Suarez: Edited paper and wrote paragraphs 7 & 8.

Alexandra Bello: Wrote last paragraph.

Laurenth Espitia: Found pictures and did part of reflective paragraph.

 

Very good images, good reflective paragraph, well-done!  Good writing style and incorporating concepts from readings. Good work

TRUMP: Bet or Fold?

Good work, please come through with a really good conclusion and include images that support your text. 

The recent summit between President Trump and Dictator Kim Jong Un regarding North Korea’s nuclear disarmament did not result in a settlement. Various media outlets presented both biased and unbiased views of this meeting, creating the uneasy concept that this second failed attempt at reconciling may be pushing towards a possible World War III.  

            Under President Trump’s leadership, many citizens of the United States have questioned his decision-making skills. With a sensitive subject such as having a potential World War III, Donald Trump refuses to settle for less in regards to North Korea denuclearizing. According to Congressional Research Service, the Trump administration responded to their hostility by adopting a  “maximum pressure” policy that sought to coerce Pyongyang into changing its behavior through economic and diplomatic measures. This specific section of this CRS Report clarifies its intentions and attempts with North Korea through the country’s allies and southern region’s involvement. The information provides a comprehensive timeline from an unbiased perspective. The Congressional Research Service uses an informational approach when covering The United States’ relationship with North Korea. In regards to the most recent summit event in hopes of achieving North Korea’s disarmament, a person can formulate a clear understanding, and be more knowledgeable about the event beyond news coverage, due to this chronologically organized spectrum of affairs.  

            It is no theory that there is secrecy between the U.S government and its’ people. The controversial argument is, what the many factors are in considering before informing the public of the current events happening in regards to their security and safety.  Authors Rubin and Cummings examine how the media portrays the message of “news” to the public. They refined this study with a few factors to consider. If the significance of the stories were deflected by journalists; whether the stories were used as vehicles by the journalists to challenge government policy in the nuclear arena; whether in covering these stories journalists found appropriate and effective images to represent the effects of the nuclear war and lastly, the quality of the coverage.  With the help of Marshall McLuhan, identifying how these stories were delivered to the public is effortless. The mediums include news channels, major newspapers, news magazines, and specialized journals. Following their analysis of the coverage, many aspects influence the message. Among major news networks such as CBS and NBC, ABC shared the story differently in terms of the time frame. That’s how media controls what the people know and how they know it. For example, NBC covered four different stories on the Nuclear Winter Article for a total of 5 minutes and twenty seconds.  ABC covered the same story three times for a total of two minutes and forty seconds. Within the time frame that is chosen to be dedicated to certain topics, it is easier to create a biased conclusion. While many stand behind the Freedom of Information Act, it is clear that networks refuse to engage more than they do when it comes to a potential nuclear war because it is “too politically divisive and too frightening to the audience to be ‘newsworthy’, television may be a ‘silent willing partner of the government in keeping nuclear issues below the threshold of national consciousness”.

Nagasaki Bomb

TIME is a popular global magazine that covers every single topic and aspect that fulfills the curiosity. In order to reach the largest audience, the person who delivers an article’s message must write from an unbiased perspective. In regards to President Trump and Kim Jong Un, Laignee Barron writes of the recent summit and its’ unsuccessful results in obtaining North Korea’s sign off on denuclearization. The columnist emphasizes President Trump’s intentions by simply not interjecting their own. Many others covering the same story placed their own opinions or used specific words to include their own point of view. The strategy potentially causes a reader to be conflicted when the truth is twisted and warped to someone else’s agenda. In addition to writing from an impartial position, Barron also authoritatively encourage the readers to “Watch the Press Conference” in the article’s title. 

Annotated Bibliography- Lailah Johnson- Team 16

Hi Lailah, Good job, good annotations, I look forward to reading your essay.

Thesis: The Chinese government is implementing a social credit-system that infringes upon the liberties of Chinese citizens due to its use of mass surveillance and big data analysis technology.

4. Beijing Youth Daily. “Opinions On Strengthening the Fine Management of the City.” Beijing Youth Daily 31 January 2019. Document.

This is a news article published by a magazine in China. The magazine is the largest circulated magazine in China and is backed by the Youth communist League. O Jan. 31st, 2019, The Chinese government released officially documents with the goal of strengthening the implementation of the Chinese social credit system. It details goals for expansion both geographically and in reference to the use of big data.

 

3. China Invents the Digital Totalitarian State.” The Economist, The Economist Newspaper, 17 Dec. 2016, http://www.economist.com/briefing/2016/12/17/china-invents-the-digital-totalitarian-state.Academic OneFile

This article paints China as a growing digital totalitarian regime. It will use technology to finally control every single aspect of its citizens’ lives. It is more of the same summary of the social credit system but this article discusses more of the socio-political implications behind it. It also compares the situation to a book published in 2010 which eerily foreshadowed this society.

 

6. Creemers, Rogier. “China’s Social Credit System: An Evolving Practice of Control.” Social Science Research Network (2018).

This article aims to identify the reasons for the implementation of the Social credit systems as well as identifying the mechanisms through which the chinese government has been able to implement the systems at all. The examination of history, institutional structure, implementation and the linkage to the private sector gives insight to both of these questions.

 

5. Hunwick, Robert Foyle. “How Do You Control 1.4 Billion People? – China’s social credit system, which becomes mandatory in 2020, aims to funnel all behavior into a credit score..” New Republic, The: Web Edition Articles, sec. Latest, 25 Apr. 2018. NewsBank

This article details the horrors to arise from the full-scale implementation of this system but it also highlights the perspectives of some Chinese citizens who welcome the system and hope that they will finally be able to prosper under the new regime. There is a profound level of distrust within all sectors which is why people are open to this system because they believe it will do away with the rampant corruption in society.

 

(Because my topic is so new there are no books published about it so I included another scholarly journal)

  1. Jiang, M. and Fu, K. (2018), Chinese Social Media and Big Data: Big Data, Big Brother, Big Profit?. Policy & Internet, 10: 372-392. doi:10.1002/poi3.187 .Wiley Online Library

This article does not focus on the Chinese Social Credit System but is instead about social media and big data in China. Specifically, it pinpoints three topics of discourse, “Big Data”, “Big Brother”, and “Big Profit”. Each focusing on the technical, the political and the economic. The authors are concerned with how these three things interact with one another and the challenges that arise from the relationships.

 

2. Liang, F. , Das, V. , Kostyuk, N. and Hussain, M. M. (2018), Constructing a Data‐Driven Society: China’s Social Credit System as a State Surveillance Infrastructure. Policy & Internet, 10: 415-453. doi:10.1002/poi3.183. Wiley Online Library

This article details which institutional processes a well as which political and economic interests have led to the mass adoption of big data technologies by both the private and public sector in china. It investigates the construction of China’s Social Credit System. Because it is from a Chinese perspective versus a Western perspective, it analyzes the situation in terms of its focus on financial and commercial activities over political activities which is what the Western news focuses on.

Shantall Suarez. Team 16. Annotated Bibliography

Shantall,  there is no reason for these mispellings!!! Do not turn anything in to me without proofreading. It is sloppy and unacceptable. 

“ The recent summit between President Trump (correct) and Dictator (he is not formally known as “Dictator” please look it up)Kim Jong Un regarding North Korea’s nuclear disarmament did not result in a settlement. Various media outlets presented both biased and unbiased views of this meeting, creating the uneasy concept that this second failed attempt at reconciling may be pushing towards a possible World War III. “

  1. Chanlett-Avery, Emma. Manyin, Mark E. Nikitin, Mary Beth D. Campbell, Caitlin E. Will Mackley. Congressional Research Service.North Korea: U.S Relations, Nuclear Diplomacy, and International Situation.July, 2018. In this piece, the authors make a timeline in regards to North Korea’s growth in weapon technology and relationship with the U.S since the Cold War. The team of authors formulate an analysis of North Korea as well, including president (incorrect) Trump’s negotiations and sanctions against the communist country
  2. Rubin, David M and Cummings, Constance. “Nuclear War and Its Consequences on Television News”. Journal of Communication. Winter 1989. Comunications and Mass Media Complete. Authors Rubin and Cummings, illustrate about the untruthful acts of news/television. Specifically, they cover the idea that the threat of nuclear war is potentially too poilitically divisive and too frightening for the audience of the U.S. Therefore, it is best the citizens not know about the nuclear issues the nation experiences. 
  3. Barron, Laignee. “President Trump and Kim Jong Un’s Summit Ended Early Without a Deal. Watch the Press Conference”. TIME Magazine. February 28, 2019. Time Magazine’s very own Laignee Barron, infroms the readers about the inconclusive summit meeting between both powerful leaders. This article, states that Trump is in no rush for a deal. As long as there’s no testing in Kim Jong Un’s facilites in the mean time.
  4. Rogin, Josh. “Trump got played by Kim Jong Un – again”. The Washingotn Post.February 28, 2019. Columnist Josh Rogin illustrates as though Trump is being played for a fool in the deneucralization of Kim Jong Un’s facility. His perspective is that Kim Jong Un is playing hard to get to extend his time in advancing his nuclear technology. Evaluating this strategy, the deal of lifitng all sanctions in exchange for partial facility shutdowns is a bad deal for the U.S.
  5. Sanger, David E and Wong, Edward. “How the Trump-Kim Summit Failed: Big Threats, Big Egos, Bad Bets”. nytimes.com, https://www.nytimes.com/2019/03/02/world/asia/trump-kim-jong-un-summit.html. March 2, 2019. In awareness of Kim Jong Un’s ability to hide pieces of its’ nuclear program in tunnels around the country, president Trump did not settle for the shut down of some of many nuclear facilties (SPELLING!!!)  in exchange for the relief of all sanctions on North Korea. Kim Jong Un is clearly testing the water with president trump(capitalize!!!) but the U.S president seems to be 2 steps ahead. 
  6. Sik, Ahn John. “Is North Korea ready to face the music and denucrealize?”. dailynk.com. https://www.dailynk.com/english/is-north-korea-ready-to-face-the-music-and-denuclearize/. March 3, 2019. Ahn John Sik talks about the endless possibilites about the denucrealization deal between president Trump and Kim Jong Un. He covers the basis of what North Korea’s intentions truly are on the matter and the hand that the U.S will be dealt with in settling with the desmantling of just some nuclear facilites. We analyze the many perspectives, and the steps in order to achieve a succesful denucrealization of North Korea.