Team assignment 2: The Insider




occasional grammar issues here and there


Steven Lopez

Michael Geis

Neigine Petit-Frere

Kayla Serieux

  1. The mainstream media often face enormous challenges in trying to give audiences an accurate picture of the world. For individual journalists, there are extraordinary pressures and obstacles to getting at the truth and telling the stories audiences want and need.

You may select Jeffrey Wigand, 60 Minutes host Mike Wallace, producer Lowell Bergman, executive producer Don Hewitt, the Wall Street Journal editor who helped stop the smear or the NY Times reporter who exposed the inside story on how CBS handled the Wigand affair.

All of these people had significant personal and institutional pressures, some more than others. Please do not select your character because you believe everyone will write about that person. No team can analyze this case the same as someone else, unless they cheat.

Your essay should focus on how the principles and values of concealment and revelation apply to the tobacco case or the case at CBS News. 500 words.*


Major companies and businesses strive to conceal information that can be crucial to their success, even the government conceals information from their citizens. There are laws passed for the concealment of information ( the non- disclosure agreement is one way of closing shut the mouths of journalist), if the confidentiality agreement is broken then harsh prison sentences can be enforced. There are a plethora of  information that is beneficial for the public to know, but are locked, sealed and confidential, it’s a fight and most times a risk for journalist to give accurate, truthful information to their audience (the world). There is a lot of pressure and stress when trying to get the truth and nothing but the truth out, for the public to be the judge of such information. Sometimes sharing the truth can spoil your character, and ruin your life. Jeffrey Wigand wanted to be truthful about the tobacco company for the greater good of the world, he wanted everyone to know and understand what was dangerous, toxic and addictive in cigarettes. Trying to share this information costed him, his family, lifestyle, and character. The tobacco company (B&W) held confidential information from the public to ensure that their multi-billion dollar company could continue to strive in popularity, and financially. Jeffrey Wigand, who was a former vice president of research and development that worked on the development of reduced-harm cigarettes, at Brown & Williamson in Kentucky, blew the whistle on the tobacco company. The fact that Jeffrey knew so much information made him a target, and a threat to the company. The company tried to issue a restraining order, to forbid him from speaking and to discredit his knowledge on the dirty work of the company. CBS 60 min news source had to be very careful in sharing information to avoid certain lawsuits (Neigine). Without disclosure, in this situation, people are unaware about the products they are using and the danger it can bring to themselves. At least if the information is revealed to the public, it brings truth and allows people to use products at their own risk with their own willingness. Most products come with warning labels, fine prints, or list of potential dangers in their advertising. This is so that the people would be informed and the company will not be in legal trouble if something occurs because they told them so. Concealing information takes away one’s right to know and fogs their judgement about a certain issue or item, so they can not make a proper decision. Companieseven with the benefit of telling the truth and creating loopholes to keep themselves out of legal troublestill consider non-disclosure to prevent people from not wanting to buy their product and ruin their business, or even to reduce the possibility of getting into to legal trouble if their secrets are that bad. This is what the tobacco company wants: to keep the business going (Kayla). While concealment of information is important for some circumstances, it can hurt people and cause them to be in unforeseeable situations, it’s dangerous and allows space for lies, and fabrication of the truth. When these secrets or confidential information becomes a danger to society, it must be revealed.( Neigine)


  1. How does Jeffrey Wigand’s non-disclosure agreement (NDA) affect the flow of information in The Insider? What legitimate argument, if any, could Brown and Williamson (B&W) make in support of the agreement? What NDAs have recently been used in the public sector? Using the critical perspective, what are the implications of NDAs for government employees? 300 words.


Jeffrey Wigand’s NDA restricted him from giving out any confidential information about Big Tobacco. This instilled fear in him—considering the potential threat to his family, his home, his reputation, and his own life—which resulted in his lack of willingness to disclose the company. His hesitancy towards speaking up slowed down the flow of information being shared. Brown and Williamson can make the argument that since the NDA is a legal document, all sections of the agreement must be followed by law, or else legal action can take place. This means that Wigand’s disclosure would be considered a criminal act.


It has recently been revealed that Manigault Newman, along with Trump’s other employees, has signed an NDA. One of the agreements requires employees to not use confidential information that is detrimental towards Trump, his company, his family, or his family’s company. NDAs expect government employees to vow to keep the secrecy of certain information through their signature. This is an assumption that the employees would keep their promise. Though, the person who proposed the contract already questioned this assumption, as they added the consequence of being legal charged if said contract is broken. The expansion of the bonds of debate is usually in court or before court. The debate simply be the argument between lawyers in court and all other individuals involved, like in Wigand’s case. The debate can be about whether the specific NDA was legal or not, like in Manigault Newman’s case. It can also because whether the employee actually violated the contracts, like in both cases. NDA’s doesn’t better the society in a typical case. However, it does protects companies from legal issues and bad reputations as well as keep outsiders of the disclosed information blissfully unaware and carefree of a company’s doings. It’s a betterment for the companies and could reduce people’s anxiety towards them. (Kayla)


  1. John Scanlon and Terry Lenzner were hired by B&W to attack Wigand’s reputation. Jack Palladino and his team of investigators were hired by Richard Scruggs to counter their allegations. Using McLuhan as a lens, analyze the forms of media used by both Scanlon/Lenzner and Palladino. If this war over Wigand’s reputation had occurred in 2018, would today’s media have made things different? If so, how? 300 words.

Considering that this “war” occured a while ago it was a totally different media than we are used to today. On one hand you have Scanlon/Lenzer who were more critical of wigand than Palladino. As we all know there are two sides to every story and that is very evident in this film. It is hard to even compare the likes of the two critics because they are coming from two totally different sides. The media back then was you write about how you feel whether it be good or bad about the topic and to be truthful it was usually quite biased. Those biased papers and ideas were then passed on to anyone that felt as though they wanted to read them. This was not really fair because people thought and trusted that they were getting a truthful and unbiased look at what was going on. Therefore when you had two different people looking at the same thing and saying two very different things it’s’ quite confusing. The fact that there can be totally different opinions on the exact same topic is also a red flag that in this case the cigarettes maybe were bad.

If this war over wigand had occurred it would be a literal war. Back then when this first came out and became a prevalent issue there wasn’t many modes of communication. They had the news either over the TV or in a paper and that was basically it. In current time, if there was something this big to be debated it would be all over one of the many social media platforms that we have. People in every country whether it effects them or not would be commenting and putting in their opinion making a choice on one side or the other that much harder. The outside influence that a ton of random meaningless people would corrupt the argument. (Mike)

  1. In the film, Bergman, Wallace, and Hewitt attend a meeting with CBS Corporate.  CBS general counsel Helen Caperelli informs them of “tortious interference” and its implications for the 60 Minutes Wigand piece. Provide a detailed analysis of the rhetoric used by the participants in the meeting. For each speaker, who is their intended audience, and how do they use the modes of rhetoric? 300 words.

Helen Caperelli did everything she could in order to explain to the three men that the segment about Jeffrey Wigand could not be aired on television. Her corporate position and explanation about tortious interference helped her ethos and made her a very credible source for the news she was delivering. Caperelli went on to explain that B&W would be able to buy the company if Wigand told enough of their undisclosable information on air, delivering the logos behind her message. She ended with a statement about the company which shows her pathos and passion, “Our standards need to be higher than everyone else’s because we are the standard.”

Bergman introduces his ethos as he states that it is the job of the producers and workers to filter out right and wrong information that they receive from the public. This makes the news company a credible source, as long as they air the truth. His intended audience is the American people who he wants to help from malicious nicotine products. In trying to establish the logos for his argument, he insists that since Wigand is simply telling the truth, they have met their standard to publicize information. Wallace is the journalist and his primary concern is his show. He displays the credibility of his show by boasting that they have never lost a lawsuit and run a classy show. When Caperelli tells him that his show could be in grave risk if aired, Wallace asks “how grave?” in order to show his empathy towards the show. It is clear that his intended audience includes all viewers of 60 minutes as he intends to keep his show. Hewitt simply brings pathos to the table during the interview. He asks if the company has liability for the problem and also tries to find out the position on where CBS news stands. He does not participate much in the meeting, but it is visible that he is concerned for the company. (Steven)



When Romania brought forth a referendum that would constitutionally ban same-sex marriage, news entities worldwide reported the legislation, using pathos to appeal to higher level emotions such as fairness and justice.  To further develop their argument, each respective journalistic entity leaned on ethos through the usage of quotes of those possibly affected by the anti- LGBTQ referendum.





Danielle GoPaul

Team 9

48 Hour Blackout

Michael Gise

IDS 3309 B51

Due-  10/1/18

Group 9

Michael, You capture the uncertainty, ambivalence, and anxiety that we all feel in the new information environment.

Your style is enthusiastic, open, and refreshing.

As you can see, I revised your first paragraph (mine is in blue),not because it was bad but because there were a lot of little typos, etc. 

Watch out for run-on sentences, missing commas, apostrophes, clarity, etc.


48 Hour Blackout

This could have been the hardest assignment I have ever had to do. Not in the fact that its complicated or hard to understand its more in the fact that it’s just hard to do. When I get bored or when I’m trying to pass the time, or even just get out of an awkward situation I go on my phone and look at some sort of social media. The hard part about doing this assignment was not being able to do that. I had to find a way to entertain myself when I was bored. It isn’t even that I want to see what’s going on I just need to not be in the moment I was in or not be alone. When deresewicz talks about being alone isn’t actually alone he is totally correct. I felt as though even though I was surrounded by people since I couldn’t look at what was going on I was alone and left out.

This could have been the hardest assignment I have ever had to do. Not in the fact that it was complicated or hard to understand. It’s more in the fact that it was just hard to do. When I get bored or when I’m trying to pass the time, or even just get out of an awkward situation, I go on my phone and look at social media. The hard part about doing this assignment was not being able to do that. I had to find a way to entertain myself when I was bored. It isn’t even that I wanted to see what was going on. I just needed to not be in the moment I was in or not be alone. When Deresciewicz talks about being alone isn’t actual alone, he is totally correct.[NOT CLEAR] Even though I was surrounded by people, I couldn’t look at what was going on. I was alone and left out.

I am not a huge person into the news. I don’t watch it very often or try not to pay attention because I find it to be quite depressing. You hardly ever hear about anything that’s going on that is going well or is positive. However, for this assignment I tried to take it a step further and not just avoid regular news but I also cut out things that I would consider news in my own way. I took it upon myself to log out of all my social media accounts, in order to get no notifications to tempt me or make me stray from what I was doing. Not only that, but I have always been very attached to my phone, so I wanted to know if I could truly go without it. I only texted and used snapchat the entire 48 hours.

I love talking to people and I consider myself a very social person. In order for me to stop a conversation and tell them to stop talking because I couldn’t hear what they were saying was also hard for me to do. Not in the fact that I wanted to know so bad, but more for the fact of telling people no and telling them I couldn’t listen to what they wanted to say. When someone knows that you enjoy something and they know that you get joy out of hearing something, they get excited to tell you. I know I get this way for sure, and when I know something someone likes and I’m the first one to tell them, and I get to give them that joy, I take pride in that. To turn someone down and tell them that I couldn’t hear them out was not only rude but it hurt. It made me really appreciate having people around and having real human connections in order to know someone cares about me enough to know what I like and they get physically upset when they wouldn’t share that information with me.



48-Hour News Blackout

Steven Lopez

You capture the uncertainty, ambivalence, and anxiety that we all feel in the new information environment.

Good work!

Need to work on connecting one idea to the next. Provide transitions between sentence and between paragraphs so there’s a flow within each paragraph.

Individual Assignment #3

PID: 5907850


Learning to deal with solitude is important for growth and prosperity in each of our lives. However, solitude is very rare in today’s society because rather than learning about ourselves, we try anything possible to reconnect with the outside world. Deresiewicz says that solitude is the “arena of heroic self-discovery, a voyage through interior realms made vast and terrifying,” The assignment made me embrace this feeling rather than be stuck at home and confuse the experience with boredom. Rather than waking up and reading through countless sports notifications, I heard nothing but the sound of my alarm and proceeded to start my day. My main source of news comes from twitter, or several sports- related applications on my phone. Not being able to know the outcome of important games or sit through highlights on my phone truly challenged me to engage in other activities. In order to keep my mind busy, I spent hours at the gym playing basketball and then tried to spend as much time as I could with friends. It almost disappoints me to now realize that I started engaging in those other activities because I could not enjoy my own version of solitude, where I needed to be connected with the outside world. Deresiewicz describes how many young people deal with solitude these days, “our use of technology — seems to involve a constant effort to stave off the possibility of solitude, a continuous attempt, as we sit alone at our computers, to maintain the imaginative presence of others.” In order to feel connected with the rest of the world I had to go out and be with others in those faux social activities that Deresiewicz describes. I often check my phone for important sporting events and that dictates what time I have to be home to watch them. Without this attachment to technology and the outside world, I was free to do whatever I wanted.

The second day I tried to enjoy my solitude by spending several hours fishing and eating without my regular connection to technology. I find it vital to understand what is going on in my community and around the world. Without news I am blind to my surroundings. However, I am so consumed by the internet that I allow it to influence my actions and emotions. It is vital to understand what is going on in our communities and around the world, without news we are blind to our surroundings. However, young adults are so consumed by the internet that we allow it to influence our actions and emotions. When the technology is absent, people feel lonely. Deresiewicz sums it up in the article when he says, “the Internet is as powerful a machine for the production of loneliness as television is for the manufacture of boredom.” He continuously describes his generation as the one of bored by  the invention of the television. But the internet brought about the generation of loneliness. I now have a new perception for the word solitude, and it does not include anyone besides myself nor any thoughts other than my own.

Assignment 3: 48 Hour News Blackout



You capture the uncertainty, ambivalence, and anxiety that we all feel in the new information environment.
Thoughtful, frank writing. Your essay was unique among the submissions.
Watch for run on sentences. When in doubt, write simple, plain English sentences. I have one for you below in blue.
I do find myself in Deresiewicz’s argument. I see my self as the girl who texts, probably not as often as every 10 waking minutes, but a good portion of the day. Even in my solitude, I get lonely and feel the urge to reach out to someone; to get connected. At the very least, I am inviting and allow messages to come, checking them whether or not I really want to rather than completely putting myself in “Do Not Disturb” mode. This in itself gets me connected: I see what other people are doing, I observe conversations, and I receive greetings even if my only intention was to clear my notifications. In other cases where I put the phone down, “me time” is still community time. What I like to do alone ironically includes connecting myself to other people. For example, I like to watch live streams of people playing video games, in which the host speaks to the viewers through a chat on the side. In addition, the games I play online more than likely requires interaction and cooperation between players—whether as cartoon pilgrims with daily town meetings or as people with weapons with a shared goal to take down the enemy. All of this was done when I was alone…or when I thought I was alone. There was no physical being around me, the house would be empty and quiet, and I would be wrapped up in a blanket in my bubble: what I consider to be alone. Yet, in that, I’m still making connections through a screen. This hugely represents Deresiewicz’s idea that, because of advances in technology, our ability to be alone is taken away, but it is we ourselves who are taking that ability away.
In general, I don’t connect myself with news stories. The most the blackout has impacted me was making me a little behind on my daily requirement to read the New York Times. Being disconnected from the news gives me a feeling of being out of the loop. The blackout increased this feeling only a little. This is because I don’t find news that interesting and tend to wait until news comes to me. If information is able to reach someone who’s not looking for it, it usually means the information is of importance. If not, it’s wasn’t meant to be received by the person. Not the best way of thinking, but I simply don’t like being caught up in the commotion of the world unless it is absolutely necessary. This is why I didn’t feel too anxious during the blackout. What I did allow myself to do was to bring in my own thoughts, uninfluenced by things occurring in the world, and from which I am disconnected. I’m in, but disconnected to. This is a bit of the solitude Deresiewicz refers to. Yet, there’s also this nag of being unknowledgeable unaware of the world. When someone talks about an event, and I am unaware of it, the only option I am left with is to question “what?”, put on a face of ignorance, and nod in silence.  and being unaware of it, leaving yourself with only the options to question “what?” with a face of ignorance or to nod in silence, pretending I pretend that I’m in the that bubble of knowledge. This is how I already live, but not as extreme as a total blackout.

Forty-Eight Hour News Blackout

Danielle,you capture the uncertainty, ambivalence, and anxiety that we all feel in the new information environment.

Your commentary on your relationship to news is quite good.

Watch for run-on sentences.

A few sentences could be expressed more simply and directly.

The essay is a bit short at around 410-420  words.


Thesis: Deresiewics states in the postmodern age validation is earned through how the world views us and what information we are made privy to. To this degree, he is right. Disconnecting from the vast global community creates a hairline fracture of our reality. It dwindles our self-confidence, gives way for isolation and creates an unbearable loneliness.

News in the postmodern age has a unifying effect on society. At its basis, it is a tool used for people to make informed decisions such as which route to take or which candidate best aligns with your their political standpoint.

Deresiewics cites said the end of solitude creates an unsettling surge of loneliness for a postmodern society.  I am not exempt from this idea. The 48-hour news blackout created a deep sense of isolation and loneliness for me. It was not due to my lack of connectivity to the world of information, but instead, the lack of accessibility to the vehicle for those communications. Avoiding social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter and Instagram deprived me of two things: 1.) unlimited news accessibility and 2.) accessibility to the lives of millions. Cutting off such an integral part of my reality produced feelings of anxiousness, loneliness and an intangible fear of missing out. The production of these negative feelings was marked by the inability to be a functioning member of society: including but not limited to the basic need to form and sustain meaningful relationships. I was unable to function as a member of society and sustain meaningful relationships. During the 48 hours, my ability to connect with people suffered as people attempted to discuss current events with me. My only option was to withdraw, thus creating more isolation.

The pervasive nature of news unconventionally [how unconventionally?] creates a symbiotic relationship between information dissemination and the public. I experienced this singlehandedly during the 48-hour news blockade. The news acts as a vital tool for us to make decisions, form opinions and sharpen our worldview. At a fundamental level it is the source of basic information such a weather forecast or a traffic report. These examples which, indicate the role news plays in our functionality as individuals. It should also be noted that the news acts as a unifying entity to mobilize and effect change campaigns, including: the “Black Lives Matter” Campaign, “The Civil Rights Movement” and even the “Me-Too” movement. These highly publicized events work to shape public opinion and gain insight to the community largely.  As I have learned, the intrusion of solitude that news presents are is necessary to function not only as an individual but also as a global citizen.

It is necessary for news to intrude on my solitude if I am to function as an educated individual and a global citizen.

Danielle GoPaul



The Ghost in the shell assignment

Excellent work, Team 9. Good content, good writing!

Kayla Serieux

Neigine Petit-Frere

Michael Gise

Steven Lopez

Group 9



  1. Public Security Section 9 is an anti-terrorism arm of the government, operating on the edge, or sometimes beyond, the boundaries of the law. Citizens are kept in the dark of the activities, and even the existence, of section 9.
  2. a. In its covert activities dealing with the Puppet Master, does section 9 go too far? Explain.


I do believe that section 9 goes too far. The public does not know that section 9 exists and because of this they hold much power and operate independently from the government’s acumen (they can operate with or without the government’s consent). In dealing with the puppet master, their operations surpass the boundaries of law ( Neigine Petit-Frere). These operations usually result in casualties that are never reprimanded, as they exceed any limitations without government consequence.  Another example of their carelessness was when Motoko Kusanagi assassinated a diplomat of a foreign country. This was in order to prevent a programer from deserting their home country. Towards the end of the movie, members of Section 9 murder the driver of the car which did not carry the body they were looking for, the one that contained the Puppet Master’s ghost. A member of the team named Togusa said himself, “You didn’t have to go that far.” Which displays the extremity of their behavior. (Kayla)


  1. b. Is a government ever justified in violating its own laws to ensure the safety of its citizens? If not, why not? If so, what examples can you provide, either from the film or real life?  


—-The government is justified in violating its own laws. When section 9 broke numerous laws, it was because they had to take the extra step to ensure their country and their citizens were not completely destroyed (Neigine). An example of these actions was their pursuit of the ghost-hacked thug. Batou’s attempts to shoot him put the nearby citizens in harm’s way. Although he tried to handle the situation safely by telling them to get down, they weren’t safe from bullets—or Batou himself from shoving them—until he and the man were in a new location. However, if he and Kusanagi would not have capture the thug in the first place, he would have been used to continue his catastrophic actions which put citizens in danger. Therefore, the consequence of not violating the law would’ve been much greater than the consequence of violating a law against shooting a fleeing individual (Kayla). This also applies in real life, as it is necessary to exceed the speed limit when attempting to catch a speeding driver. Officers should always take any measures they see fit in order to catch a dangerous suspect. They are capable of hurting anyone and the government should always be justified if they are truly looking after the safety of their citizens (Steven).


  1. c. Is a government ever justified in keeping secret its violations of the law? Explain and give an example.

Yes, the government is justified in keeping secrets. People would panic if they knew about the puppet master and everything that goes on in section 9, including all the casualties they cause. As per real life, the government has held many secrets such as the helicopter incident which became viral via wikileaks. The U.S. army ordered a helicopter strike in Iraq which killed many people and footage of the strike was released on the internet. Many Americans were unhappy upon release of the video and did not understand why such force had to be used when some Iraqi civilians were also killed in the process. This is why many times when the government violates the law (in favor of its citizens), it is justifiable. It is impossible for the government to make everyone happy under such intense circumstances. The picture on the bottom was taken directly from the wikileaks video and shows the Iraqi being looked down upon by the apache helicopter. (Steven)


  1. The sophistication of many technologies in the film is futuristic; their existence is not. Bionics, the Internet, and artificial intelligence are today relatively commonplace. One of the most disturbing scenes in the film is the garbage man with false, implanted memories. This is not all that far-fetched. Studies show that even so simple a technological artifact as a photograph can be used to create false memories that people are certain are real.


  1. How is information technology used in the world of Ghost in the Shell to influence and control behavior and perception?    


—-The majority of the population have “cyber brains,” that are placed in prosthetic bodies. The cyber brains are vulnerable to attacks from computer hackers ( the puppet master) and digital viruses, they can also be controlled by the government. Majority of the population has artificial memories, they as a whole are limited to the creators specifications, they would believe what their creators believe, and do what the creators want them to do. They are restrained from thinking freely, and their personal thoughts are limited. This controls their behavior and perception of  the world. Though they might feel human and believe that they have free will, they are not exactly human; however, they are subject to and can have a “human experience”. An example is when Motoko felt as if she herself was an individual because she had memories, but then Batou shuts down her argument telling her that she is just a self preserving program, and that she can and may be controlled. The information technology in the ghost shell is used to control the populations behavior and perception.(Neigine)


  1. In his essay, Deresiewicz argues “…that solitude enables us to secure the integrity of the self as well as to explore it.”
  2. How does Major Kusanagi utilize solitude? What insight does it give her?


In her solitude, Major Kusanagi likes to dive. When she dives, “[she feels] fear, anxiety, isolation and darkness. Sometimes [she feels] hope…” These are emotions, human emotions: emotions a cyborg would only dream of having. She talks about the capabilities of humans—the ability to be free, and having original memories, a distinguishable face and voice—and compares them to the capabilities of cyborgs—amazing athletic skills and “the ability to access vast amounts of information from an infinite network.” The combination of the two is what makes Kusanagi her, except, she doesn’t have an original face, voice, or memories, nor is she free. She essentially belongs to the government; If she gives up her job, she gives up her parts. This is what makes her feel so powerful, yet “confined within boundaries.” She can try to grasp human capabilities, but in the end she’s unsure of her own identity and is trapped by government orders and her own dilema.  

When she dives, she imagines becoming someone else when she floats back. She pins this on the decompression, the experience when floating from the depths of water as the pressure is being reduced. This isn’t a typical experience for cyborg, but of a human diver. Another definition of decompression is the process of expanding computer data. Kusanagi is a computer who wants to expand her experiences, data, beyond her limitations. She wants human capabilities, and with her search for an identity, she wants to be something more, something new: someone else. With seeing the close similarities between her birth and the way she dives, it can be inferred that she wants to be reborn. (Kayla)


  1. b. Is Deresiewicz right when he says we are approaching a time when information technology makes solitude socially undesirable, or even impossible? Has that time already occurred in the world of the film? Explain your answer.

Yes, I believe that it is almost frowned upon to want to be alone. We have come upon a time where it is harder than ever to be fully alone, because at the touch of a button using our cell phones we can be connected to hundreds or thousands of people at once.(mike) The government and section 9 holds so much information and power, that solitude is in fact impossible. The population futuristically, as shown in the movie is controlled by technology. A majority of the population is programmed and everyone desires to be connected. Information technology is their livelihood, it is how their world functions, in the film everything is futuristic and computerized. No one is ever truly in solitude. (neigine) Everything is controlled by somebody and the fact that most people are partly robot makes it nearly impossible to not be controlled. (mike)


  1. The movie was based on a manga originally published in 1989.


  1. a. Various forms of media (using McLuhan’s definition of a medium as “an extension of ourselves”) have had an impact on the way people use, create, store, access, and communicate information. Give 3 historical examples of such media and describe their impact.


Speech, specifically human language, allowed for verbal communication between individuals. It is what enhanced social interactions, leading to cooperation, communities, and societies. It also allowed for expression outside of body language and gestures.

Writing, in one of the most simplistic forms: the pen and paper, gave speech a way to transform into something visual and tangible. Information, stories, etc, could be documented instead of having to rely on memorization (Kayla). Written work also allowed for people to send their writing much further than where speech was able to go. It is impossible for the documented work to change or be forgotten such as an oral story.

The radio impacted the way we communicated as a society and it was the first electronic device that came about with significance. It allowed for the first broadcasts which truly connected people from across the country and brought together households to listen to music and all types of programs (Steven).

  1. b. Select the one medium that has appeared after 1989 which has had the greatest impact on the information landscape. Explain.

The emergence of the internet has had a major impact on the information landscape. The ability at any point in time to have access to anything that is going on in the world was never even a thought many years ago. (mike) It has made us less connected to each other than we have ever been before, which is rather ironic because it was devised in order to bring us together. The creation of the internet has deteriorated human interaction, as it is so often to see people always connected to their phones and electronic devices. However, this connection has changed the way we receive information. Media outlets such as newspapers have almost been abolished by the internet, as the successful newspaper companies have had to make the change to online subscriptions. Many TV shows are being replaced by popular youtube channels because you can directly search what you want to see. A short ad or two on a youtube video is much less than the ten or fifteen minutes spent watching television commercials. (Steven)  


  1. c. How might the technology in answer 4b, above, have affected the story?

If the movie had this technology i feel as though section 9 would have never existed or lasted. The reason behind that being there has to be people who see the murders or killings that happened. It only takes one picture of them doing something bad in order to get stopped by the government, whoever their leader may be. This isn’t the only effect it would have however, because not only this stuff but if the communication and sharing of information was that easy to the public they would also be able to advertise and help get tips on the people they need help finding. The main downside would be the fact that it would also be so easy to get any of the information that people share so if they ever messed up and killed or took the wrong person and then that word got out they would be screwed. (mike)