Team Assignment 2: The Insider

Excellent work.


Ana Rubiano, Juliana Hontou, Nicole Nissing, Alejandro Aguiar

Group 2

1- The Insider does a good job in showing just how far a big company will go when it faces risks of having something they don’t want to get out, exposed to the public. Jeffrey Wigand had to learn the hard way that when going up against a corporation like Big Tobacco, he would have a ton of people doing everything they can to stop him by any means necessary. In a situation like Wigand, where he was a former worker for the company and had legal ties that connected his confidentiality to them, he faced a huge risk in losing almost everything by exposing the truth. The movie goes to show just how difficult and dangerous it is to take down big corporations that are committing terrible crimes. These corporations place limits like non-disclosure agreements and all kinds of threats that aim in stopping a person from revealing their lies. Just like Contracts of Silence mentioned, confidentiality agreements in these cases serve as barrier by making legal issues work as a force to stop the truth from coming out.

As the movie goes on, one notices the crazy lengths that the tobacco company takes in shutting down Wigand’s revelation. Apart from receiving threats from the CEO and several other death threats, Wigand also faces warning of being imprisoned if he were to testify against them. Situations like these happen all the time where an employee finds out the ugly truth about the company they work for but have no other option than stay quiet because of confidentiality agreements that they had previously signed. With NDA’s and other agreements, corporations and companies are able to make big money by keeping secrets that would put their products at risk.

As the movies shines the light away off Wigand and places it on Lowell Bergman, the audience is yet again introduced to another tactic that companies use to shut down their exposure. When Big Tobacco’s efforts in preventing Wigand from doing the interview fails, they move on to threaten CBS and convince them to air an edited version of the interview instead.

One can see just how easily the news they watch everyday can be easily manipulated so that certain truths are not revealed. One of they key realizations from this movie is that those with money can have such a big influence on media. With money, corporations feels as if they are protected behind a big wall that lets them get away with doing illegal things in order to make more money.

The movie ends by Big Tobacco finally being exposed for the truth behind nicotine. Wigand shows the world that corporations like these put profit way ahead of the public’s health. However, the win for him didn’t come without a cost. Apart from the threats he received, he went on to have his wife and kids leave him. The movie represents the weight that confidentiality holds in corporations and just how difficult they make it for people to bring out the truths that these corporations are hiding.

Image result for jeffrey wigand and tobacco

2- The Insider is a film full of suspense, dilemma and controversies. Jeffry Wigand’s signed a non-disclosure agreement (NDA) with his former employer Brown and Williamson. The NDA prohibits Wigand from disclosing any confidential information that may put his former employer’s business in jeopardy. The NDA makes it difficult for Wigand to freely express himself in a tense interview conducted by Mike Willis. More so, the NDA prevents CBS from airing the full unedited interview for fear of being conjoined in the yet to be filed case against Jeffry Wigand’s contravention of the NDA. Even so, it goes without saying that Brown and Williamson have every right to legitimately defend the contents of the NDA. Firstly, Wigand disclosed the ingredients used by B&W to make their cigarettes. This is against the law protecting the NDA which prohibits the disclosure of a business idea. Secondly, the main objective of a non-disclosure agreement is to keep the information confidential and not to use the confidential information itself.

Government employees both at the state and federal levels are required to sign non-disclosure agreements. For instance it was recently revealed that Donald Trump’s top advisors as well as all Whitehouse employees sign NDAs that prevent them from speaking about what happens in the Whitehouse (Frankel). These NDAs extend even after the president has completed his tenure. These NDAs are controversial for they help the perpetrators of sexual harassment and discrimination to get away with irresponsible behavior. Nonetheless, there have been cases where victims go to court to challenge the NDAs. For instance, one can argue that while working in the Whitehouse, the employees are not working for the president but for the office of the president. Hence, once the President completes his term, the NDA can be challenged in court. However, government employees should always read through the NDA’s to understand what they are signing up to in order to protect themselves against the vices that happen in political offices.

Image result for Donald Trump’s top advisors as well as all Whitehouse employees sign NDAs that prevent them from speaking about what happens in the Whitehouse (Frankel).

3- Both Scanlon/Lenzner and Palladino used the same information from different perspectives. The medium is the message, and coming from different sources the message, the accusations against Wigand, got distorted depending on who told the story. Scanlon/Lenzner, for example, used Wigand’s former wife as their source. They manipulated the information coming from someone who resented Wigand and had a biased opinion. Palladino and their team went to the judge who solved the dispute over child support payment. The dossier presented against Wigand, despite having documentation to prove its veracity, was incomplete. The dossier only contained half of the information that would make Wigand look as someone who is not trustworthy. It was up to Palladino’s team to get the whole picture, and tell it in a different way. They were telling the same stories about Wigand, it was the same message. But depending on the medium it could change the perception of the scientist.

If this had happened today instead of 1996 it would have developed differently. The concept of global village is clearer now, internet and social media have the world more connected than before. It is easier for anyone to share information. It could have been easier for Wigand or B&W to share their side of the story. Anyone involved could have shared their their point of view. It would be harder to keep things hidden, the story would have been clearer for the public.

4- In the scene where we have four important characters meet up and talk about tortious interference, each character’s revels certain rhetorical aspects. Bergman seems to be the only participant in the meeting that is on the speaking on behalf of the truth side. He uses two rhetorical appeals, logos being the strongest element and ethos as the second.  Bergman’s positions are clear and straight to the point he wants the people to know the truth and hell fight to get that done. In doing so he uses logos because he has been made to represent the facts, he found the whistleblower and believes what he has to say. Its his job then to take the information to the others. He is representing the whistleblower in this scene, and his audience here would be the people aka the public whom need to know the truth. Now Mike Wallace’s position is all ethos. He is the face of 60 Minutes and he is supporting that his show is classy and more importantly tells people the truth. His audience would be the producers, and everyone involved in the show. 

Don Hewitt’s reaction to the meaning of tortious interference sets the mood for him the rest of the scene. His first reaction is to be defensive and question Helen. This is pathos, he is all emotion. Lastly, Helen Caperelli is the CBS general counsel who calls a meeting in regarding to the potential segment on 60 Minutes and its risk for “tortious interference”. She claims, “the greater the truth, the greater the damage”, meaning if the truth gets out and its true CBS can see itself against a multi-million lawsuit from Big Tobacco versus the whistleblower saying he lied, and CBS receives less damage. Doing this she exposes herself to logos. Supporting this is the fact she is from “CBS Corporate” as Bergman claims. She is the voice, she is stating facts and in doing so she reveals a lot of emotion, her audience is the other attendees of the meeting. Excellent analysis.

                                                                            Works Cited

                 Frankel, Alison. Trump NDAs can’t silence ex-White House officials: legal experts. 20 March 2018. 6 October 2018. <>.


Question 1- Juliana Hontou

Question 2- Ana Rubiano

Question 3- Alejandro Aguiar

Question 4- Nicole Nissing


48-hour News Blackout

Ana –

Very good essay. You draw solid connections to Deresiewicz and provide a thoughtful analysis of your experience and the implications of a networked environment. Your writing is good, but watch for small grammatical errors.



Ana Rubiano

Team 2

The idea of spending time alone away from the internet and social media is not everyone’s idea of a cup of coffee. However, it was until I undertook the 48-hours of blackout assignment that I appreciated the role of solitude in our day to day lives. I must admit that social media is part of my life. I am mostly active on Facebook and Twitter where I contribute my opinions on every day’s trending hashtags. More so, I have a substantial following on these social media sites. Hence, if I happen to post something, I elicit the reaction of people from all walks of life.  For this reason, I constantly check my social media handles for updates and notifications.

The 48 hours of blackout were tormenting. I had to actually switch off my phone and give it away for safe keeping in order to avoid the temptation of using it to access the internet. I also avoided spending time indoors where I would have little control over my family members who are big fans of television programs. However, I could not avoid social media entirely because I would occasionally walk into a grocery store only to see news headlines on the big screens erected on the walls. I had to constantly remind myself that I was on a 48 hour curfew in order to stop watching the news.

Throughout the entire experienced, I was sad and pale. My friends noticed that I was behaving irrationally. For instance, one of my friends observed that I was absent minded most of the times and that I seemed buried in deep thoughts. It is at At that moment that I remembered Deresiewicz’s observation that one can be lonely even in the presence of other people. Good connection I am commonly known for being an extrovert. However, even in the presence of my loud and lively friends, I could not cheer up.

The end of the 48 hour blackout was a great relief. I all of a sudden All of a sudden I regained my happiness. I could now easily engage my friends and family members on what was happening online as well as in the news. In the essence, we We have interconnected our systems with the media such that we cannot live without it. Social media has also denied us the chance to connect on a personal level with our fellow human beings. While I appreciate the idea advanced by Deresiewicz that solitude provides us with an opportunity to experience spirituality through nature, I am just not used to solitude.  I would rather go to a silent place but carry along my phone or my tablet which I can use to browse and stay in touch. In other words, social media is like the friend I would not like to lose. Better: Social media is the friend I don’t want to lose. 

In a nutshell, not everyone is receptive to the idea of being in solitude. I believe that my upbringing has something to do with how I view solitude. Having been brought up in a family where everyone is constantly on their phone or watching a particular TV program, I dread the idea of solitude which entails being bored and alone.

48 hour blackout

Nicole –

The assignment required analysis using the Deresiewicz article. Your essay is mostly a narrative of the experience, with little analysis and no connection to The End of Solitude. Make sure to explicitly use class concepts and readings in the assignments. 



Going 48 hours on a media blackout was harder than anticipated. I figured that it wouldn’t be as bad as I thought but it was a bit. The first 24 hours I would say was the worst part because its staring the process that gives the most difficulty. I decided to just not have my phone on me at all, I placed it in a drawer and left it there the whole weekend. I decided to do this experiment Friday through Saturday, I figured these would be the best days since I worked and I don’t really have any access to media, or the internet. Although permitted to use “I”, try not to use it so often:

The 48 hour media blackout was harder than anticipated. The first 24 hours were the the most difficult. I placed my phone in a drawer and left it there the whole weekend. Since I worked the weekend without access to media or the internet, I figured Friday through Saturday would be the best time for the experiment. 

I started off Saturday on a good page since I wasn’t going to need my phone for the first 9 hours of my day, once I got home that’s when everything changed. Since I wasn’t allowed to be on a computer, TV or any sort of device that’s when it got tricky. I found myself very bored and anxious. I felt like there was nothing to do whatsoever and it was driving me insane. I decided to go and have a conversation with my grandmother and I found that very enjoyable and it took about 2 hours. The good thing about this was I got to learn about my grandmas grandma’s past and she told me some interesting facts about her. The rest of the night was a little tough but I just decided to bring out my old stress relief “coloring book” and getting entertained with the different pages was the best. Each drawing take about 6 hours to complete so it kept me busy for a while.

Sunday was the final day of the blackout and I believe it was a little tough because I knew I was so close to being able to see the media again but I knew I had to go through the rest of the day without it. I spent most of Sunday at my job and the rest of the night at my home. I decided to use the remainder of the time to have some more time with my family and it turned out good. We didn’t discuss any news or anything political and it felt good.

To be completely honest this experiment of blacking out from media was one I enjoyed because it felt more like a cleanse. Sometimes it’s needed because the constant need to be on a phone or a computer or watching tv is a bit irritating. I felt that this was something that many people should at least do once a month. I did feel anxious most of the times but it wasn’t nothing that was too crazy and I felt that I needed a phone right away. It felt good to be away and disconnected.

48-hour news blackout

Juliana –


Overall, a good job. A few suggested revisions below. Try to be more concise. Omit needless words.


Juliana Hontou

Team 2

Reading Deresiewicz’s article and completing the 48 hour news blackout, I gathered experienced a different perception on of solitude as I had before. Previously, I saw solitude as a negative state of being. I viewed being alone as a direct link to sadness, one that humans were, and should be, constantly trying to avoid. In today’s era, it is almost impossible to experience solitude. Humans are constantly connected, so that means that whether it be through the news, social media, or television, we are always doing something that connects us to others, giving us no time for ourselves. I now know the true meaning of solitude and realize that not only is experiencing it healthy, but most importantly, solitude allows us to invest time and effort into ourselves, and focus on who we really are. With solitude, one worries less about how they are viewed in the eyes of those around us, and more on how they view themselves. Well said.

At the beginning of the 48 hour cleanse from the news, it was difficult to understand Deresiewicz’s views on solitude. I was still stuck on the idea that being alone was bad, so I had to constantly fight off the urge to connect myself into the world.

Stuck on the idea that being alone was bad, I constantly had to fight off the urge to connect to the world.

As time went on, I found myself experiencing boredom from doing nothing. At first, I refrained myself from doing any activity because I viewed as an attempt to distract myself and waste time.

I refrained from any activity, all of which seemed a distraction and waste of time.

My biggest realization in this experiment was that being alone doesn’t mean just laying in bed, doing nothing, drowning in boredom. I came to realize that I realized these activities weren’t done to be used as a distraction. They are what solitude is all about. ; they were what solitude was all about. For the first time in a long time, I picked up a book and went to the beach. Later that day, I went grocery shopping alone and actually enjoyed it. The problem with being alone is that people view it as something that everyone is trying to get away from. We picture a 60 year old woman lying in bed, crying because she has no husband or kids. When in reality, being alone can be great. You finally make time for yourself and enjoy the things you choose to do in your time of solitude. Lying in the beach all alone, there was no phone or person to distract me from the beautiful ocean that stood right in front of me. For the first time, it wasn’t me, the ocean, and the world. It was just me and the ocean.

I have always liked the news, the idea of knowing what was happening around me constantly peaked piqued interest in my curiosity. However, this blackout changed my perception. Being disconnected from all news for 48 hours, I experienced way less stress. Watching the news, you put yourself in the shoes off all the events you are shown, and that places huge stress on oneself. Disconnected from the world, all I had to worry about was myself, and that helped show me how much unnecessary stress and worry we consume when we invest our time on the world’s problems instead of ours.

48-hour news blackout

Juan –

Overall, not bad. Some interesting insights into news and its ubiquity. Consider shorter sentences for greater impact. The active is often preferable to the passive voice. 


Juan Alejandro Aguiar

Team 2

It is hard not to see yourself now in Deresiewicz’s argument, one way or another you are connected to the world and this network just keeps growing for everyone. More and more people have access to the internet every day, and with this happening everyone’s network can get only bigger. I am not constantly posting on social media, but that does not mean I am not a big user of it, I am constantly consuming what my friends and family post, even people who I don’t know but I ended up following, whether they are famous or just a random person whom I found to be interesting. Try working with shorter sentences and an active voice:

It is hard not to see yourself in Deresiewicz’s argument. You are connected to the world and a network that keeps growing. With everyone’s daily access to the internet, the network can get only bigger. Though not constantly posting on social media, I am a big user, constantly consuming posts of friends, family, and even randomly interesting people.


I rarely share content of my own on social media, but when I do I want people to see it, and I have never thought about it before until I read “The End of Solitude”, and this is probably how all of us sharing on the internet feel, if not, why else would we do it? Sentence is too long with too many “I’s”.

I rarely share content on social media, but want it seen when I do. The End of Solitude brought home this point of celebrity, which seems to affect everyone on the internet. 


Since there are people watching, we want them to be part of our lives. I came to reflect on the fact that sometimes I want to be alone, and what happens to me, probably happens to most of us: even when we want to be alone physically, we never want to have to feel lonely, we want to be able go out there anytime and know there are going to be people watching us. (the last should be two sentences, not linked by a colon)

The 48-hour news blackout I could not accomplish, not because I found myself anxious from not knowing the news, but because I just could not get away from them. Who is them? We are surrounded by news and I could not avoid them. I am not really interested on knowing everything that is happening, I do not “crave” news, but in this so connected world I could not stop seeing news or listening to news.

My parents are both news reporters, (Interesting!) so in my house most of the time there is a TV or a radio with news on because they have to be informed In my workplace, wherever you look there is going to be a TV hanging somewhere near you, with either news or sports, and these channels are all the time showing what is going on in the world. Even on social media, like Instagram or Snapchat, there are little snapshots of news, that come in little headings to get you interested, there are designed specifically for you, based on your previous consumption. People are sharing news just by sharing memes, we use these sometimes to joke about current events, and with them you are still informed. Wherever I look, wherever I go, there are news around me. I could not get away from them, so I could not feel anxiety for not having them, but trying to avoid them I ended up with great discomfort realizing it was impossible to be disconnected, it was like being drowned with information.

Ghost in the Shell- Group 2

Overall, pretty good. The quality of questions was uneven, especially with the writing. Consider an overall editor for your next team assignment. 


Team 02

Image result for ghost in the shell anime pictures
I. Public Security Section 9 is an anti-terrorism arm of the government, operating on the edge, or sometimes beyond, the boundaries of the law. Citizens are kept in the dark of the activities, and even the existence, of section 9.
a. In its covert activities dealing with the Puppet Master, does section 9 go too far? Explain.

Section 9 is almost entirely kept secret from its people, which allows them easily to get away with things that would cause great concerns in the public and even in the bureaucracy. While these signs alone would already make it seem like section 9 needs to be shut down or at least reconstructed to a lesser degree of secrecy among the people, I (use 3rd person in most academic papers) don’t believe they went too far in dealing with the Puppet Master. When a country is facing something as serious as having a hacker that has the ability to hack into peoples mind people’s minds and make them do and believe anything they wish, then the country is in has big problems.
Facing something as big as this, section 9 should do as much as is needed in order to take the Puppet Master down. While the government should always take precautions in what is needed to be done to fix a problem, this one was extremely serious and caused great danger to the citizens. , that any measure should’ve been taken to take the Puppet Master down. Unless the country is in grave imminent danger, then these type of activities shouldn’t be happening. In dealing with terrorism like this one, I would approve of the type of measures that section 9 took.

b. Is a government ever justified in violating its own laws to ensure the safety of its citizens? If not, why not? If so, what examples can you provide, either from the film or real life?

In this movie, the government violates a lot of its law in order to keep harmony and peace among its people. However, there comes a point where the government is doing more bad than good in doing this. Here in the US, our first amendment protects people’s right to freedom of expression. However the government has implemented its own rules as to what “expression” means. While the US Constitution states that “Congress shall make no law… abridging the freedom of speech” there has been several cases where people have been detained and even arrested for saying certain things; like “i have a bomb” when on a plane or for making threats to the president. Other times they can do as much as force teams to fire their players if they take a knee during the national anthem in the NFL.
While in some cases, the government should violate the laws of our first amendment if it causing immediate danger to citizens, these violations should be very limited and extremely monitored so that the government doesn’t get too comfortable in violating its own laws. In general, if the government needs to violate its own laws to ensure safety then maybe those laws shouldn’t be installed in the first place since they are preventing safety.

c. Is a government ever justified in keeping secret its violations of the law? Explain and give an example.

The law should apply the same for both the government and its citizens, everyone should have the same rights and responsibilities. If these were all equal, everyone should have the right to keep secret some violations of the law, even if you are a citizen, in a situation where the secrecy is sought for the greater good of the community or society in general. Laws are meant to be followed, even by the government officials, and specially by them because they are the ones who make the laws, and the ones who penalize those who do not follows these rules and standards; by the government not following them, it is a display of hypocrisy, and it becomes harder to make the citizens follow the same rules.
If a government official or a regular citizen has to break a law for greater good, the rest of the people should be allowed to know it happened and why it happened to be aware of the situation, it should be justified and reasonable. Most likely is, people are going to feel safer by having this information, by knowing what the government is doing, since it is the rest of the citizens who put the people in power where they are, at least in the United States where democracy is employed.

II. The sophistication of many technologies in the film is futuristic; their existence is not. Bionics, the Internet, and artificial intelligence are today relatively commonplace. One of the most disturbing scenes in the film is the garbage man with false, implanted memories. This is not all that far-fetched. Studies show that even so simple a technological artifact as a photograph can be used to create false memories that people are certain are real.

a. How is information technology used in the world of Ghost in the Shell to influence and control behavior and perception?

Information technology is used in the world of Ghost in the Shell very much. Basically, this whole movie surrounds it. There are these “shells” which is technology gaining control of the body and giving them superpowers or editing their memories. It’s used to control perception and behavior because it’s useful to the person in control. In the case of the garbageman, it doesn’t help him to his advantage. The so-called “puppet master” uses this shell and alternate the garbage man’s memory to help him hack. Doing these he implements fake memories and fake stories to give the garbage man motivation. By doing this he has completely altered the man’s behavior and perception of things. Without him even knowing he’s been living this whole fake life up until the point he is captured and told that all he thinks he knows is false.


3. In his essay, Deresiewicz argues “…that solitude enables us to secure the integrity of the self as well as to explore it.”

a. How does Major Kusanagi utilize solitude? What insight does it give her?

Major Kusanagi is always connected to everyone she never has a moment for herself, except when she goes diving in the ocean. Since she is a full 100% cyborg, sometimes she has doubts about whether she has a ghost or if she is just a program. When she dives, she feels as though she is her own person, that she is really feeling emotions. Since she is mechanized she is far heavier than a normal person her diving seems insane since she puts herself in danger relying solely on the flotation devices. She uses the dive as a way to disconnect that she feels negative emotions like fear and loneliness but also among those there is a feeling of hope. Her dives allow her to evaluate herself without others, she is securing and exploring herself, to see if her ghost is really hers or not.

b. Is Deresiewicz right when he says we are approaching a time when information technology makes solitude socially undesirable, or even impossible? Has that time already occurred in the world of the film? Explain your answer.

Deresiewicz is right because in our current society we all want to be connected with people, we want to know what is going on in their lives and we want our own life to be known. We are constantly sharing our pictures, our thoughts, our ideologies on social media, and most of the time we are interested on not only letting people know about them, we also want them, the people we know, our friends and family, to comment on our posts, we want them to get involved with us, and we want to be involved with what they have to say as well.
In the world of the film, it is impossible to be disconnected to the world, everyone has some sort of technology on them at all times, and as shown in the movie, this these technologies can be accessed by other people, giving access to not only to relatives but also strangers to their lives. Even in our world this is not strange, as we can see hacking devices is something common and we are working on technologies fighting to avoid this, on how to keep strangers and undesired individuals away from our private information.

4. The movie was based on a manga originally published in 1989.
a. Various forms of media (using McLuhan’s definition of a medium as “an extension of ourselves”) have had an impact on the way people use, create, store, access, and communicate information. Give 3 historical examples of such media and describe their impact.

b. Select the one medium that has appeared after 1989 which has had the greatest impact on the information landscape. Explain.

c. How might the technology in answer 4b, above, have affected the story

Part 4

A.) Since the integration of media into society, media has had a hand in shaping society in various ways, such as how information travels. The first form of media that has played a significant role in society is the invention of the telegraph. The first in the electric age. Other forms of media have existed for millennia.  With this invention the way in which society communicates was transformed, it allowed the simplification of long-distance communication as well as laying the groundwork for the telephone, which has a major impact on our society today. Good.  Prior to the invention of the telegraph however was the invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg. During this time the invention of this device made it possible for the mass production of books and other forms of written media. Due to this invention it was also possible for people to acquire global news quicker and more accurately. Another form of media that has shaped our society would be smartphones. The smartphone combined the previous two forms of media into one handheld device, which is used to communicate information in seconds. Interesting point. Smartphones have changed the way humans do everything; whereas in the past people would wake up and read the morning paper, the common thing to do now is wake up and browse social media. Over time, technology has evolved, and new forms of media have come with its evolution.


Printing Press:


B.) Historically one medium that has impacted the information landscape the most since 1989 is the World Wide Web. The web was made available to the average consumer in 1991 and since then it has enabled individuals to access a plethora of information with ease (McGoogan). Based on the work of Marshall McLuhan it is safe to say that he would agree with the statement that the web has played a pivotal role in society. As well as proving his point about the media being the message, because the web is not pivotal because of the information it provides but because of the way in which it provides the information to a lot of people. Very good point.
C.) The impact that the web had on the storyline of the film can be seen throughout. For instance, the databases in which the cyborgs access throughout the film are similar to that of the web. Considering the ideas of this type of technology already exist it is not news that the notion to connect to a database in order to access and communicate information was prevalent in this movie. By inputting web into the film it could have changed the overall storyline. This is because it would have allowed information to be given to everyone and not exclusively to the cyborgs. Yes. This could have possibly changed the storyline, as it would have been harder for the government to keep the citizens ignorant to their activities. Overall the web did indeed play a part in the film as it shows the connection of technology with humanity is important.

Works Cited

Palermo, Elizabeth. “Who Invented the Printing Press?” LiveScience, Purch, 25 Feb. 2014,

“History of the Web.” World Wide Web Foundation,

McGoogan, Cara. “Internaut Day: The World’s First Public Website Went Online 25 Years Ago Today.” The Telegraph, Telegraph Media Group, 6 Aug. 2016,

#1 part A and B: Juliana Hontou
#2 part A and #3 part A: Nicole Nissing
#1 part C and #3 part B: Alejandro A.
#4 (all) part A, B, and C: Ana Rubiano



The Medium is The Message

Nicole Nissing — Team 02

Remember to separate your thoughts and ideas using paragraphs.

Marshall McLuhan was a man that viewed things differently than most people around the time he was alive. He wrote countless books and had major ideas that brought debates across the country. One idea is “The Medium of The Message”, a phrase that expresses “All media are extensions of some human faculty-psychic, or physical.” He means this in a very literal way, for example a book is the extension of the eyes, clothing is an extension of the skin, a wheel is an extension of a foot and so on. He believed that electric media, anything from the telegraph to a computer today, is an extension of the nervous system. Basically, meaning that we can tie everything back up to us and were using these outlets as extensions of ourselves. How does this explicitly apply to ‘medium is the message?’ He stirred up some arguments with David Sarnoff a television and radio pioneer. Sarnoff had said “The products of modern science are not in themselves good or bad; it is the way they are used that determines their value.” Now McLuhan thought that he had a point, but that point was just absolutely ridiculous. McLuhan responded by using an apple pie as an example and saying that the way we use the pie determines whether its good or bad. Also, he uses another example with firearms saying that if a gun kills the right people than its good. This is where I believe Avoid first-person, especially terms like ‘I believe’. he raises a critical perspective because he is questioning the legitimacy of everything. He wants people to be aware and awake of the world we are currently living in, he’s stating that most people are just “asleep” and don’t notice what’s around them because they’re simply used to it and no nothing else. I believe with all his debates and questioning he is trying to better society in trying to get us to understand what is happening and how it is happening. How does he expand the bounds of the debate? Betterment of society? Please understand what the assignment is asking. – weblink to article link to video Needs to be directly embedded into the post for full credit.