Final Essay

Well-done Maria Lucia!  Good images and well-researched.  I

Resultado de imagen para Nicaragua protests

The political and economic crisis that has emerged in Nicaragua has demonstrated to the world the importance of news on the social media platform. Journalists and citizens facing censorship could only turn to this platform for sharing their country’s truth.

On April 18, 2018, civil unrest began in Nicaragua when a group of students gathered outside Managua’s University (UCA) to protest against the social security reforms mandated by president Daniel Ortega that increased taxes for all citizens. Later on, armed groups called Sandinistas and police led by the government came and repressed the students, locking them inside the university. Since then attacks to however is against the government have not stopped causing a raise rise on in Nicaragua’s death toll every day.

Resultado de imagen para Nicaragua protests

President Daniel Ortega has ruled for 11 consecutive years. He has managed to stay in power by changing the constitution to allow re-elections and made alliances with the business sector (COSEP). In Nicaragua everything seemed to be fine, no development on education or economy but citizens were comfortable until the students challenged the assumption that Ortega’s government is one that provides stability, peace and love for the community, proof of expanding the bounds of debate was the unjust decision of raising taxes when in a population of six million, most manage on less than $2 a day.

Technology and social media have become one of the essential tools for the Nicaraguan community on disseminating Daniel Ortega’s crimes. However, much information on how the government operates remains unrevealed. The current crisis in Nicaragua is a perfect example that can be used to elaborate on the “How we know what we know” perspective.

First, there is a need to know how the information was revealed. There are two versions of the story; one is from the students at the protests and the other from the government and its followers (Sandinistas). The government denied any involvement, saying that there were no more protests, and no one has died. Ortega stated that the people who caused the unrest are coup plotters backed by the United States government to overthrow him from power; however, he did not provide any proof of said plotters in the country or videos killing the students.

On the other hand, the students and citizens of Nicaragua had a different version of the events claiming that Ortega and his government are assassins, citizens keep protesting every day and being under attack just for wanting a new government for Nicaragua. Videos, photos, and recordings of people wearing the Sandinistas flags with guns on their hands shooting and hitting students or any citizen who wears a Nicaraguan flag are shown all over Facebook and Twitter.

Facebook became the platform of information for people in Nicaragua and around the world. Studies have shown that Facebook is not a community, but it has become a weapon. (interesting point!)  Twitter, served as a tool for communicating with international organizations. The youth community started to write tweets under the hashtag #SOSNicaragua that later on became viral, and the world could see it. Citizens of Nicaragua started using their phones and cameras to show the world what is happening.  

The event was built by many factors, such as secrecy and revelation. The government could not back their claims on the terrorist groups led by the United States and that no one had died when the Inter-American Commission on Human rights (OAS) provided strong reports on who is making the killing. Ortega also told the lie that nothing is happening in Nicaragua and that everything will be back to normal.

Ortega censored the media. In Nicaragua, 50% of households live in extreme poverty with no education, no access to the internet or international news and most are illiterate. These people believed and supported Ortega’s government since national TV news channels never presented videos or photos of what is happening, or they talked about the topic; instead, they reported that terrorist groups are in Nicaragua, claiming that Ortega is innocent and the students are lying.

As the crisis kept going more secrets get revealed, the business sector (COSEP) kept secret the alliance it has with the government, which is based that Ortega will be in the presidency and they will support it if Ortega benefits them too. On the citizen’s eyes, COSEP is now an ally of the government. This turned bad for individual companies in Nicaragua, citizens do not want to consume from them and now are also being charged with the Nica Act.

Ortega also lied on live Tv in a national dialogue to solve the crisis where he said that he had not ordered any killings or attacks. He was asked by student leader Lesther Aleman, to stop the armed forces but Ortega remained quiet.

Resultado de imagen para national dialogue lesther aleman

(Lesther Aleman, calling Ortega assassin on live TV)

The event was influenced by movement and technology. The student organization movement of civic alliance led by Lesther Aleman, a 20-year-old student who is doing the impossible to remove Ortega from power, has changed the way the citizens act toward the crisis by organizing massive protests and national strikes that stop all work in the country for 24-hours, which means for a day Nicaragua’s enterprises close and do not provide money to Ortega.

Technology has also altered the culture. Phones, computers, cameras and more have proved to be the best tools in communicating globally the crimes made by Ortega’s government. Technology has also changed the way citizens walk or think. In Nicaragua, students know their phone is the best weapon to expose the dictator and to provide information to the international community.

Nicaragua’s crisis has proved to be the perfect example of how powerful technology and social media has become, to even fight for democracy. The event resulted in a desirable change in the sense that Nicaraguans want democracy and by doing that they have to remove Ortega. It is a laborious process in which the economy is taking a toll on the economy, but the citizens are willing to take it until Ortega is out.

Link of video showing who is doing the killing :



Hill, Toby Stirling. “Cathedral Protests Highlight Ortega’s Broken Alliance with Nicaraguan Church.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 8 Nov. 2018,

Moreno, Dario. “Peace and the Nicaraguan revolution.” Current History, vol. 87, no. 533, 1988, p. 405+. Academic OneFile, Accessed 7 Dec. 2018.

Partlow, Joshua. “From Rebel to Strongman: How Daniel Ortega Became the Thing He Fought Against.” The Washington Post, WP Company, 24 Aug. 2018,

Editorial, Observer. “The Observer View on Nicaragua’s Critical Need for a New Direction | Observer Editorial.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 17 June 2018,

Serrels, Mark. “Calling Facebook a ‘Community’ Is Spectacularly Naive.” CNET, CNET, 21 Mar. 2018,

“2018 Nicaraguan Protests.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 29 Nov. 2018,

“Daniel Ortega.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 29 Nov. 2018,



How We Know What We Know Final Essay: Thai Cave Boys

Essay with pictures was sent as a Word Document to graders email.

Hi Ashley, Well-done and I believe I responded to your email. Good job!!!


On June 23rd a group of boys from the Wild Boars soccer team and their coach made their way to the caves of Tham Luang to celebrate one of the boy’s birthdays. They left their bikes and headed in. Rain was forecast for that day and unfortunately flooded the caves they were in, causing the group to get stuck down there. By the end of the night, the parents were extremely worried and 24 hours later a group of Navy SEAL divers arrived to start searching. The search continued, and the last one of the boys was not rescued until July 10. This story quickly went viral and was covered by all news outlets. Different forms of media and social media brought awareness to the boys situation and created a sort of unity throughout the nation. 

In this day and age technology and news go hand in hand, especially when it’s a moment of crisis. When an emergency or crisis occur it should be known that social media platforms are an active medium that facilitate multi-directional communication between that disaster affected, their relatives, well wishers, politicians, emergency responders, and the media etc. (Hayes and Kelly) The story of the team and their coach quickly spread like wildfire and was soon all over social media platforms. Through the power of technology and the resources we now have available such as sharing photos and videos in real time, we can connect people throughout the world instantaneously. The number of social media users has increased from approximately 970 million in 2010, to a projected 2.95 billion in 2020. (Hayes and Kelly) This increase in social media use has caused an uproar in news sharing, whether that be to raise awareness for a crisis or escalate the information further. 

In what manner was the news shared in order to get people all around the world so invested into the rescue of these boys? How was the information portrayed to the public? That’s where “How We Know What We Know” comes into play. To start off there is the rhetorical triangle. The combination of Logos, Pathos, and Ethos in the news outlets is what grabbed the publics attention. First there is the use of logic, or logos. Various news sources shared the logistics about the cave and different facts concerning the well being of the boys. The oxygen level in the boys’ cavern is about 15 percent decreasing, he said, which is case for concern: Below 16 percent can cause hypoxia, which in extreme cases can be fatal. (Paddock, Suhartono, Ives) The images shown below were provided by The New York Times and BBC news and are also a example of logos, giving us detailed facts in an illustrated form.


 Then there is the source of credibility also known as ethos. Because this was such a big story there were many journalist and reporters on site getting information and quotes directly from the people working there. Thai Navy SEALs, professional divers, and officials, were some of the many credible sources available. Direct quotes from these workers can be trusted since they are of high rank in their positions and are well informed. More than 150 members of the Thai Navy Seals helped create the escape route, a crew of foreign divers explored the chambers, overseas military teams brought search and rescue equipment, Americans provided logistics, and British divers navigated the hazardous stretches. (Beech, Paddock, and Suhartono) Therefore information and details given by these sources could be trusted and be considered an expert testimony since they were living these experiences first hand. 

Finally there is the emotional appeal, pathos. Countless news sources used this as some of their primary ways to call attention to this story. What kept the world rooting for these boys was the live updates with photos and videos. International journalist stationed outside the cave, television stations had carried updates and the story ranked highly in terms of the most read or viewed items on sites such as Briton’s BBC and NBC News. (Reuters) Intimate letters written by the Thai boys expressing their love for their family and assuring them of their safety were shared with the world. The letters made public by the Navy Seals, were deeply moving. (BBC News 2018) Days into the rescue mission two divers finally found the boys and recorded the footage. The extraordinary encounter was recoded on the divers’ camera- and swift posted online. The jubilation was instant, and worldwide. (BBC News 2018) These constant updates and emotional touches are what make the public feel for the Thai boys and empathize for them.


It’s important to note that the incident that occurred in Thailand is one of hope and unity, which is quite rare. Journalist from all around the world gathered in Thailand to cover the News directly from there. On social media, live Facebook videos from the reporters and volunteers on the ground have been popular. (Reuters) Twitter and Instagram were filled with well-wishers sending messages of support and encouragement through hashtags, advice, and sketches. A Facebook post confirming all 13 had been rescued had more than 200,000 likes. (Reuters) Thanks to technology and the capability we have to share news instantaneously as it happens, we have the power to raise awareness and reach millions of people throughout the world. Although this is one success story where the news outlets and social media did good, there are others where false or misleading information can be shared. Through “How We Know What We Know” we learn to distinguish and carefully look at what information we choose to believe. There are countless sources out there and it is our duty as the public to look into and verify information given to us. It is important to make sure they come from a credible source, but also ask ourselves what the writer is trying to portray to us and why.  

Works Cited 

BBC News. “The Full story of Thailand’s Extraordinary Cave Rescue- BBC News” . BBC News, 2018 Accessed 30 November 2018.

Reuters, London. “Thai Cave Rescue Dominates Social Media.” The Daily Star, 10 July 2018, Accessed 30 November 2018.

Hayes, Paul, and Stephen Kelly. “Distributed Morality, Privacy, and Social Media in Natural Disaster Response.” Technology in Society, vol. 54, 2018, pp. 155–167. Accessed 30 November 2018.

Paddock, Richard C., Suhartono, Muktita, Ives, Mike. “Thai Cave Rescue Will Be a Murky and Desperate Ordeal, Divers Say”. nytimes.Com, 2018 Accessed 30 November 2018.

Paddock, Richard C., Suhartono, Muktita, Ives, Mike. “Still Can’t Believe it Worked’: The Story of the Thailand Cave Rescue” nytimes.Com, 2018 Accessed 30 November 2018. 

New York Times. “8 saved, 5 to Go in the Thai Cave Rescue”, 2018 Accessed 30 November 2018.

Fake news story team assignment

  Great job, a few things though, White House not white house. Good work overall, nice reflective paragraph.  

                  Trump to sabotage the Florida election.


Florida’s final debate between rivals Ron DeSantis and Andrew Gillum did not turn out as expected for President Trump and the Republican party.

“Don’t let Ron DeSantis lose the governor’s race next week,” said president Trump to his supporters in Florida Wednesday night at a political rally.

The debate, held at Broward College and hosted by the Florida Press Association presented voters with an onslaught of character insults.

Todd McDermott, the debate moderator and an anchor for WPBF, asked candidates the views on racism, where Mr. De Santis angrily rejected the questions, while Andrew Gillum expressed strong confidence on the topic.

Mr. De Santis response on such a controversial topic at the moment has left the party worried. He seemed to dismiss all questions and avoid the topic overall.

What seemed a winnable race for Republicans against Mr. Gillum, an outspoken progressive who supports impeaching Mr. Trump, has instead become neck-and-neck, with the charismatic Democrat drawing far more massive crowds than Mr. DeSantis, a telegenic Fox News regular who has proved uneven on the trail.

Confidential sources inside the white houses said president Trump is planning to prevent the loss of his favorite candidate in Florida.

Susie Wiles, lobbyist and Republican strategist said Republicans would do the best they can to win this election; they will not let a socialist ruin the state.

At just one day from the election, rumors between Democrats on trump sabotaging the election have arisen.

“He is the president of America, and of course he will not let his own party lose,” said, Daniela Perez, a Florida Democrat.

Current speculations started as president Trump expended lots of money for his favorite candidate at the Florida election and had started rallies for his candidate.

Numerous news outlets covering the election say voters are furious with the situation and feel Trump is being biased and influencing the decision of voters.

Trump said Florida is also his state and Democrats are about to ruin it. He, along with the Republican party has done the impossible to raise the popularity of his favorite candidate.

But Mr. DeSantis continues to fail republicans as he keeps more voters with questions whether the soon-to-be governor of Florida is racist.

During a rally in Jacksonville, FL for Rodesantis, an unidentified white man claiming to be Gillum in blackface was holding his (Rodesantis) banner. As Rodesantis was walking to the stage, he spotted the man in the crowd, smiled and said: “Nice to see you again, Gillum.” Even though he was probably not aware he was watched, nearby supporters filmed and laughed in approval. It was not only until the video hit the internet that Rodesantis started receiving enormous backlash for his remark at the rally. Rodesantis released a statement stating how he was not aware he was being filmed, and that he was not a racist and regrets his remark towards the white man “dressed” as Gillum in blackface.

There are speculations from the White House that President Trump will be hosting a televised conference tonight to speak on the matter at hand.

Although the white house has not confirmed anything at the moment, many sources say he is determined and will likely want to speak before the day of elections.

“There is nothing else we can do other than pray and hope for best of Florida,” said Daniela Perez, a Democrat voter.


Resultado de imagen para fake news

Reflective Paragraph:

The article contains a combination of the rhetorical appeals that help in convincing the readers of its accuracy. The intended audience consists of Republicans that agree with President Trump and with liberals that want change. It’s a fact that President Donald Trump thrives on this media by being impulsive, yet his dominance of it is striking. The “hook” to lure in readers was the headline that states rumors started as President Trump expended lots of money for his favorite candidate at the Florida election and has started rallies for his candidate. His established usage and unexpected sensitive demeanor of the media are the “hooks” of this article. Through showing that important figures were, in fact, saying what we were reporting.


Amber Einhorn elaborated and wrote the part about the rally in Jacksonville Fl.

Ashley Rodriguez wrote the end of the fake news story.

Augustina Tellez Elaborated the reflective paragraph.

Martina Moffatt Elaborated the reflective paragraph.

Maria Grijalva wrote the first part of the news story and edited the fake news.

Individual Assignment 4: Annotated Bibliography

Well done Amber. Remember to put your name and team number on top of assignments.  Good sources and good annotations.

On September 27, Dr. Christine Ford came forward to testify against the nomination of Brett Kavanaugh to the Supreme Court based on allegations of sexual assault that occurred 30 years ago. The media coverage of the aftermath of the testimony was clearly biased depending on the news source watched, listened to, or read. It will be shown that news outlets are in fact spinning the hearing in such a way to benefit their political alliances instead of focusing on the main issue at hand, being the sexual assault allegation.

Abramson, Jill. “This Hearing Is Stacked Against Christine Blasey Ford.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 27 Sept. 2018, This website article talks about even with the overwhelming evidence that supports Dr.Ford, Republicans in the Supreme Court scramble to find any piece of evidence to protect their fellow congressman Kavanaugh.
Andrews, Natalie, et al. “Republicans Plan to Push Ahead on Kavanaugh Confirmation.” The Wall Street Journal, Dow Jones & Company, 19 Sept. 2018, “Republicans forged ahead with a hearing Monday to consider sexual-assault allegations against Supreme Court nominee Brett Kavanaugh and set a deadline of Friday to determine whether his accuser appears, after days of political wrangling over how best to handle accusations that threaten his nomination.”
Klein, Renate. Framing Sexual and Domestic Violence through Language. 1st ed., Palgrave Macmillan, 2013. This book goes into how “metaphors in police homicide reports obscure domestic violence, how abstract language conveys stereotypes without anybody noticing, and how Western authorities have struggled to understand crimes in the name of honor. Language shapes responses to abuse and approaches to perpetrators and interfaces with national debates about gender, violence, and social change.”
Maddow, Rachel. “Dr. Ford Legal Team Calls GOP Arbitrary Deadline ‘Bullying’.” MSNBC, NBCUniversal News Group, 2018, “Rachel Maddow reads a late-breaking letter from the legal team of Dr. Christine Blasey Ford, responding to the arbitrary deadline set by Senator Chuck Grassley, asking for a one-day delay for Ford’s testimony and characterizing Republican arbitrary deadlines as “bullying.””
Weatherford, Doris. “Women in American Politics : History and Milestones.” CQ Press, 2012. “History and Milestones is a unique and comprehensive new reference detailing the milestones and trends in women’s political participation in the United States. This two-volume work provides much needed perspective and background on the events and situations that have surrounded women’s political activities. Women in American Politics offers insightful analysis on women’s political achievements in the United States, including the campaign to secure nation-wide suffrage; pioneer women state officeholders; women first elected to U.S. Congress, governorships, mayoralties, and other offices; and women first appointed as Cabinet officials, judges, and ambassadors.”
Whitaker, Lois Duke. “Women in Politics : Outsiders or Insiders? : a Collection of Readings.” Longman, 2011. “Updated in a new 5th edition, Women In Politics: Outsiders or Insiders, this reader provides relevant research on women and politics across a spectrum of topics and perspectives. With a feminist theoretical framework, it examines some gender differences in political attitudes and voting, looks at gender cultural reflections in the mass media and group politics, and examines how women have fared in competing for public office.”

Annotated Bibliography


Maria Grijalva

Team 14

Approved thesis:

The political and economic crisis that has emerged in Nicaragua has demonstrated to the world the importance of news on the social media platform. Journalists and citizens facing censorship could only turn to this platform for sharing their country’s truth.

Hi Maria,


Good work. Annotations could be a bit longer and more informative, but the sources are sound.  Overall, well-organized and I look forward to reading your essay.






Ramírez Sergio. Adiós Muchachos: a Memoir of the Sandinista Revolution. Duke University Press, 2012.


This book is about what motivated the Sandinistas to fought against Somoza, the triumph of them and their ideas to reconstruct the country of Nicaragua from poverty and destruction caused by the Somoza regime.



Sawchuk, Dana. “The Catholic Church in the Nicaraguan Revolution: A Gramscian Analysis.” Sociology of Religion, vol. 58, no. 1, Spr 1997, pp. 39–51. EBSCOhost,


This journal article explains how in the first revolution of Nicaragua the catholic church played a significant role on the Somoza regime. The bishop’s decision to support the Sandinistas was a very pragmatic one. Explains how hierarchy used religion to legitimate the split with Somoza and to promote the political problem of the bourgeois opposition which the bishops were aligned.



Gonzalez Solano, Bernardo. “SE AFERRAN AL PODER POR LA FUERZA DE LAS ARMAS: En Nicaragua: El Presidente Daniel Ortega y Rosario Murillo.” Siempre!, no. 3398, 2018, p. 58. EBSCOhost,


This magazine article, explains how the current crisis of Nicaragua has been shaped through the alliances made by the government of Nicaragua with the business sector. Since the reelection of Ortega and his wife on power Nicaragua started to decline. They just are in the power because of the guns and the Nicaraguans future remains unknown.





Gutiérrez, Noelia Celina. “OEA Valora Aplicar Nuevas Medidas a Nicaragua.”, 20 Oct. 2018,


This newspaper published in Nicaragua talked about the recent decision of the Organization of The American States on the crisis of Nicaragua. General secretary of OAS, Luis Almagro warned the government of Nicaragua about future sanctions if they do not try to stop the inhumane crisis.



“Viewpoint: Ortega’s Nicaragua Crisis Evokes Memories of Past.” BBC News, BBC, 1 Sept. 2018,


Fotographer Javier Bauluzm, winner of the Pulitzer prize, went to Nicaragua and argued that there are parallels between the current crisis and Nicaragua’s armed conflict of the 1980s, which he also covered. The internet and social media have become both tools and weapons for those demonstrating against President Ortega




Anderson, Jon Lee. “‘Fake News’ and Unrest in Nicaragua.” The New Yorker, The New Yorker, 28 Aug. 2018,


This source, published an article in which explains the control of Ortega’s regime over television and radio stations in Nicaragua to deliver fake news about the situation and make it seem for the poorest citizens that everything is fine.


Database presentation credits

Amber Einhorn: Researched and elaborated question #2

Ashley Rodriguez: Researched and elaborated question #1

Martina Moffatt: Researched and elaborated question #4

Augustina Tellez: Researched and elaborated question #3

Maria Grijalva: Edited and elaborated the presentation.

Individual Assignment 3: 48-hour news blackout

Amber Einhorn/ 5445713/ Team 14

Nicely written Amber. I like how you analyzed this reading and how it affected you.

Many millennials to this day like to pretend our reliance on social media isn’t as great as it is until we are challenged to go long periods of time completely disconnected from the world. As for myself, I didn’t grow up overly exposed to technology in the way some younger kids today are playing with tablets rather than with toys. I know how to leave my phone at home without worrying but I can’t imagine my life completely without instant knowledge of everything I would ever want to know at the tip of my fingers. With that said, I wasn’t sure how a 48- hour news blackout would affect me. But I went in confident anyways.

After reading “The End of Solitude” by William Deresiewicz, I was worried loneliness would take over my entire being without warning. I was only initially annoyed at the fact I could tell I was experiencing a slight internet withdrawal, but then after a conscious effort to keep myself busy, the withdrawal symptoms began to disappear. Then suddenly what initially felt like loneliness and exclusion from the world actually became a relaxing, self-reflective bliss. I found myself being able to pick up some old hobbies I gave up because I thought I didn’t have enough time for them. It made me realize how long 24 hours truly is, and how much can really get done.

I wondered if time passes by faster for people living with technology due to the constant stimulation. As much as I learned to appreciate the quiet and stillness of my new life I did miss being able to know what was on the news. Even with that, I didn’t feel the level of loneliness that William Deresiewicz so adamantly said, people my age would feel. I  inspected again his paper and noticed it was written in 2009, due to that I realized why I didn’t relate to what he wrote.

So much can change in nine years, and this decades 20-year-olds aren’t the same ones that were newly introduced to technology in the early 2000s or even the ones from 9 years ago. People my age today were slowly introduced into our new technology-filled lives, and know nothing other than it. The young adults back then did know a life before all the major tech came out thus having a point of comparison. Suddenly, if someone was lonely in the past they would no longer need to feel so with the world in their palms. It makes sense that Deresiewicz wrote how the 20-year-olds of that time would feel intense loneliness without technology because once introduced to a solution, why would someone want to give it up?

I realized that my overly-interconnected generation might have been raised on the internet which has its ups and downs. It is because of that, that we have a bigger voice than others our age ever had the chance to have, and if we choose to use it, we could change the world.