Final essay: The conversation of sexual assault has reached a new level of publicity by Joshua Phillips (team 15)

As a result of the #MeToo movement, sexual harassment and abuse has recently gained a great deal of attention. Recently, Pope Francis publicly acknowledged the problem of sexual abuse of nuns by priests in the Roman Catholic church. The International Union of Superiors urged nuns to report abuse by religious leaders to law enforcement as well as denounced the “culture of silence and secrecy”. This information has been hidden for many years by those in high positions in the church in order to protect the papal image and secure the legacy of this religious institution. Not only has this occurred in the church, but this “culture of silence and secrecy” has been applied to many different victims of sexual assault by any individual in any form of higher power.

In most cases, the perpetrators are often people in authority over the victims, but they can sometimes be people whom the victims love and trust. The perpetrators in the church can, in many ways, use some of Aristotle’s rhetorical appeals that may persuade the people to believe that they cannot do wrong. For example, a priest may use ethos to persuade his people that he or she is a man or woman of God and there is no way anything like that can happen in the presence of the lord, or the priest can take another route and use logos to influence them that it does not make sense for he or she to sexually harass anyone just because they are a priest. Which then makes the victim lose hope in the sense that no one will believe them or go against such type of person.

In a podcast from the New York Times, Pope Francis relies on the rhetorical appeals to convey his message. Foremost, because of his papal image, he holds credibility and authority around the world which serves to validate his message through ethos. Further, pathos is a strong theme throughout his words. He employs euphemism to downplay the severity of the actions of the priests and bishops throughout Catholic churches by stating things such as: “ there have been some clerics” and “some cultures a little more strongly than others” and “it’s not that everyone does this”. While Pope Francis acknowledges that this cruel act has been happening in multiple churches on multiple occasions, he also acknowledges that it is a process and that these priests and bishops have committed acts that they have and will continue to be punished for.

The persistence of the elephant in the room and the mute victims in churches, temples, and places of worship does not stop on the inside. The victim usually carries that painful secret with them, and in some cases the rest of their life without saying anything or doing anything about it. As evidenced by the New York Times article “Pope Acknowledges Nuns Were Sexually Abused by Priests and Bishops”, victims as well as other communication platform have recently begun to speak out about the issue: “Catholic nuns have accused clerics of sexual abuse in recent years in India, Africa, Latin America and in Italy, and a Vatican magazine last week mentioned nuns having abortions or giving birth to the children of priests”. So, not only is it occuring in Catholic churches in Europe, but there are reports of instances around the world. As previously mentioned about Pope Francis’ papal image, priests and bishops also hold a certain level of status that will make it seem impossible for them to commit an act such as rape or other forms of sexual abuse and assault. Which then never solves nor stops the problem at hand but rather continues to allow it to grow and affect the lives of many other people. Often times when victims of sexual harassment and abuse come forward, the accusations are invalidated and these victims may be called liars by judges, peers, their assaulters, or other people close to them.

Through the help of growing and the advancements of technology, social media and news platforms grew into a huge global community. You can find out information on almost anything. With the help of this global social media community, the Me Too movement grew into a viral hashtag (#MeToo) that gave victims a voice and a place where they feel like they are not alone. With this movement coming arise, it brought to attention the much needed conversation world wide, giving victims of sexual assault an outlet to get help them with their problems. The Me Too moment’s initial plan was to build a community of advocates, driven by survivors of sexual assault to create solutions to interrupt sexual violence in their communities. Recently, the Me Too movement gave voice to victims of singer R. Kelly and sprouted the creation of another movement called #NunsToo. The Me Too movement acted as a diffuser, and is a voice for victims worldwide.

In an article edited by Lucetta Scaraffia in the official Vatican daily, she also depends on ethos to convey her message of the effects of the ability of women to speak out against their abusers. She states that the painful memories of these women are at the hands of “all-powerful priesthood” which implies that the voices of the victims are muffled by authority. The victims tend to feel guilty for “seducing a holy man into committing a sin”, because that is what they have been taught. A pattern throughout the lives of victims is that their abusers simply possess too much power. Power that is much louder than their cries will ever be.

Sexual assault is an ongoing problem that has been hidden or kept under wraps for many years. The status of abusers only makes it more difficult for victims to come forward. It has recently gained the right attention and has been acknowledged by many people with high status. This is a step in the right direction but there is much more needed to be done to potentially solve the problem.

Well-done Joshua!!!  Nicely written and good images, good use of class concepts. Good coverage of material and excellent use of quotes too!

 

 

Work cited:

Poggioli, Sylvia. “After Years Of Abuse By Priests, #NunsToo Are Speaking Out.” NPR, NPR, 18 Mar. 2019, www.npr.org/2019/03/18/703067602/after-years-of-abuse-by-priests-nunstoo-are-speaking-out.

Sherwood, Harriet. “Credibility of Catholic Church at Stake in Sexual Abuse Summit.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 18 Feb. 2019, www.theguardian.com/world/2019/feb/18/credibility-of-catholic-church-at-stake-sexual-abuse-summit.

Horowitz, Jason, and Elizabeth Dias. “Pope Acknowledges Nuns Were Sexually Abused by Priests and Bishops.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 5 Feb. 2019, www.nytimes.com/2019/02/05/world/europe/pope-nuns-sexual-abuse.html.

“About.” You Are Not Alone, metoomvmt.org/about/.

RACHLIN, BENJAMIN. “Who to Believe.” New Republic, vol. 249, no. 12, Dec. 2018, pp. 36–45. EBSCOhost, http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=133064829&site=ehost-live&scope=site.

 

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Cody Johnson – Team 15 – Final Essay

Thanks Cody, I’ll provide comments in that email. 

*I emailed my Word document version to my grader which contains my images and works cited page in their proper format. Thank You.

The Communication Emergency Behind President Trump’s Border Wall

As President Donald Trump declared a national emergency to expedite construction of an improved border wall, coverage and rhetoric of national media and political parties have portrayed President Trump’s actions as two distinct emergencies – a matter of national security or overstepping of constitutional boundaries. As a traditionally bipartisan issue, the President’s rhetoric surrounding the need for improved border wall security, was no surprise. However, the methods and rhetoric used by President Trump and the democratic competition surrounding the process were unconventional.

From the Rose Garden of the White House, President Trump used pathos to constitute his decision to declare a national emergency when he stated “We’re going to confront the national security crisis on our southern border, and we’re going to do it one way or the other” he continued, to use pathos and ethos when he stated “It’s an invasion, we have an invasion of drugs and criminals coming into our country.” (Baker) As an additional medium to deliver his pathos, New York Times contributor Peter Baker reported that Trump invited spouses and loved ones of people killed by undocumented immigrants (Baker). As Marshall McLuhan so famously stated “medium is the message,” had President Trump made this same announcement isolated in the Oval Office facing a camera, the message would not have been able to use the pathos rhetoric as successfully.

In opposition of President Trump’s rhetoric, Speaker Nancy Pelosi labeled Trump’s announcement as “plainly a power grab by a disappointed president, who has gone outside the bounds of the law to try to get what he failed to achieve in the constitutional legislative process.” Pelosi who was appointed as Speaker of the House of Representatives in January 2019, used contrastingly ethos and logos rhetoric to denounce Trump’s declaration as a constitutional emergency. In a New York Times article, Robert Draper stated that “until recently, Americans have tended to view immigration less as a moral issue and more in crass economic terms.” (Draper) As this perspective shift has taken place, with it has come a requirement for deeper pathos rhetoric in order to connect policy with position, politician with public.

By implementing more pathos in his rhetoric, President Trump can appeal to the public that values emotion over fact. For example, as estimates for the construction costs of a new border wall have fluctuated between $4 and $12 billion (Oliver), Trump used pathos and ethos to alleviate concerns over potential costs of his border wall. The greatest instance of ethos usage comes when Trump touts his business background to explain how he can construct the border wall cheaper than estimates suggest. Understated is how Trump’s pathos and ethos coalesce to appeal to his supporters and influence how we know what we know about this event. When President Trump proclaims that Mexico will pay for the wall because of his business negotiation ability, he portrays Mexico as an opponent, for in a negotiation there must be a winner and a loser. As Mexico is portrayed as an opponent from the ethos perspective, proponents of Trump’s position align that rhetorical mode with their emotions towards illegal immigrants who they feel are stealing their jobs, transporting drugs across the border or committing crimes in their neighborhoods.

The issue of a border crisis – perceive or factual – has followed for decades. As authors Samuel Truett and Maribel Alvarez describe in their analysis of U.S. and Mexico border relations in the 1950s “So thwarted our political public discourse on the “border crisis” has become that a scheme as managerial and contrived as a chamber of commerce project today seems progressive” (Border Spaces 37). In Draper’s New York Times article, Washington Representative Pramila Jayapal took the stance that Democrats should take a more direct approach in their rhetorical response to the President’s attempts at immigration reform; “We should just make it clear: We support immigrants, this proposition is ludicrous and move on. That’s a better approach than trying to hew to the old method of trying to make everyone feel comfortable” (Draper). In attempts to make everyone feel comfortable, President Trump’s “logos-lacking” rhetoric is given credence in political matters that should be defined by logos. Jayapal’s appeals for greater logos would enable opposition to expose contradictions and misinformation in the President’s delivery that are disguised by emotional appeals. According to a study conducted by the United States Customs and Border Protection Agency, arrests of illegal individuals with criminal convictions has fallen steadily since the 2016 fiscal reports. (Customs and Border Patrol)

                                                                        FY 16              FY 17              FY 18

U.S. Border Patrol Criminal Alien Arrests    12,842             8,531               6,698

Marshall McLuhan’s suggestion that “the medium is the message” was showcased by Trump’s ability to use Twitter as a conduit for pathos induced, and pathos motivated by interactions. The immediacy enabled from Twitter’s form of social encounters promotes emotional responses that further forgoes logos or ethos responses or critiques. This precedent effects the global culture by creating an atmosphere of contention rather than one of discussion, placing a larger emphasis on the rhetoric being used rather than the logistics behind the debate. Had Twitter and Facebook not existed in their current form, the trajectory of Trump’s pathos rhetoric would not have been as emotionally charged and perhaps would have been presented with more logos foundation. Pushback of Trump’s rhetoric also centered around its effect on global populations of immigrants seeking asylum in the United States. As President Trump habitually labeled those entering the country illegally as “criminals” the national perspective on asylum seeking immigrants was in danger of reflecting the same pathos-based sentiments of the President.

Marshall McLuhan suggested that the advent of print medium gave rise to individualism and nationalism which correlates with President Trump’s “trigger man” form of communication. A trigger man is defined as people using rhetoric to get their point across. If President Trump utilized critical theory to a greater extent there would have been greater potential for policy change. Where critical theory seeks to liberate and establish a world which satisfies the needs and powers of human beings, emotional appeals will only be as effective so long as the emotions of the audience are compatible. The communication emergency behind Trump’s border wall is encompassed by both channels relying too heavily on single rhetorical modes that don’t properly reflect the complexity of the issue.

Works Cited

Baker, Peter. “Trump Declares a National Emergency, and Provokes a Constitutional Clash.” The New York Times Breaking News, World News & Multimedia, The New York Times, 16 Feb. 2019, nyti.ms/2V2h1dT.

Border Spaces : Visualizing the U. S. -Mexico Frontera, edited by Katherine G. Morrissey, and John-Michael H. Warner, University of Arizona Press, 2018. ProQuest Ebook Central, https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy.fiu.edu/legacydocview/EBC/5233386?accountid=10901.

Brandys, Roy R., et al. “United States-Mexico Border Wall: The Past, the Present and What May Come.” Real Property, Trust & Estate Law Journal, vol. 53, no. 1, Spring 2018, pp. 131–162. EBSCOhosthttp://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=132139936&site=ehost-live&scope=site.

“Criminal Alien Statistics Fiscal Year 2019.” Criminal Alien Statistics Fiscal Year 2019 | U.S. Customs and Border Protection, U.S. Customs and Border Protection, 9 Apr. 2019, www.cbp.gov/newsroom/stats/cbp-enforcement-statistics/criminal-alien-statistics.

Draper, Robert. “The Democrats have an Immigration PROBLEM.” New York Times Magazine, Oct 14, 2018, pp. 32-37,47,49. ProQuesthttp://ezproxy.fiu.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy.fiu.edu/docview/2118323629?accountid=10901.

JON, LEE A. “Boundary Issues.” The New Yorker, vol. 93, no. 31, Oct 09, 2017, pp. 24. ProQuesthttp://ezproxy.fiu.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy.fiu.edu/docview/1949038549?accountid=10901.

Oliver, John. “Border Wall: Last Week Tonight with John Oliver (HBO).” YouTube, YouTube, 20 Mar. 2016, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vU8dCYocuyI.

Final Essay

Yes, thanks I’ll provide feedback in email.

(I emailed you a PDF with images).

The Media’s Portrayal of Brexit

A 2016 referendum announcing the United Kingdom’s departure from the European Union known as Brexit caused immediate economic uncertainty. Once their exit is finalized on March 29, 2019, further global impacts on the world’s economy are likely to follow. The United Kingdom is currently under a transition period up until their exit date. With a global event such as Brexit, there are a lot of perspectives on the situation whether it can harm or benefit the world’s economy. Numerous media outlets such as online magazines, British new sites, books, etc., have shared with the public their views as well as opinions on Brexit. These outlets take into consideration the power of persuasion by using rational appeal (logos) or ethical appeal (ethos) when influencing the public’s opinions and views on the event.

 

When it comes to a global event such as Brexit, media outlets will report on the cons of the situation. For instance, according to the scholarly journal article, “Germany and the European Union: Post-Brexit Hegemon?” by Simon Bulmer, uses there could be major economic consequences since Germany will have to take on a greater role in the EU once Britain leaves. Bulmer uses both logos and ethos when addressing Brexit. He mentions how one of the most important tasks includes taking charge of the EU budget. According to the article, a German government unable to make decisions despite its structural power could leave the EU in quite a predicament. It all goes back to Germany’s lack of leadership roles. Germany is notorious for its avoidance in playing a lead military role in post-Cold War Europe. It does not look to promising that Germany will excel in taking on the financial burden, but the full financial consequences of Brexit will become clearer with the negotiation of the EU’s Multiannual Financial Framework. The article also informs the public as to how Brexit can affect trade policies and foreign trade policy can change as well in Europe. When it comes to trade, there has been considerable consistency in British European policy objectives regardless of the party in office. The UK government has consistently supported pragmatic approaches to integration rather than federalist visions. They have consistently advocated for a liberal EU internal market, particularly in financial services, and for liberal trade internationally. With Brexit, that could harm that consistency.

 

In the media, it is stressed that Brexit not only affects the UK, but it also affects the world as well. Ethos is heavily used in the source, the article: “Brexit won’t affect only the UK – it has lessons for the global economy” by Mohamed El-Erin, exposes the public to the way it is a global issue not just an issue in Europe. For instance, the article points out that it is evident that world leaders are paying close attention to the consequences of Brexit when dealing with their own political and economic situations. He advises policymakers to learn from the United Kingdom’s Brexit experience.  El-Erin writes this article in a cautious tone which alarms the reader as well as inform them. He alludes to the 2008 global crisis when informing the reader how troubling Brexit can be. He writes that the UK economy is currently experiencing slow-moving change, with the falling of foreign investment, which contributes to the economy’s disappointing level of investment. El-Erin predicts that due to Brexit, there will be changes in how countries seek to structure their economies, meaning large and relatively closed economies might seem appealing to countries who have that option. El-Erin writes this article in a cautious tone which alarms the reader as well as inform them.

The Time’s article, “What Next for Brexit: Britain Plays the Ultimate Game of ‘Deal or No Deal’” by Amanda Sloat, informs the public through using ethos, about the consequences if British Prime Minister Theresa May’s deal fails. If it fails, members of parliament will vote by March 13 on whether the U.K. should leave the E.U. without a deal. Leaving without a deal can lead to global impacts on the economy and that’s what Sloat stresses throughout the article. If May’s deal fails, members of Parliament will vote by March 13 on whether the U.K. should leave the E.U. without a deal. Consequences of a no-deal Brexit affect food security and trade disruption, to the Irish border and citizens’ rights.  Sloat wrote this article specifically towards Brits who are unaware of how serious a non-Brexit deal can affect the economy.

Forbes magazine’s article, “How Brexit Could Affect Finance, Real Estate, and The Global Economy”, uses logos when exposing its readers to cons of Brexit despite acknowledging that there are possibly beneficial outcomes of Brexit. Author, Ely Razin, provides the reader with detailed information on how Brexit could impact the following: the finance industry and the real estate market. A concern that is stressed in the article is that Brexit could reduce the U.K.’s competitive edge that of its financial institutions. For instance, if the British banks are not granted the extra benefits they are seeking in a financial relationship with the EU, this could give U.S. and Asian financial institutions a boost in Europe by opening competition, which could  have a negative effect on British banks in terms of their bottom line and their capacity and appetite for loan origination.

             Although there have been numerous pieces of media that focus on the negative aspects of Brexit, there are still outlets that cover the beneficial factors of the event. The New York Times Opinion piece, “Is There an Upside to Brexit?” by Chen Bittner, covers the economic benefits of Brexit through using ethos. Bittner does acknowledge that there are economic risks of Brexit, but his article strongly focuses on the positives of it.  According to Bittner, there lies an opportunity for Europe to strengthen the bilateral relationship with Britain, he believes that if they play it right, their economy can prosper. He references China’s economy, which is the largest economy in the world and states that Europe could be almost as powerful. At the end of the article, Bittner states, neither can stand up to China alone; even together, they might not be enough. But as the core of a global entente, they can meet the challenge.

In conclusion, when wanting to gain a clear understanding of Brexit’s effects on the world economy, it is significant to expose yourself to numerous perspectives. There will be sources that will tell you, as a reader, that Brexit can beneficial to the world economy while other media outlets will expose you to the cons of it. These sources will strongly rely on either logos or ethos to mold your opinion on Brexit. It is up to you as a daily news in-taker to draw your own conclusions and form your opinions on the situation.

Bibliography

Bittner, Jochen. “Is There an Upside to Brexit?” The New York Times. 04 Mar. 2019. The New York Times. 09 Mar. 2019 <https://www.nytimes.com/2019/03/04/opinion/brexit-europe-china.html?ref=oembed&gt;

Bulmer, Simon. “Germany and the European Union: Post-Brexit Hegemon?” Insight Turkey, vol. 20, no. 3, 2018, p. 11+. Global Issues in Context, http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A549337202/OVIC?u=miam11506&sid=OVIC&xid=3f009bdf. Accessed 9 Mar. 2019.

Evans, Geoffrey, and Anand Menon. Brexit and British Politics, Polity Press, 2017. ProQuest Ebook Central, https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy.fiu.edu/legacydocview/EBC/5145622?accountid=10901.

El-Erian, Mohamed. “Brexit won’t just affect the UK – it has lessons for the global economy | Mohamed El-Erian.” The Guardian. 26 Nov. 2018. Guardian News and Media. 09 Mar. 2019 <https://www.theguardian.com/business/2018/nov/26/brexit-uk-global-economy-eu&gt;.

Razin, Ely. “How Brexit Could Affect Finance, Real Estate And The Global Economy.” Forbes. 08 Aug. 2018. Forbes Magazine. 09 Mar. 2019 <https://www.forbes.com/sites/elyrazin/2018/08/08/how-brexit-could-affect-finance-real-estate-and-the-global-economy/#1155f8b540df&gt;.

Sloat, Amanda. “Deal, No Deal, or No Brexit: The Scenarios Facing Britain.” Time, Time, 6 Mar. 2019, time.com/5545659/eu-no-deal-no-brexit-analysis/.

Georgina Stamper – Team 15 – Final Essay (Emailed to Christos as well)

Well-done Georgina! Your first image pretty much says it all. Very moving essay, well-written and good integration of class concepts. 

 

Yemen’s Humanitarian Crisis

One of the biggest humanitarian crisis that’s been going on for about 4 years now is in Yemen, where millions of deaths are occurring due to starvation and yet there is little to no coverage on this travesty.

The Middle East is a region of the world that is no stranger to conflict and death. When many people think of the Middle East, they automatically think of the United States and the invasions of both Afghanistan and Iraq and the continued presence there due to the war on terror. While both of these issues, as well as the Syrian Civil War, deserve the merit of humanitarian crises, there is another that has gone relatively unnoticed. The situation being written about in this essay is the travesty that has been occurring in Yemen. Ever since 2011, the country of Yemen has been in a state of crises due to political as well as economic turmoil. The problem that has exasperated (I think you mean ‘exacerbated’ – which means to worsen) the situation in the country is the lack of international awareness and attention which has been given to the country. How we know what we know about the situation occurring in Yemen is due largely in part to new modes of communication as McLuhan once stated “The medium is the message” and it is because of tools such as social media and ever-evolving technology that journalists have been able to show the world what has been happening.

With the world growing ever more interconnected due to globalization events happening worldwide, it has become harder to hide things. Thanks to social media platforms such as Facebook, YouTube, and Instagram, what is happening in Yemen has been able to be shared directly around the world. “If you’re one of the estimated 845 million people on Facebook, you know that events and actions that once could be controlled or even hidden now are immediately wide open to scrutiny. Little is private anymore.” (Santovec, Mary Lou.) Comparing the situation that has been occurring compared from 2011-2019, there is definitely more media attention and international eyes on the situation as opposed to when it began.

The humanitarian crisis in the country began following the Arab spring in 2011 right at the peak when the world began to see how the internet and tools like Twitter were being used to help start color revolutions around the Middle East. Ali Abdullah Saleh, the longtime dictator of the country, had failed to transition the government to his successor Abdrabbuh Mansour Hadi peacefully. During this early period, the new president had to deal with a variety of issues ranging from terrorist attacks, economic vulnerability, as well as lack of food security across the entire country. During that period Houthi forces, loyal to Saleh, attempted to take control of the government. Saudi Arabia believing that the coup was being done by Iran began to besiege and bombard the city with logistical and weapons support from the United States, The United Kingdom, and the country of France.

As the situation evolved the problems only became worse for the people living in Yemen. “In September 2014, the Houthis repaired their relationship with the former President Saleh and took control of the capital and much of the north. Since 2015, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE)-led coalition intervened in Yemen leading to the worst humanitarian crisis in the world. In December 2017, Saleh was shot dead in Sanaa resulted in a new civil war and a Saudi Arabian-led military intervention aimed at restoring Hadi’s government. As of now, more than 60,000 civilians and combatants have been killed in armed violence in Yemen since January 2016. ( Yemen News,) All the death and destruction occurring in the country began to gain attention especially from the Islamic world and campaigns were initiated to help bring aid to the civilians in the country.

Movements like “Stand with Yemen” became multimedia campaigns around the world aimed at informing the world of what was happening and attempting to raise money that the country needed to provide aid. “In early September, Yemen’s Planning and International Cooperation Minister Mohammed al-Saadi said that the country could afford only about 20 percent of the amount needed to combat the humanitarian crisis. “Our needs are $14 billion,” he said. “The Yemeni government can cover some part, but there remains a gap of $11 billion.” The government “urgently needs to spend $4.7 billion on serious humanitarian needs by February 2016” (Noofal, Mohsen.)

The situation to provide adequate aide has become of grave importance as “aid agencies estimate that at least half of Yemen’s 25 million people are facing starvation, with water becoming a scarce and expensive commodity in the Arab world’s poorest nation. Experts warn that Sana’a, the nation’s capital and largest city, could run out of water by 2020.” (Sprusansky, Dale). Organizations like the United Nations have begun to focus on ethos and pathos when discussing the horrors occurring in the country and scolding the media for not paying enough attention to the situation happening in the country.  “Civilians in Taiz have suffered far too much for too long, and the destruction in the city has been terrible,” he underscored. “The flow of humanitarian aid needs to increase, and people need the chance to rebuild,” stated Martin Griffith the UN envoy to Yemen. ( Asia News Monitor)

Thanks to increased visibility on social media the governments due to pressure from civilians in both the United States and the U.K. have taken legislative steps to stop funding arms to Saudi Arabia. “Judges in the United Kingdom are due to hear a landmark appeal seeking to block the sale of weapons worth billions of dollars to Saudi Arabia”(Al Jazeera). The world is waking up to the power that these modes of communication can have. Hopefully, with more international attention and awareness the humanitarian crises occurring in Yemen can one day come to a halt. With increased attention on news outlets in first world western countries like the United States and the United Kingdom, there is no doubt that good can be done to help these civilians caught in a situation that is out of their control. With an increased focus on utilizing rhetoric, the west can help make a change for Yemen.

References:

Al Jazeera Media Network. “Yemen News.” GCC News | Al Jazeera, Al Jazeera, 2019, www.aljazeera.com/topics/country/yemen.html

Noofal, Mohsen. “Lack of International Support Fuels Crisis in Yemen.” DailySabah, http://Www.dailysabah.com, 3 Mar. 2019, http://www.dailysabah.com/op-ed/2019/03/04/lack-of-international-support-fuels-crisis-in-yemen.

Santovec, Mary Lou. “Social Media Force Leaders to Get the Message Out-Now.” Women in Higher Education 03 2012: 19. ProQuest. 10 Mar. 2019

Sprusansky, Dale. “Yemen’s Humanitarian Crisis: The Should-Be Headline.” Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, vol. 31, no. 8, Nov. 2012, pp. 42–43. EBSCOhost,

“United Nations/Yemen: ‘we Cannot Lose Momentum’ on the Road to Peace in Yemen, UN Envoy Warns.” Asia News Monitor, Jan 11 2019, ProQuest. Web. 10 Mar. 2019

Unknown. “Lack of International Support Fuels Crisis in Yemen.” Yemen News, CNPHUB, 5 Mar. 2019, yemennewstraffic.com/story-z21892540

Team Assignment #3 – Team 15 – Fake News


Oprah Winfrey Says “I’m running for President”

Oprah Winfrey Says “I’m running for President”

She finally heard the call that she’s been waiting for.

After months of Winfrey shutting down the rumors that she’s running, the Daily Mail can confirm that Oprah is running for president in 2020.

A source close to Winfrey shared with us that she finally heard “the call.”
One year ago, she told People magazine, that she turned to prayer to decide whether to run. She stated, “God, if you think I’m supposed to run, you got to tell me, and it has to be so clear that not even I can miss it. And I haven’t gotten that.” Fast forward to a year later, and she’s finally heard the call. “She is fed up with what has been going on in our country and now she feels that it is her duty to heal this nation,” the source tells us. (Lauren)

Winfrey believes that her ability to communicate with people is not attributed to her ability as an entertainer, but rather an empathizer. A public relations representative for Winfrey’s OWN network responded to our requests for comments stating “Our country has had our fill of entertainers in office. What our country is truly in need of is a leader who can empathize with each side of the political spectrum, as well as Americans struggling and succeeding.” Supporters believe that as a true ‘rags to riches’ story, Winfrey has the credibility to lead the nation through whatever may arise. Perhaps the biggest test for Winfrey will be convincing the American people that the nation is primed for a female president. However, representatives for Winfrey believe that her candidacy will appeal to a demographic who has been omitted of a candidate that is their own; African-American females. (Cody)

Throughout her numerous years as an entertainer and the voice of countless woman, she has donated to many charities and causes to help African-Americans. In 2013, Winfrey gifted $12 million to the Smithsonian in support of the construction of the National Museum of African American History and Culture. This alone with her various other acts of kindness towards the African-American community gives her a huge lead in this demographic, which is a big one up on all other candidates. (Carlos)

Winfrey becoming president would be a monumental achievement for the African-American community, especially for young African-American women. Not only would this bring great inspiration, it will support the idea that they will not have to settle for a 9 to 5 job that they may not enjoy but rather become anything they may dream of.

Sources have also confirmed and acknowledged that Barack Obama will be running for the Vice President position alongside Winfrey. (Josh)
Obama and Winfrey are the dynamic duos this country has been waiting for. Combined, they have the skills, knowledge, and loyal followers to make this actually happen. This is going to be an amazing campaign that will go down in history that everyone will be looking forward to. (Georgina)

Even celebrities have joined the fray in supporting the Winfrey-Obama ticket. Entertainer and recent Oscar winner Lady Gaga, who supported Hillary Clinton in 2016, showed her support, saying, “It’s about time someone showed our current president how his job is done. Oprah is an inspiring orator and if you combine that with President Obama’s charm and political experience they are a winning combination!” Gaga shall be performing at their first campaign fundraiser later this month, where Oprah will conduct it like her successful television show, complete with guests and free prizes for attendees. (Colin)

We wrote this article based on last year’s rumor about Oprah running for president. There was an onslaught speculation that she would definitely run after her Golden Globes acceptance speech, where she criticized the charged racial and gender rhetoric that the current President Donald Trump’s administration has at times escalated. Oprah further dismissed her 2020 candidacy, but it’s been rumored that she is “actively thinking” about it. Our rhetorical appeal is ethos and pathos, ethos being how we used quotes from well known sources to prove its credibility and pathos on how we mention her overall inspiration and kindness towards young women and the African-American community. Our intended audiences are mainly women unhappy with Trump’s presidency, a variety of African-Americans, and millenials. The “hook” to lure in readers is in our headline that states “Oprah Winfrey says ‘I’m running for President’.” We grabbed reader’s attention by picking a topic that’s relevant, everyone who has heard last years rumor would definitely be interested in this article. (Georgina)

Editor: Georgina Stamper

 

Great images, well-done, excellent work! I’m not sure who is responsible for the images but overall very good writing style and incorporating ideas/concepts from readings.

Cody Johnson – Team 15 Bibliography

Excellent Cody! Good job, good sources, good annotations, proofread everything you turn in.

Thesis: As President Donald Trump declared a national emergency to expedite construction of an improved border wall, coverage and rhetoric of national media and political parties have portrayed President Trump’s actions as two distinct emergencies – a matter of national security or overstepping of constitutional boundaries.

Sources 1-4 from FIU Database.

1 (Journal Article): Brandys, Roy R., et al. “United States-Mexico Border Wall: The Past, the Present and What May Come.” Real Property, Trust & Estate Law Journal, vol. 53, no. 1, Spring 2018, pp. 131–162. EBSCOhost, http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=132139936&site=ehost-live&scope=site.

Found: FIU Database via. AcademicSearchComplete

Summary: The authors of this article give a summation of previous legislation related to the US and Mexico border, as well as detail what Trump’s expansion means for the future. The legal ramifications for constructing such a wall are examined while also comparing the actions and rhetoric of current and past politicians. Not to be overlooked, are the feelings of landowners in the way of an expanded border wall. Their legal footing and sentiments are examined by the authors which will assist in discerning the tenability of President Trump’s pathos, ethos and logos rhetoric.

2 (Book): Border Spaces : Visualizing the U. S. -Mexico Frontera, edited by Katherine G. Morrissey, and John-Michael H. Warner, University of Arizona Press, 2018. ProQuest Ebook Central, https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy.fiu.edu/legacydocview/EBC/5233386?accountid=10901.

Found: FIU Database via. ProQuest

Summary: Part two of this book is entitled “Looking Both Ways At The Border” and narates (narrates!) sp!!) the often ignored storied of people on both sides of the border wall. There’s a theme throughout the book that centers around people that have turned the border wall into a giant canvas, putting a positive spin on an otherwise ugly aspect of their life. In the same manner, the authors of Border Spaces, positively describe the lives of those most affected by Trump’s border expansion and contend his pathos rhetoric of the characteristics of Mexican citizens.

3 (Magazine): JON, LEE A. “Boundary Issues.” The New Yorker, vol. 93, no. 31, Oct 09, 2017, pp. 24. ProQuest, http://ezproxy.fiu.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy.fiu.edu/docview/1949038549?accountid=10901.

Found: FIU Database via. ProQuest

Summary: Author Jon Lee Anderson describes how President Trump’s rhetoric has affected US and Mexico relations. Arguments can be made that the frustrated responses of Mexican citizens enables Trump to continue with his hostile and categorical rhetoric of Mexicans. Anderson also contends that Trump’s border rhetoric has flowed into relations with Mexico over NAFTA and the ethos rhetoric surrounding international relations.

4 (Newspaper): Draper, Robert. “The Democrats have an Immigration PROBLEM.” New York Times Magazine, Oct 14, 2018, pp. 32-37,47,49. ProQuest, http://ezproxy.fiu.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy.fiu.edu/docview/2118323629?accountid=10901.

Found: FIU Database via. ProQuest

Summary: In this New York Times article by Robert Draper, the rhetoric of the modern day Democratic party is analyzed concerning immigration stances and reforms. There’s an often overlooked aspect of rhetoric, where one form can often affect how other forms of rhetoric are perceived. The author analyzes how perhaps the rhetoric of the Democratic majority has alienated Republican and moderate voters in such a way that makes President Trump’s aggresive rhetoric attractive.

5 (Website): Baker, Peter. “Trump Declares a National Emergency, and Provokes a Constitutional Clash.” The New York Times – Breaking News, World News & Multimedia, The New York Times, 16 Feb. 2019, nyti.ms/2V2h1dT.

Found: via. New York Times magazine

Summary: This article outlines how President Trump utilized pathos to access funds allocated for national emergencies, in order to be used for construction of a new wall along the southern border. Trump labels the flow of drugs and illegal immigrants as a matter of national security, while Speaker Nancy Pilosi utilized logos and ethos in her dispute – claiming that President Trump “has gone outside the bounds of the law to try to get what he failed to achieve in the constitutional legislative process.” The author of this article Peter Baker, details how Trump’s announcement outside of the White House was that of an aggetated President, which I will compare with his previous proposals of the wall during a Republican majority Congress.

6 (Website): Oliver, John. “Border Wall: Last Week Tonight with John Oliver (HBO).” YouTube, YouTube, 20 Mar. 2016, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vU8dCYocuyI.

Found: via. YouTube.com

Summary: Television host John Oliver analyzes President Trump’s initial border wall proposals. An example of this analysis is in how Trump’s budgeting for the construction of the wal, fluctuated from $4 – $12 billion throughout his proposals. In order to avoid scrutiny for his inconsistency, Oliver points out how Trump communicates to his base by appealing to emotion (pathos) for why the wall is mandatory, and how he could barter a cheaper deal because of his business background (ethos).

Assignment 4 Joshua Phillips

Hi Joshua,

You definitely need to proofread!!!  These small errors are critical to getting a good grade. Please don’t turn in your essay with these kinds of mistakes. This affects your grade. 

Sexual harassment and abuse has recently gained a great deal of attention due to the #MeToo movement. Pope Francis recently acknowledged the problem publicy publicly (sp!!!) of sexual abuse of nuns by priests in the Roman Catholic church. The International Union of Superiors urged nuns to report abuse by religious leaders to law enforcement as well as denounced the “culture of silence and secrecy”. This information has been hidden for many years by those in high positions in the church in order to protect the papal image and secure the legacy of this religious institutions.

 

1.Journal article in a scholarly journal

Sisk, Gregory C. “Holding the Federal Government Accountable for Sexual Assault.” Iowa Law Review, vol. 104, no. 2, Jan. 2019, pp. 731–792. EBSCOhost, http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=134341291&site=ehost-live&scope=site.

This article explains how the US government acts oblivious to the sexual assault that happens by their workers. It also explains how the average lawyer would be shocked if you were to bring a case on a federal employee who committed the crime of sexual assault on an individual. This article can help me explain how governments try to keep the talk of sexual assault underwraps even though it happens on a daily basis to many people.

2.One article in a popular or trade magazine

RACHLIN, BENJAMIN. “Who to Believe.” New Republic, vol. 249, no. 12, Dec. 2018, pp. 36–45. EBSCOhost, http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=133064829&site=ehost-live&scope=site.

This article explains how the judicial system works in the case of sexual assault and if some evidence can either help or harm the case. I can use this information to understand how lawyers may see the cases of sexual assault. Along with why they began defending the case.

3.One article about your topic from a newspaper published in the country of your topic

Sherwood, Harriet. “Credibility of Catholic Church at Stake in Sexual Abuse Summit.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 18 Feb. 2019, www.theguardian.com/world/2019/feb/18/credibility-of-catholic-church-at-stake-sexual-abuse-summit.

This is a European news article that explains how the pope called a summit to address the problem of sexual assault. Although the assignment is based on how we know the information. This article will help me understand what the pope and the catholic church as a whole is doing in regards to the  problem of sexual assault.

4.One good source of your choice

Horowitz, Jason, and Elizabeth Dias. “Pope Acknowledges Nuns Were Sexually Abused by Priests and Bishops.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 5 Feb. 2019, www.nytimes.com/2019/02/05/world/europe/pope-nuns-sexual-abuse.html.

In this article from the New York Times it explains how the pope came forward about the problem dealing with sexual assault in the catholic church. He explains although sexual abuse towards women and children are reported more than Nuns it does not mean that it has just happened, it has occurred f(spelling mistake, please proofread!) or many centuries. This is my original source in choosing my topic, it gave me a the base as to what I am going to write about.

5.A good website

“About.” You Are Not Alone, metoomvmt.org/about/.

The #metoo movements goal is to expand the global conversation around sexual violence. The organization is focused on helping those in need and bring awareness to the problem we face as a race. This website can give me extra information if needed and is a great source to find help which i can incorporate into my essay.

6.One book published in the last 20 years

Lawhorne Scott, Cheryl, et al. Sexual Assault in the Military : A Guide for Victims and Families. Lanham, Maryland : Rowman & Littlefield, [2013], 2013. EBSCOhost, http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=cat06026a&AN=fiu.033986053&site=eds-live.

This book is on how individuals in the military tend to keep sexual assault to themself. (not a word! themselves!) They do this in because they are scared of things like retaliation, losing their job, and also the harm of the military justice system. This source may be a valuable source because i (please capitalize!!!) I can tie individuals in the military with nuns as to why they would keep this information hidden.