Dead Whales and the Plastic Industry

Nichole –

An excellent essay. Writing was tight and focused, analysis made great use of class concepts. Images were relevant and had impact.


Great job!


When news broke in Indonesia, the use of rhetoric was to enforce the idea that the fault was on human-kind and creating an existential crisis amongst all those that abuse single-use plastics. The particular medium of video sends a message of humankind alteration using the most impactful visual of a dead whale. The incorporation of social media has made it so that broadcasting it would demonize plastic users and manufacturers. Laws that protect plastic industry is a form of secrecy while allowing this event to happen again.

“photo will be sent via email”
some of the 1,000 assorted pieces of plastic found inside dead sperm whale

The article begins with an analysis of the event using logos. The intent of this is to make sure the audience gets a clear understanding of how and why the whale has died. These facts inadvertently include an emotional appeal. The purpose of this would be discourage readers from using single-use plastics. The explicit explanation of how plastic impacts the digestive system of a whale, increases the article’s logos. The use of factual statistics and information collected from credible sources increased the reliability of the article, or ethos. The sense of impending doom implemented with the use of lexis, keeps the audience intrigued. This intrigue is a necessary part of being able to explain to the audience how this is very possible in all parts of the world.

“Photo will be sent via email”
            Environmental and marine pollution in Indonesia

This event significantly boosted organizations to fight for laws that would provide environmental protection under Indonesia’s Criminal Code. The sense of secrecy, the government wants to instill about this topic is that their efforts to prevent this from happening again are nonexistent. Business would take more than the annual 1.1 million tons of local scrap making plastic waste and plastic lobby groups a source of improving the economy. Business holds a strong influence on the secrecy behind letting this event continue despite the outcry from nations and citizens to regulate waste, further (Jong).

The New York Times followed the definition of critical theory. The purpose is to overcome this event by presenting the news in a practical way. The event was analyzed in a way to overcome circumstances that limit humankind in the future. The inclusion of how plastic impacts all marine life is an analysis of human freedom through research (Bohman).

Technology influenced this event by having the news readily available to every person in the world. Social media is explicitly a way for citizens to take charge of what kind of change they would like to see in their country. It provides ideas to those that do not know how their actions can impact their way of life. Beneficial and harmful events easily influence the global culture, so the #trashtag challenge allows everyday citizens to bring about desirable change.

“Photo will be sent via email”
            Dead Whale found with 88-pounds of Plastic in the Philippines

In an event, identical to the one in Indonesia, a necropsy was preformed to make an assertive message to the audience. The use of this medium is combining the newly adapted mix of oral and visual culture to create a greater sense of real-life presence (Victor). Social media had a direct impact on how the incident was reported because without it, the government would present fake news of hindering environmental crimes but would eventually side with companies. For example, Newmont Mining Corp. was cleared of all charges, despite dumping toxic waste into a bay and making people sick (Wulandari). The revenue from this company on the economy is a driving force for these types of turn arounds.

At 0:28, the term “she” is used in order to evoke pathos. It is a way of humanizing the whale and creating sympathy from viewers. This event will produce a cascading effect of guilt that will fall on the shoulders of companies who push for single-use plastics. The New York Times included a video of man preforming the necropsy who owns D’Bone Collector Museum, is knowledgeable in marine life and provides ethos to the article from The Associated Press. The sense of disappointment and the tone in which the speaker is talking, further establishes pathos in a way that those emotions are mimicked by the audience. The rhetoric used in this article was aggressive in order to ensure that the environmental message is viewed as important (Kronrod 95).

“Photo will be sent via email”
the impact of human alteration, and how the medium is a message of change

The ever-growing pollution problem has impacted the Philippines by hindering tourism in the form of trash on the beaches. The death of the whale influenced this movement because of the intended impact on the audience. Social media has encouraged local citizens to be a part of the cleanup and document the effects to motivate others. It has also been the start of #breakfreefromplastic, #trashtag, and many others. Making others aware of these polluted beaches is what effects everybody. According to McLuhan, this form of media is an extension of our bodies, thus making the repercussions due to our faults. The photographer recognizes the alterations done by humankind on the beach and exemplifies the impact by presenting what it is like without these alterations. The medium alludes to the idea that things would be better without the alterations done by man. McLuhan would consider this image a hot media because the audience understands that the only reason why trash is there is due to the human desire for single-use plastics. According to McLuhan, the reason why this artist chose to capture this scene was to present awareness and read the language of the outer world to relate it to the inner world. This relationship imposes critical knowledge to all the viewers, and to choose an image to present this idea is a message.

Bohman, James. “Critical Theory.” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Stanford University, 8 Mar. 2005,

Jong, Hans Nicholas. “Activists Fear for Environmental Protection under Indonesia’s Revised Criminal Code.” Mongabay Environmental News, 11 Apr. 2018,

Kronrod, Ann, et al. “Go Green!! Should Environmental Messages Be So Assertive??” Journal of Marketing, vol. 76, no. 1, Jan. 2012, pp. 95–102. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1509/jm.10.0416.

Victor, Daniel. “1,000 Pieces of Plastic Found Inside Dead Whale in Indonesia.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 21 Nov. 2018,

Wulandari, Fitri. “Newmont Cleared in Indonesian Pollution Case.” Reuters, Thomson Reuters, 24 Apr. 2007,

@Greenpeace. “.@Unilever @ProcterGamble @Nestle named in Philippines plastic pollution beach audit #BreakFreeFromPlastic >>”


Venezuelan freedom at last

Team 2-

Overall, a good piece. Needed further editing, especially with past/present tenses. Reporting was vivid and believable. Especially liked the enraged Orlandito Fernandez.

Did you have a version with media? That counts as 9 points toward the grade. Also need a list of credits for participants.


Only a few months after an alleged attempt against Nicolas Maduro, another successful effort took place. Sources indicate that Maduro was ambushed and killed while heading home after culminating his daily presidential responsibilities. The vehicle in which the dictator was traveling was deviated from its original route and went taken to an isolated farm in the outskirts of Caracas where he was tortured and shot to death. Investigations indicate that the people responsible are members of the military that formed part of his presidential escort. General Oscar Perez and seven others of inferior rank organized the boycott that gunned down Nicolas Maduro. “I shot one of the meanest men on earth; the only way to get rid of him was to kill him,” said Oscar Perez.

Due to the incredible state of happiness within the country of Venezuela, the funeral of Nicolás Maduro will now continue for two more weeks. The casket will have a steady parade of those that genuinely despised him. There will also be a concert held to raise money for those that lived in apocalyptic circumstances. Venezuelan citizens will receive a schedule of when the former president will be in attendance for an encore funeral. There will be light refreshments and arepas for all who attend. Juan Guaido will also be in attendance to assure the citizens that they will begin a road of reparations.

Nicolas Maduro’s political involvement began in the 1990s after the capture of Hugo Chavez, and other military personnel after an attempted Coup D’etat. Maduro started to campaign in 1992 for their release. Consequently, this led leads to the two individuals meeting in the year 1994 after they were finally released. After about five years, Marudo was elected for the position of National Constituent Assembly in 1999 and then promoted to the speaker of the Assembly in the year 2005. Within the short span of a year, he was named foreign minister of Venezuela in 2006. He assumed the presidency in April 2013 after serving as Vice President for a year.

During his first term as president, parliament attempted to remove him from office and failed. A second attempt in 2019, the people held an opposition boycott. Throughout his command, accusations of “undermining democracy and violating human rights in Venezuela,” were stated by organizations around the world. It led to a severe economic crisis in the country. The Trump administration claims claimed that Maduro is was operating a “devastating dictatorship.”

The day of Nicolas Maduro’s death will go down in history. Our journalist headed out to the streets of Caracas to get the peoples people’s reaction and opinion to the dictators predestined murder. Alejandra Orozco, 42 and mother of three, says “I’ve prayed every night and day for this moment to come. Soon enough my mother who lives in the United States can come back home. She has been longing this for years.” Another citizen, Orlandito Fernandez expresses his tear-jerking and overwhelming emotions “That bastard took away my spotlight! Damn he who pull the trigger before I did! I HAD IT ALL PLANNED OUT!” An official had to steer the man away before the situation would escalate. The people of Venezuela are ecstatic for what the future holds for them. Now that the country is in the hands of someone with positive and beneficial initiative, the only way to look from here is up.

Venezuela is now underway of returning to the prosperous democracy it was known for before the start of the Maduro administration. I It will take an enormous effort and years to build back what was damaged by Maduro. The economy will increase massively, and foreign countries will soon begin to trade again with Venezuela. It is just a matter of time for Venezuela to heal from such a dark time in the history of the country.

Venezuela is not the only country celebrating Maduro’s death. The fourteen countries represented in the Lima Group, who once decreased their diplomatic relations with Venezuela when he came into power in May 2018, are all happy to see the end of Maduro’s terrible rule. United States’ president, Donald Trump turned to Twitter, per usual, to talk about Maduro’s assassination, “Can’t say I’m surprised. Just wish I had a hand in it. Shame.” And, “What a great day for Venezuela and all its people! Congrats”. Venezuelans from all over the world are booking flights to go home, taking food and water to help their family and friends. The United States and Canada have begun to send supplies in relief efforts for those who were living in tough situations.

Reflective paragraph:
Our target audience was intended for those that disagree with Nicolas Maduro. The hook was that Guaido will now be able to become president after the death of Maduro. Credibility was maintained by using probable causes and events that would happen in real life. Our rhetorical appeal was a mixture of logos when referencing probable cause of death, reasons for his death and pathos to elicit an emotional response from the audience intended to maintain readers. Ethos was also included through the use of definitive statements.


Excellent thesis and bibliography. Good job!

Annotated Bibliography

During the GreenBiz 2019 event, SC Johnson used rhetoric to focus on their aspirations for compostable, and recyclable materials but fail failed to mention their contribution towards plastic pollution. The medium sends a message that the company will shift towards an ideology primarily accepted by society. The incorporation of social media plays a role in the perception of trust and transparency between the company and consumers. SC Johnson has had a history of secrecy, and this platform is a means of avoidance on previous events of withholding information from the public about the chemicals being used in their products and the adverse effects. Good thesis.

1. Found Via: Academic One file
“Pollution control.” The Gale Encyclopedia of Science, edited by K. Lee Lerner and Brenda Wilmoth Lerner, 5th ed., Gale, 2014. Academic OneFile,
This book includes explanations of the way that the environment becomes governed by local laws and restrictions. The information is given through logos and uses diction that is common. It also brings about possible information that is influenced by the restricted information provided by the government.

2. Found via: Communications & Mass Media Complete
Erskine, Hazel. “The Polls: Pollution and Industry.” Public Opinion Quarterly, vol. 36, no. 2, Summer 1972, pp. 263–280. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1086/268000.
This journal article analyzes the relationship between different aspects of industries and public relations to bring awareness to the public on corporate decisions. This source incorporates the perspectives of multinational corporations and state department experience with major nonprofit organizations. The lens used for analyzing this convergence of platforms is that of a multifaceted investigation.

3.Found via: ProQuest News & Newspapers
Anthony, William. “Waste in, Energy Out.” Scandinavian Review, vol. 104, no. 3, Autumn, 2017, pp. 52-61. ProQuest,
This magazine entry provides a dense analysis of different types of company’s contribution to pollution. It presents statistics to analyze how these companies were pushed by the Danish government to become environmentally friendly. The choice of prose creates a natural transition of events that the reader can apply to possible outcomes for other countries following this direction in law specific to an industry and their waste.

4. Found via: ProQuest News & Newspapers
McGreevy, Patrick. “CITY & STATE; Lawmakers Push to Phase Out Plastics that can’t be Recycled; Bill would Bar the Sale of such Items by 2030 and Reduce Amount Sent to Landfills.” Los Angeles Times, Mar 04, 2019. ProQuest,
The article uses logos to emphasize the reason for the bills passing in California that will assist in environmental clean-up. It focuses on the environmentally friendly measures that voted for in California and a future decrease in waste. It also provides analysis of the contribution to waste the United States makes, giving unbiased statistics of plastic pollution. The diction used puts emphasis on the facts rather than emitting emotions from the reader.

5.Found Via: web
This database provides sources that have analytical scientific interpretation with common words that are put in the search engine. The different forms of sources provide results from all over the world and focus on similarity to the words being searched rather than easily accessible websites.

6. Found via: Communications & Mass Media Complete
Kronrod, Ann, et al. “Go Green!! Should Environmental Messages Be So Assertive??” Journal of Marketing, vol. 76, no. 1, Jan. 2012, pp. 95–102. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1509/jm.10.0416.
This focuses on the medium, and what ways industry uses marketing schemes to aggressively impose their messages. This sheds light on the tactics used by companies to make sure consumers see specific environmental contributions. The ads themselves are also analyzed through the lens of ethos, pathos, and logos. The messaged is what is being focused on and ties it back to the effect of them on the consumer.

Nichole –


The topic has potential, but needs to be on a specific event. For example, a research report/article:

The introduction of a new product:

Some other ideas:

Revise thesis and resubmit.



Thesis draft on Plastic Pollution

Plastic pollution has damaged the environment and human health, appeasing to empathy and urgency attributes to worldwide attention. Through the medium of social media, the enormity of the presence of plastics becomes easier to witness in parts of the world that are shroud in secrecy. Humans’ connection to Earth drives a need to clean up what we have caused.

Lemons, Jane Fullerton. “Plastic Pollution.” CQ Researcher, 7 Dec. 2018, pp. 1017-40,

The Insider Assignment 2

1. Very good analysis of the conflicted Mike Wallace. Apparently the real journalist hated the film, but it is revealing how the complex strands of conflict shaped his actions. Writing was excellent, except for the odd glitches in the first paragraph. 

2 and 3 both presented a solid analysis.

4. Superior analysis of the rhetoric used in the board meeting. Caparelli’s use of “a monotone and sophisticated tone’. is delightfully on target. I might argue that Bergman is also using pathos in his appeal, but you make your case very well. Great job!


In this country, capitalism is a driving force when trying to look for a medium in which to share the truth. Companies that prioritize making a profit run all mainstream platforms. The influence the companies put on the audience is something that reflects bias and manipulation. The host, Mike Wallace, can be seen to have an easily manipulated sense of what journalists should prioritize. When the legal concept emerged, known as Tortious interference, if two parties have an agreement, such as a confidentiality agreement, and one of those parties is instigated by a third party to break that agreement, the party can be sued by the other party for any damages. “The greater the truth, the greater the damage,” this exemplifies, that standards are arbitrary. The climate shapes Wallace’s values, and concealment depends on what is the majority rule. At 2:01:49 Wallace scolds the lawyers prioritizing his own words, which is quite the contrary position he took when advocating for the alternate version. Good catch. Corporate lawyers maintain the interest of companies. Wallace knew that pushing for the uncut episode would lead to retaliation on his job. They witnessed first-hand through Wigand, the power they hold.

CBS News wants to maintain their standards all while making sure that they are not at risk of getting sued for the truths they discovered. It was not in their best interest to tell the secrets of a fortune 500 company. The repercussions would be just too (is something missing here?) Shares were in a critical position from CBS corporate to earn more money; this is a hidden motivator and drives the decisions of everyone involved. Yes, or at least those who would profit. This episode became more than just money. These people got involved in something that tested their values. Theses e decisions would impact families and future endeavors. At 2:22:22 you finally see the motivating drive for Wallace’s decisions on what to air. They are both journalists, just at different times in their life. Wallace brings emphasis to a personal argument by appealing to Lowell’s emotions. This confession brought about sympathy within the audience and Lowell, with the intent of being understood.  Excellent.

Throughout Mann’s film, the journalists have to face several obstacles that would define their reputation as professionals. In the scene at 2:00:46 Wallace tries to put Lowell at ease by making it seem like he got the upper hand from corporate. Despite forcing his ideas onto Lowell, he genuinely believes that this is what is best. The intent of his hyperbole was a means of concealment in order not to disclose what Wallace said to corporate. Good observation. He makes clear that he won’t be settling for a radio job out of the sake of morality and justice to the whistleblower or the health of America’s people. Another obstacle that is faced is when Wallace goes to visit Bergman is his hotel room in scene 2:20:03. Nearing the end of life, you’re beginning exemplifies his motivations for the outcome of the episode. Wallace pointed out that he has faced many institutional and personal pressures in pursuit of the truth to gain sympathy from Lowell.

2. A non-disclosure agreement is a legal contract between at least two parties that outlines confidential material that they wish to restrict from third parties.  Mr. Wigand felt the necessity to make public B&W’s bad practices, which were silently affecting citizens; however, he knew the implications of disclosing such information. We see the grievance of breaching a non-disclosure agreement when even CBS news, a powerful company, hesitated to publish the material even after everything had been settled to transmit the interview.  CBS knew that not only Wigand was on risk of going to jail, or the 60 Minutes to be shut down, but also the entire channel network could be sue sued by the tobacco company because regardless of bad practices or not, Wigand signed a secrecy agreement ––a legal document that the company would have relied on for its defense. In the end, it would’ve been a monster company against one more employee who was going to have it very difficult to prove that he was practically forced to sign.  It wasn’t exactly an issue of his having been forced to sign. To get the job, he was required to sign. Rather, it was a decision he came to regret. According to columnists Katherine Barrett and Richard Greene, many of Donald Trump’s top advisers were asked to sign non-disclosure agreements, forcing them to keep quiet about what happens in the White House, even after his presidency ends. They say that these types of secret-keeping contracts are being used in state and local government, too. According to McLuhan, the medium is the message. Even though confidentiality disclosure agreements are not very common in government, some governmental institutions “force” their employees to sign these types of agreements because it is the only way to maintain sensitive information safe. It is imperative to rely on the employees even when involved in unethical activities. However, the employees that sign a confidential agreement are aware that by breaching information they might deal with lawsuits and even jail.

3. The primary forms of media used by both Scanlon/Lenzner and Palladino were television, newspaper, and radio. At the time, these were the most reliable and valid forms of media that were consumed by the public. McLuhan’s observation about these forms of media is that regardless of the information, the fact that they came from such essential forms of media at the time is what is critical. The public does not need to be concerned over what the television was saying about Wigand, the idea that they could receive this message about him through the television is what is essential.

If this war over Wigand’s reputation had occurred today, current media platforms would have made things very different. The internet is the top place for many people these days to get their news. Social media, and what it is today, would have been beneficial for Wigand and Bergman because posting their findings of B&W online would have created a stir amongst the public as well as a demand for more information that was truthful. The probable public disapproval would be expected today because of the distrust the public has for companies like the tobacco industry. Excellent. Through a medium like Facebook, Youtube, blogs, or even online journals, the film’s characters would have been able to freely discuss the truth about the large corporations with no filters. Large companies like B&W and CBS have lawyers and CEO’s that are looking out for the company as a whole, therefore tend to care more about their profits than getting the truth to the public. Specific people are hired to focus on the company’s image rather than the public’s welfare. Prioritization is something that although still true about large corporations today; there are more ways to bypass this legal system online. Very good.

4. Helen Caperelli, the CBS general counsel, uses a monotone and sophisticated tone throughout the meeting with Bergman, Wallace, and Hewitt. The forceful suggestion offered by Caperelli, suggests that she had the intentions of getting her way despite what Don, Lowell, and Wallace had to say. Helen is presenting the issues of this segment in a civil matter even though if they air it; it would have significant consequences. She is not very emotional, by sticking to a professional manner, she is pressing how important it is for CBS Incorporated not to allow them to show the world the truth about these tobacco companies. Bergman, Wallace, and Hewitt in the scene are showing a more laid back approach to this situation. They are trying to figure out why they can’t release the truth in this case, but then Helen keeps on contradicting herself on the reasons for it. In regards to Miss Caperelli, her target audience was the cast and crew of the 60 Minutes segment of the CBS channel. For Mr. Bergman, Mr. Wallace, and Mr. Hewitt their intended audience was towards Miss Helen Caperelli and the legal team of the CBS channel. Miss Caperelli used a more authoritative tone to, in a way, manipulate the men that she was holding the meeting with to bend to the wishes of the CBS channel legal team. She used her position as a lawyer to kind of present a sort of confidence and trustworthiness, and this would fall under the ethos category. However, for the cast and crew of 60 Minutes, the gentlemen presented a form of logic and facts. The points they expressed in the meeting would fall under the category of logos.

48-hour news blackout

Nichole –

Your writing is excellent. Arguments are clearly stated, the prose flows, and the essay is an interesting read. Your analysis is spot on, with some striking and original observations. Perhaps your major gives you insight into the psychological aspects of social media? The only missing component is a direct connection to the Deresiewicz article. I suspect it’s there, but the essay would have benefited from closer ties to D.

Very good work!


Nichole Sainz Team 2
Forty-eight hours of ending connection with the collective forced me to come to terms with being alone. What was once sci-fi has become a reality for those that are addicted to constant contact to the web.

The modern fear of isolation crippled me, and it easy to see how these fears are diagnosed as a form of depression. I substituted morning routines for things that would push me to see how comfortable I am alone. The fight between the biological and the technological wage wars in our heads to see which desire wins. The idea of being alone with our thoughts takes away the gratification from the approval of others. Interesting.  For most teens, common actions are now filled with mindless scrolling. This voice in our head is being overrun by the constant desire to escape boredom and seek the recognition of strangers. I realized that I heard less of my thoughts and more from excerpts in the articles that I skimmed through. Attention spans are not long enough to read through material that is 140 characters or less. Companies like the New York Times adapted to this mindset by making lengthy articles a title and two sentences. We do not come up with ideas of our own, instead, assimilate into society’s perspectives. News outlets are encroaching on our solitude to force the view of the company that owns them onto the audience. Companies that make decisions for us eliminate the need for critical thinking and the desire to seek the truth. The intrusion of social media on our solitude makes us afraid of boredom by filling that time with mindless activities.

Giving up all news outlets for forty-eight hours made me reflect on the importance of solitude while commuting. While driving, I forced myself to turn off the radio. I focused on driving and found my inner voice to be a companion rather than having an anxiety-ridden dispute. For those that fill silent moments with news outlets, this minimizes any time of being alone. Cutting contact allowed me to take away society’s expectations and center my desires. Solitude is a way for young people to ponder their existence as an individual. Individuals inability to pay for access to digital information are forced into isolation, leading to an increase in loneliness in society. Good point.  It is becoming more common to expect the Wi-Fi password when going to a friend’s home, leading to solitude in the presence of others. We have access to the locations of friends, yet we do not take advantage of the time spent together.

In this age, interactions through technology are preferred because it allows the person to control all situations. Very interesting observation. This sense of control leads to the anxiety people feel when forced to separate themselves from world events. We once relied on social cues to interpret emotions, and this attribute will slowly diminish. Uncommon genuine friendships lead to a cycle of isolation and loneliness.

Individual Assignment 2: McLuhan and the Critical Perspective

Nichole Sainz Group 2

Nichole – I think you have a basic grasp of McLuhan’s concept of the medium is the message. However, a lack of clarity in writing confuses this reader.

Marshall McLuhan applies emphasis to mediums for the disbursement of mass communication stating that it will coincide with the development of humanity. The value he places on mediums changes the dynamic of how we look at influential motifs. The use of critical perspective draws attention to how technology influences humanity. A better way to put this might be: In developing his idea of the medium is the message, McLuhan uses the critical perspective to show technology’s impact on humanity.

            His aim was to focus on the advances that people make because it is what forms our biases. Don’t think biases is the right word here.  In doing so, it (not clear what “it” is) fragments away from common assumptions. McLuhan’s ideas broke way for a more intrinsic look on our culture, values, and attitudes all the while focusing on the exterior of media. I think you get the idea, but your choice of words seems off.  For example, tech companies portray grandiose shows of power every time they announce new products. The medium, concert halls, and large projectors showcase their superiority, (?)  not the items they are trying to sell. Categorizing mediums by the role individuals have on it is a way of questioning common assumptions. It urges people to view how content distributed through different mediums can influence the expectations of humanity. McLuhan’s categorizations change the individual’s perspective on mediums by striving for identity while maintaining the representation of mediums in mass communication. This doesn’t make sense.

 Placing significance on the medium expands the bounds of debate by looking at things through a different lens. The extent phones have on our attitude is monumental because it has never been done to this extent before. This also brings to light that somethings do not have a causal relationship. This topic is always up for debate, but McLuhan expresses the importance of looking for other reasons apart from the message. He points out that education can influence media. How so? The generation born with mass media and technology to this extent have has developed careers that once never existed. It essentially influences all mediums and the message it is portraying is completely different than generations beforehand. As said by McLuhan, all of the technological advancements taking place are extensions of who uses them.

 The medium is the message expresses importance for bettering society. He was ahead of his time to predict such capabilities of technology and the influence on humanity. Different forms of media are influential to certain cultural environments. He speaks to individuals by showing them how influential advancements can become. It also presents the ideas for the progression of society in a way that it enriches children by living “several lifetimes.” It eludes to notions of having greater expectations at younger ages because of the knowledge they possess or are privy to. Knowledge of human suffering humbles people into appreciating what they have and pushing them to help others. The advancement in technology is the message that it will develop more complex humanity.

 McLuhan draws on critical perspective by warning readers to focus on the medium and not get distracted by the content. The evolution of mass communication changed the boundaries of content at face value. Evaluating the source of all messages is important to truly understand the purpose of the medium.