Thesis statement: Secrecy, confidentiality and lies are correlated. Lies exist to conceal secrets which by silent promises or not, must be kept confidential but it is in one’s hands to nurture or stop lies that grow secrecy.

When you first agree to keep a promise you know what you are getting yourself into. One must know that if they can’t keep secrets, then they should not commit to doing so. If one commits to doing so, then that secret must be protected as if it were yours even if it means that you have to lie. There is an interrelation between all of these terms; they all stand together.

When you promise confidentiality to someone, especially to your best friend, you have the obligation to secrecy. This year, my best friend whose name I’ll change to Vanessa to protect her identity, and I, started working at the same restaurant. This new restaurant had good vibes and many people our age worked there too. Vanessa had been in a relationship for two years with this guy that from my point of view, treated her in a bad way. She started to realize that herself and became a little distant from him. Sometime later, she started to go out more with her friends and have time for her. During that time, she met this guy from work called Sebastian whom she began to like. She felt confused because that had never happened to her before.

One night, my coworkers and I went to a party. In short, Vanessa ended up kissing Sebastian. From that moment on, without her telling me or anyone else, we all knew that this occurrence had to be kept as a secret.

Time passed by and rumors started to rise until they reached Vanessa’s boyfriend’s ears. He, who knew I am her best friend, asked me if the rumor was true. I had to put my best face and deny it to protect my friend’s secret with lies. I felt I was between the sword and the wall since I’m not used to lying, but I had one job and it was to make him think something totally opposite. I felt compelled to lie and told him, in a very serious way, that those were just rumors and that I was the one who kissed Sebastian. This is how I started to nurture the lie, but I knew I had to guard the information that my friend didn’t want him to know. The more one tries to guard secrets, the more the lie grows. GOOD RETELLING. OUCH HOPE SHE AND HER BOYFRIEND HAVE BOTH MOVED ON.

Mariana Murillo.



Thesis: Secrecy, lying and confidentiality interconnect. Lies protect secrecy and secrecy protects lies. Confidentiality supports the need to lie to save someone’s reputation and/or from being ridiculed. We are put into situations where it comes down to choosing between self-morals or protection of others.

I recently worked for a Communications and Marketing firm that dealt with clients in the entertainment industry. Our clients were singers and actresses in the Latin American market. There were multiple times where I was put in a situation where I was bound to lie to keep a secret from someone I promised confidentiality. My boss and I were both required to lie about a situation that could become top news in the Latin entertainment industry. Our biggest client was married with children and had an affair with another woman and who became pregnant. He came to us and told us the situation he was in. Somehow, rumors started going around and as publicist being the direct connection between the artist and the media, media outlets started reaching out. My boss and I received hundreds of calls a day from outsiders trying to get the inside scoop. We felt the responsibly not to only protect our client’s personal relationship but to also protect his image. It was our duty to keep the confidentiality we promised our client even though it required lying and doing something not morally correct. INTERESTING EXAMPLE

The importance of privacy in this situation is to keep control of a reputation and from being ridiculed. Known artists always have a spotlight on where ever they go, whatever they do, they are being watched. Everyone around them is waiting for them to mess up in order to have a reason to judge. Looking at privacy like protection, made everyone around him responsible for keeping this secret. When considering that “newsworthiness” is loosely interpreted, some people might say “who cares” but it is big news to others. As insiders, my boss and I had the power to control the secret. The outsiders were dying to get a hold of the precious information to gain power and feel advantage against other sources. In order to keep the secret my boss and I needed to maintain the lies alive. The secrecy made our lies grow and multiply. INSIGHTFUL We were willing to do all of this in order to maintain the intimacy and confidentiality we had with our client. The connection we had with the client was deep. We displayed loyalty to the client and treachery to the outsider. The moment we were asked about the rumor and decided to protect the secrecy with lies, we protected the lies with the secret. At times, we are put in situations where you need to choose between self morals or protection of others, it is up to us to decide what’s best. When you give someone your confidentiality, you are promising to protect their secret no matter if it requires lying. WHO IS THIS PERSON? HEH.

End of Solitude / Blackout – Josber Lopez

“The last thing to say about solitude is that it isn’t very polite.” Truer words have never been said. Solitude doesn’t discriminate. You can be a billionaire or so poor you don’t have 2 nickels to rub together and make a third, solitude can and most likely will find its way into your mind and heart at some point in your life.

William Deresiwicz points out that the concepts of loneliness and boredom are pretty modern. Technological, medicinal and logistical advancements have made the world smaller but have swayed humanity further apart. Us humans no longer have to depend on our neighbors and fellow community members as much as we used to. We rarely stray out of our small circles and the people we come across on a daily basis are merely scenery.

My experience was fairly difficult due to the circumstances of my job. I’m talking to people all day, and even though I do not have to talk about the news to function, it’s always a great ice-breaker and filler in any conversation. I work in the Doral area and I come across people from all over the world, particularly Venezuelans. The situation in Venezuela is pretty bleak and some of the people I deal with have been heavily affected, so they sometimes feel inclined to share their experiences with me. In order to avoid this I went straight to the point with all my conversations, being as brief and concise in all interactions. This did not really affect my performance on the short term but I do feel that if I did have those meaningful conversations about life and current events I would’ve brought my workplace more business in the future.

The dollars and cents did not affect me emotionally, though. I did feel like a robot after those 48 hours because I could not share those meaningful conversations with my fellow Hispanics who are going through hardships similar to what my parents went through decades ago.

“Loneliness is not the absence of company, it is grief over that absence.” I did miss those interactions at the end of both days. My day went by slower, the repetition and inauthenticity of my responses in order to avoid any talking about the news had me tired and empty inside. I was so tired I decided to skip the gym, which is were I usually black out the news for about an hour or two five times a week without any problems, deepening my empty state. INTERESTING.

The lack of news updates and checking up on social media wasn’t that bad because I have limited my use of both due to the bombardment of news stories on TV and the internet. Everything from every political and social perspective feels so overwhelming and at the same time disappointingly repetitive. I did miss Thursday Night Football, which was not a bummer because I heavily dislike the Patriots, akin to my dislike towards today’s current news cycle. HA.


News Blackout

Willaim Deresiewicz describes solitude as an essential to listen to your own voice. Deresiewicz explains that teens do not see the importance of solitude and do no understand what it would be like. We are not only social beings, we are also meant to be alone and separated from it all. Deresiewicz says that solitude is key for spiritual growth and to hear our own voice. Solitude is disappearing in social idea and can now be considered was “weird.” After reading and understanding Deresiewicz thoughts, it is easier to practice and appreciate solitude.

To start, it was normal for me to feel anxious and desperate at the beginning. I started to focus on other things like reading and riding bikes rather than looking for news and refreshing the news app every so often. I start to rely on feelings and emotions to decide what decisions I should make rather than technology and more specifically news indirectly decide for me. I felt inspired by the walks I took and readings that put me to sleep. Considering that news are usually negative, they are most likely to discourage us to celebrate or even do things that makes us happy. After seeing on the news multiple shootings, violent attacks happening and government problems over seas, it is normal for my mood to change.

After talking about the negative impact the news sometimes have, they also have a positive. News are important and society should follow news. In today’s world, more than ever violent attacks are happening very often. Therefore, we tend to see the news only when tragic world-wide known events happen. We should all be keeping up with the news everyday and not take it for granted. As news make it hard to maintain solitude, they also makes us sit back and think about why all these tragedies are happening. I can personally say that the more violent attacks happen the more I stay up at night thinking of the meaning of life. I get lost in my thoughts of what is really important in life and if i die tomorrow will I be happy with everything I have accomplished and the way I’ve lived.

After experiencing solitude, I observed that solitude is needed once in a while but it is also very important to be updated in the news. It is one of the those things that as much as I would love to get away from, you just can’t. It is not good to through life oblivious of what is happening in the world.



rhetorical analysis

Assignment #1

In my opinion the article was perfect because this subject is important in our life and it should be always taken care of and figuring it out so the public can understand not everything in our memories is right. The authors did a good job writing this article and supporting it.  THIS IS A REVIEW NOT A THESIS STATEMENT.

In the beginning of the article an example was giving about relying on the memory and how sometimes it could be wrong. Some people talk relying on their feelings before their brains, so they end up saying something wrong and it can never be change because once an important character say something it will stick there forever. The writers gave an example of Dr. Tyson and the president George W. Bush. The writers relayed more on facts on study by giving an example of the psychologist Sir Frederic Charles Bartlett about his experiments of testing the memory, such as mimicked the “telephone” and how it works by showing an incredible result that can convince the people about how we cannot rely on our memory all the time. They also said “Overconfidence in memory could emerge from our daily experience: We recall events easily and often, at least if they are important to us, but only rarely do we find our memories contradicted by evidence, much less take the initiative to check if they are right.”. The authors have covered a lot of ideas and facts of their main idea of why our memory fails us and used good ways to convince people because some people won’t agree when it comes to only science and with that I mean when the authors covered their article by using a scientific basis with the psychologist Sir Frederic Charles Bartlett of his experiments. RUN ON SENTENCE. ANALYZE RATHER THAN SUMMARIZE. Some people only agree when they hear of a real situation that happened so that they can be convinced. The authors brought more than one situation that’s happened to have the same issue when memory fails us to support their article in a good way and convincing way, where also the readers can be more interested with reading the article. The top three comments were convincing because they were covering the base of the article and the most important part they were supporting the article by showing the people that it’s true that sometimes our memories could be mistaken and we should not rely on our memories all the time when we make a speech or a conversation especially in a public place because once you say something not right that could harm another person or even another whole community so we better think before we say something. I think comments are the reason of success because it shows us how the idea is represented to the public, so that people can like or dislike the idea. Comments also, help the writers to fix their mistakes or to relook if something wrong was said in the article.


Chabris and Simons mainly use logos and ethos as a way to ensure that their readers feel that their article is credible while using everyday vernacular so their points come across clearly. Ashley N. Sanchez

In Chabris and Simons’ article, “Why Our Memory Fails Us”, they start off by giving their readers a popular example of how someone’s memory, no matter how smart or well known, could fail them. They use logos throughout their writing by giving different examples of how the memory of important or well-known people has failed them, as it did with Dr. Tyson, Mr.Bush, and Hillary Clinton. The writers are able to increase their credibility of what they are saying by adding to their logos and ethos when discussing different experiments that have been done by different psychologists on how our memory works, and how our beliefs are able to influence the way people remember events on a day to day basis. Throughout the piece, common vernacular is used as a way to ensure that their readers are able to understand everything that is being explained so they would be more likely to agree with what is being stated without there being any sort of confusion. The authors also use well-known examples, such as 9/11, since it is common knowledge for the majority of people as a way to connect to their audience. The article undergoes a shift from giving specific examples of when a person’s memory had failed them, to experiments that were done in order to give an explanation for why our own memory may not be reliable at all times, and how our brains have a way of creating its own version of something that happened even if those things did not actually happen or are not entirely true. The text also shifts from mainly logos and ethos to pathos towards the end of the article as a way to defend Tyson, Bush, and Clinton when the authors state that all three of them are still “ intelligent, educated people”, and that Dr. Tyson is a good scientist  because he was able to realize his mistake and was able to admit he was wrong. Their memory failure is also down played when the authors say “ordinary memory failures”, by using the word ordinary they are generalizing this phenomenon to something that is common place within society, and also something that happens to all of us so there is no need to be critical when this sort of thing happens. The use of pathos is also emphasized when Chabris and Simons advise their readers to be more understanding and to let these instances go rather than dwell on them. The comments from the readers’ choice and NYT picks differ in that those in the NYT pick are able to relate to and bring up other instances where someone’s memory had failed them and understand that it is something that is common rather than criticizing Tyson, Bush, or Clinton for making this mistake.  The comments in the reader’s’ choice comments were basically the same as those in the NYT comments except for one comment that criticizes Bush’s intelligence rather than talking about the actual topic that is being discussed.



Mariana Murillo

Thesis statement: To make writing credible, appealing, and logical; Ethos and Logos from the Aristotle’s rhetorical triangle appeal have been used by two writers to explain memory fallibility which can shape society in different ways.  WHAT IS YOUR ARGUMENT REGARDING THIS?

Chabris and J. Simons present us an article where they intend to analyze memory fallibility and how it can shape our society in different ways. As said by them, memory failures have led to many social, political, and cultural issues. This subject about how our memory responds through time and to different events, has become controversial that even numerous researches have been conducted and experiments have been connected to this matter. WORDING IN LAST SENTENCE DOES NOT WORK

The authors of “Why Our Memory Fails Us” use their THEIR? Logos throughout their writing to persuade and inform their readers with facts such as things that certain people had said at a certain time and place, through studies and experiments like the one conducted by the psychologist Henry L. Roediger, and people’s anecdotes like the Dr. Tyson memory fallacy about Mr. Bush speech. GOOD They heavily rely on studies to get their point across. By doing this, they can pass down credibility to the readers who are going to perceive all of this information as logical and credible. In order to maintain their credibility, Ethos is used as well to build trust and credibility between writers and readers. GOOD The authors, who convey a sense of authority, seem educated and well informed on the subject and the participation of one of them in an expert panel makes the information even more credible.

Their well arranged ideas and paragraphs are consistent throughout the writing as well as the purpose of it. The direct and objective tone used makes the article look formal, precise, and solid. Although a tone shift can be perceived towards the last part to a more sympathetic one, when they suggest to admit error when your memory fails since it happens to everyone, the writing style remains constant.

The top three comments on the readers’ picks are totally different from one another. As read before, there are several types of online commenters, and there is a comment for each reader to like according to their perspective on the subject. We can find an echo chamber comment by Tyson himself, in which he provides links to information that talks about his beliefs over and over again. The second is a troll commenter. He quoted Mr.Bush’s silly sayings that don’t match with the subject that was being touched. Lastly, we have the serious commenter who took his time and knowledge to try to engage with the writer and other similar readers. On the other hand, the NYT picks provide clever information that goes beyond what has already been analyzed so comment readers’ can look at other points of view.

The NYT approach to ranking comments is effective since the most interesting and liked comments are on the top, which are the ones people are more likely to keep commenting on and looking at. It is a good way to organize comments but ranking them isn’t really needed since readers can scroll down and read as many comments as they want.

Memory fails and us, as human beings, must understand that it is in our nature to make mistakes. This message was perfectly conveyed by Chabris and Simons through their Logos and Ethos which established credibility and assurance.