Absher- Annotated Bibliography- Nathalie Bernal

Hi Nathalie,  Good sources, good annotations, well-done! I look forward to reading your essay!

Google and Apple are willing to abdicate their commitment to human rights when it comes to Absher, a mobile app that allows men to surveille and restrict women’s movements in the Middle East. Although this form of control is completely legal in places like Saudi Arabia, the companies are being scrutinized for facilitating gender discrimination. 

  1. Deif, Farida. Perpetual Minors: Human Rights Abuses Stemming from Male Guardianship and Sex Segregation in Saudi Arabia. Human Rights Watch, 2008. ProQuest. 10 Mar. 2019 

This book reveals over 100 interviews with Saudi women to document the effects of discriminatory policies on woman’s most basic rights. The Saudi government institutes a system whereby every Saudi woman must have a male guardian who is tasked with making a range of critical decisions on her behalf. Throughout much of the world, it is taken for granted that the law empowers both men and women upon reaching the age of majority (typically 18) to make decisions for themselves, but the Saudi Arabian government denies more than half of its citizens this fundamental right. 

  • Black, Jeff. “Women Moving in the Right Direction.” Middle East 03 2008: 22-4. ProQuest. 10 Mar. 2019 

Dr. Yakin Ertuck, a Turkish sociology professor, visits Saudi Arabia in a time where an increasing number of encounters between the country and the institutions of international human rights law are being seen. Currently there is plenty of debate in the country regarding the rights of women. In Geneva in January, the CEDAW committee congratulated Saudi Arabia on three areas: “The establishment of institutional mechanisms for the advancement and protection of women from violence, the drafting of new legislation on the implementation of women’s rights, and the establishment of a human rights commission.”

Crown Prince Mohammed Bin Salman has drawn some optimism from his people since taking the throne from his father. He has already lifted many restrictions on women such as allowing them to drive and allowing them to work in fields that typically are male dominated, play sports, and attend public events. There is current talk of possibly allowing women to take on political positions and even abolishing male guardianship altogether. Although the latter is not set in stone quite yet, it seems sensible to feel optimistic about actual change towards gender equality in Saudi Arabia.

An article from source Arab News states an opposition to the Western Media’s point of view on the app, Absher. In Saudi Arabia, the application is looked upon with high regard and is known to be a leading government platform for Saudi citizens. The article claims that this application frees citizens from inefficient bureaucracy. A leading female journalist claims we are mistakenly viewing this as a tool of repression. 

Article takes the position that the mobile application, Absher, is a repressive tool used by Saudi men to overall dictate their women’s movements. Democratic Senator Ron Wyden has urged Google and Apple to review the app due to his heavy concern that they are facilitating gender discrimination. Google and Apple are just recently hearing of these concerns and may review the app.

Absher is only a detail within the longstanding problem of how women are treated in Saudi Arabia. According to this article, Google has concluded its investigation on the app and has decided to leave it up as it does not violate any terms of service. Google has been known to alter their rules in order to allow an app to exist on their platform, as well as Apple. They were not asked if Absher violated their current terms of services or rules, but only if they would facilitate gender oppression against women. 

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Nathalie Bernal- Final Essay Thesis

Google and Apple are under siege of scrutiny for facilitating gender discrimination due to Absher, a repressive mobile app created in Saudi Arabia to help men track and restrict the movements of women, which is available on both platforms.

Hi Nathalie,

I think your topic is timely and terrific, however, there is currently nothing in your thesis that is arguable (see points below). Perhaps a thesis about the controversy surrounding the discussion about whether or not it should be taken down and Google’s refusal to do so. Can you reword and resubmit?

How to form a thesis statement for an informative essay?

  1. A strong thesis statement takes some sort of stand. Remember that your thesis needs to show your conclusions about a subject. …
  2. A strong thesis statement justifies discussion. Your thesis should indicate the point of the discussion. …
  3. A strong thesis statement expresses one main idea. …
  4. A strong thesis statement is specific.

The Insider- Group 17- IDS3309

Hi Team #17, Well-done!  This seems like a good group effort to me. The writing is solid and excellent persuasive points are made throughout the essay. Good work.

Michael Eure

Maria De Los Angeles

Krystal Montoya

Adjany Kappen

Julia Thomas

Nathalie Bernal

The Insider

IDS 3309

February 26, 2019 

Question 1

The Insider’s main character, Jeffrey Wigand, could very easily be compared to a muckraker journalist. He attacks a big tobacco company by attempting to inform the public of secrets that these companies are keeping. Wigand agreed to discuss the scientific make up of cigarettes and the ingredients that these companies are adding into the product that they have pleaded ignorant about in court because he wanted to be able to consider himself a scientific man. After his termination from Brown and Williamson though, he was coerced to sign a non-disclosure agreement. The interview was cut because the tobacco industry threatened to file a lawsuit. As Wigand continued to be served with litigation, all of his noble efforts began to spiral downhill. The New York Times in some way steps in as a fellow muckraker that admonishes CBS for not running the interview. 

Throughout the movie Wigand faced enormous institutional pressures to not share the information he was obligated contractually to keep secret. Not only did the company he formerly worked for (B&W) fire him unreasonably, they began to constantly threaten him, and they eventually began to threaten his family. At first, these vile threats made Wigand afraid and anxious to share the information because he was internally conflicted with protecting his family which was his priority. His wife later filed for divorce due to all the threats and this was her attempt to keep her children and herself safe. Once this happened, Wigand decided to go forth with sharing his secret knowledge. His doubts basically dissipated because once his home life was destroyed, which was his biggest concern, he didn’t care about himself anymore. At this point, he just wanted to get the information out that the public deserved to know, and he wanted to get back at these big-shot CEOs for what they had done to him.

Concealment played a huge role in the cover up of what the Big Tobacco companies knew. During the film, clips of a court hearing demonstrate all the CEOs, also known as the seven dwarves, sworn in under oath lying about their consciousness of nicotine’s addictive properties and how it is essentially a drug. The big tobacco companies in the film, like many other companies and brands, use NDAs (non-disclosure agreements) to conceal and maintain secrets they do not want the public, the government, or anyone who isn’t on the inside to know. These secrets would virtually destroy their industry, so they use a government document to stop people from sharing any of this information. Although hundreds of people have attempted suing these companies for damages, medical expenses, and long-term pain and suffering, they win time after time by simply pulling out their wallets. These companies are the literal representation of lying and concealment in a corrupt manner. They are fully aware of what their product is doing and is capable of, yet they continue to put the people’s health at risk, not informing them of what chemicals are actually being put into the product because it keeps money flowing into their pockets.

The Insider
Image result for the insider

Question 2

Jeffry Wigand’s non-disclosure agreement (NDA) affects the flow of information because it stops him from giving information he believes is morally right to provide.Wigand sacrificed many things when he decided to talk to the press. Morally, he believes that he should share this information because it would benefit the American people who are being lied to by the big tobacco companies, but now he is cautious in sharing confidential information to avoid certain consequences like going to jail and not being able to get medical coverage for his daughter.

B&W has its employees sign this agreement so they can control what information flows in or out. These agreements stop any sensitive information from leaking and essentially these secrets allow them to lie. These documents also keep information, formulas, recipes, out of the hands of other companies who might want to use it for their own benefit. The NDA allows the company to sue the person who breaks the agreement in the contract, allows them to place a gag order on that person, and if that person decides to continue talking, they will be found in contempt of court and could face jail-time.Brown & Williamson’s argument for the NDA is that if contractually bound information were revealed, they would essentially lose customers and lose a lot of lawsuits.       

It is very rare for government officials to sign an NDA. Government information should be public as the citizens have a right to knowing what their elected officials are up to.Recently NDAs have been talked about and seen a lot in the Trump Administration. President Trump, unlike many that held office before him, asks any officials that work in the White House to sign an NDA. This has been receiving a lot of backlash as many agree that government officials are meant to serve the public, an NDA would violate that common “law” very easily. 

Question 3

Marshall McLuhan stated that the “medium is the message”, meaning that the way you send the message is more important than the actual message itself. The medium affects the way the audience can interpret the message. The primary form of media utilized by both Scanlon/Lenzner and Palladino is television. The use of television provides the viewers to see whomever is speaking. They are given the opportunity to read body language to fully understand the message. This can affect the audience’s interpretation completely because if they see that the speaker is being earnest, then they will believe it more. In the case of both Scanlon/Lenzner and Palladino, the audience seeing their responses gave them the opportunity to decide who they want to believe.

If this war over Wigand’s reputation had occurred in 2018, today’s media definitely would have affected it because it would have spread to a wider audience than it did. The media has grown so much since the release of this movie that there are multiple different platforms that can be used to tarnish one’s reputation. Especially when it comes to whistleblowing. People nowadays have very torn opinions; they either appreciate it because it is bringing something to their attention that was hidden, or they consider it as a negative. Reputations are easily stained in this day and age because once you say one thing to turn the public against you, many different things that you may have said that have been problematic in the past start coming to light. A modern-day example of this is when Trump had begun his presidency campaign and everyone who was against him started pointing out the bad things that he had done in the past. Trump was saying multiple problematical things and many of his enemies decided to attack by releasing more things that would further tear apart his reputation.

https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/eq7v2ZZn6Ta5jegNIqEfM4CQGy5-IMisQ-C25-s1i3wqZvoppLrpa_jizoONyHuCGK9-eskZpcjW2LZed9N9rRF6hJt1hVjn0q10knbq2ggQwu4j7bTgCCJcxVB2VOmZmgYBVtTR
https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/jot-rdPyvwdpqPJJGKticBMslm0jFw4PH9wgWtozk-4qDZJQDMCM_f9hxjnDC0pXeVpt68DTDFAZJyJSZ67Yvm39wd3m7avWFYJm9gJiqSwDLV0a7wmfG8UhAdKiHHVk2c8cha7T

Question 4

In the film, The Insider, Helen Caperelli, CBS Corporate counsel meets with journalist Lowell Bergman, host Mike Wallace, and producer Don Hewitt to discuss claims of tortious interference. In this scene, all characters utilize rhetoric, rhetorical questions, diction and allusion to display their emotions on the imposition of tortious interference with an overall tone of satire.

Right from the start, we see Don Hewitt stop writing to listen to Caperelli when she mentions the words “tortious interference”. Once Caperelli defines tortious interference, Hewitt responds by asking a rhetorical question, “Interfering? That’s what we do.” Hewitt’s purpose in his use of this satirical question was to make the argument and criticize the claims in posing the assumption of the journalists being in violation of tortious interference, hence journalists’ jobs are to report valuable information. Another example of Hewitt’s rhetorical questions would be when he said, “Why? You think we have liability?” This is not meant to receive a straight answer from Caperelli, but instead to bait her into arguing.

To inform the three media workers about tortious interference, Caperelli uses diction to explain to them what they are in breach of. In the film, she says, “… I might add, that’s already rife with problems…And I’m told there are questions as to our star witness’ veracity.” The diction used in these examples is meant to set her point of view towards the imperious jurisdiction and to lead her into her argument of what the journalists violated and why they shouldn’t air the story.

Bergman uses an allusion, “Is this Alice in Wonderland?”, to exaggerate implications of the damage they might receive. Referring to a well-known children’s story, Bergman expresses his feelings of the absurdity towards Caperelli’s statement about the amount of damages and veracity. 

https://lh5.googleusercontent.com/FefEF0PYVw8eMhd1v2tosXMAjNsr65L64TJoABAwt92EV1lxKkFEflVQfOl_cLMyBWXCqcESQiGe6rxdSXTFb7ITOHQSOGF5dKWCYodIl32ICmngjGGv29L45-Lnc1fL9JHo9Jz4

Credits:

Question answers were a group effort and contribution on behalf of:

Michael Eure

Maria De Los Angeles

Krystal Montoya

Adjany Kappen

Julia Thomas

Editing: Nathalie Bernal

48 Hour Blackout- Nathalie Bernal- IDS3309

Hi Nathalie,

Overall I enjoyed your essay and you made some very provocative points! I can see that you took a fair amount of time to analyze this reading and thought about it a great deal.  Your writing style, word choice, grammar, was all quite good. I would encourage you to read your posts aloud and/or have someone else read them as well just to have a second pair of eyes that might provide some insight that could help. Good job!

Deresiewicz firmly states that the culture of celebrity and connectivity have become salient because in postmodern times because (remove comma), visibility is of the utmost importance. It is easy to agree with him on such a claim. As soon as we are conscious thinkers, (hmm, be careful with the term “conscious thinkers’ that could be subjective – I know what you mean but that is a problematic way to say that, I would just remove it entirely)  We are taught by everyone (be careful to with overreaching generalities, everyone, no one, always, never, things like that)that to achieve greatness, one must do something big, something noticeable. No one idolizes the woman with the average salary who picks up her kids from practice and plans family trips. Kids are taught to idolize revolutionaries, superheroes, award winning artists, Oprah, but not the average Joe. 

Considering we are all (not all ! again, generalities~!) conditioned this way, it is easy to see why throughout our lifetime we aim to succeed greatness in the context in which we perceive greatness to be. In today’s day and age, being continuously connected to social media platforms, constantly communicating with people, posting premeditated edited photos and content are all ways that have proven successful for thousands. Social media and the internet have provided a large portion of our society the ability to create globally accessible businesses. (all good points!)  I consider myself to be a part of this culture. All I have to do is invest my time into studying algorithms, deciding what kind of brand I want to create, be consistent, and seek proper exposure. If I never become an influencer or a huge social media mogul, no harm done.

Taking 48 hours of to  complete disconnect was practically an impossible task.  a practically impossible task. I have become slave to my own, personalized, glowing slab of polycarbonate, incessantly checking it throughout the day and night as if it going to give me the winning lottery numbers or something. Throughout this experience there were certainly times where I felt anxious because I overheard others talking about certain news, giving me the itch the search. Most of the time I felt very at peace, almost as if I were meditating. Social media is something I check subconsciously, making it the hardest impulse to control. My social media is mostly for entertainment, not news purposes. All the rest are things I do completely consciously, like texting and checking emails. Notifications on my phone are always turned off and it is usually on silent because the ceaseless messages popping up on my screen and the loud ding throughout the day tend to give me anxiety. (good for you!) 

Solitude is subjective. I enjoy leaving my phone in my room and forgetting people exist the same way I enjoy staying in on Friday nights with no one but my dog. Being blacked out from all news for 2 days was not the worst thing. I try to avoid news because it does not help the pessimist perspective I have on the world, but I agree that it is a necessity for stability and control in society. If people are not informed about what measures are being taken to resolve all the world’s issues, it is likely they’d take matters into their own hands. (hmm, really? ) The same way it may cause anxiety to watch the news, it can also very much cause anxiety not to have it at all. 

Group 17- The Ghost in the Shell

Hi Team #17

Overall, an excellent post. I would have liked to see more images incorporated into the body of your text.  You made good connections with Deresiewicz and McLuhan and on that front you did a very good job. Your points are well-written – clear and concise language, good word choices.Keep up the good work!  Watch your capitalizations however, be consistent, always proofread.

Michael Eure

Maria De Los Angeles

Krystal Montoya

Adjany Kappen

Julia Thomas

Nathalie Bernal

The Ghost in the Shell

IDS 3309

February 5, 2019 

Question 1

  1. We don’t believe that the covert activities of Section (capitalize) 9 go too far. Although it can be argued that citizens should be aware of situations or threats such as the Puppet Master, it can also be argued that this would cause a great panic throughout the country and perhaps even in other countries. Section 9 is also acting in secret because they do not want interference from other parties. Therefore, throughout their investigation, they simply just try to keep things controlled and private. The way in which they deal with the garbage truck chase, when they follow the people who snuck into their HQ, and how Kusinagi handles the last final battle in the movie are all carried out in a reasonable manner. They even showed sympathy when they reveal to the garbage man that he was hacked by the Puppet Master and controlled to do his bidding. 
  • It might not seem that the government violating the same laws that they created and enforce is justifiable, but there are times when ethics outweigh the law. A police official may have to fatally wound somebody to protect others or a government can place prior restraint on a media outlet which in most cases is seen as a violation of the first amendment First Amendement. In certain cases, it may be deemed necessary or ethical in order to ensure public safety. There are times when confidential knowledge obtained by a citizen can put them at risk or in danger, so it is best they are kept in the dark. People also tend to misinterpret things and they might feed the wrong information to uninformed people, causing severe distrust of the government. It seemed that in the film, these were some of the reasons why the kept “the puppet master,” section 9, and so many other details a secret. 
  • As previously mentioned, we agree that there are times when retaining certain information from the public is the right thing to do, but we do believe that citizens should be informed about what is going on around them, in their cities, and in their country. Perhaps, while investigations are still underway and in critical stages might not be the best time to release such sensitive data. Once investigations are completed, once there is a clear answer, once there is no longer a threat, then that would probably be the best time to admit to certain violations that the government has committed because then the public can deem it is having been necessary for their own safety. Of course, even then, there will be citizens who take different views on such things. It is not guaranteed that we will agree with the government’s violations of the law. Also, if authority denies or delays releasing information to citizens, the circumstances might be the public becoming skeptical and distrusting of their own government because they may find the system to be corrupt. There are definitely things that occur behind closed doors in our own country simply because the general public wouldn’t truly understand or accept it, and this might bring about unrest, violent rallies or protests nationwide, and perhaps even civil war in the worst of cases.

Question 2

  1. As read in New York Times article, “Why Our Memory Fails us”, authors Chabris and Simmons argue that false memory is challenged; parallel to their theory, Ghost in the Shellshows us how Major Motoko Kusanagi falsely captured the garbage man in belief that he was the “Puppet Master”. Information technology used in the world of Ghost in the Shelllike: altering memories, holograms, invisibility and networked brains caused Kusanagi`s team to capture and interrogate the wrong person. Kusanagi`s team realized that the garbage man’s memories were erased. He was influenced by the puppet master who implanted a fake life or false memories so he could control the behavior of the garbage man to be perceived as the “puppet master.” Marshall McLuhan’s words, “the medium is the message,” proved evident particularly in this scene. It was not so much about the message that the Puppet Master was trying to get across, but more about the vile way he got his message across because of the medium he used. This scene connects to the critical perspective of what we see today through all media outlets.Social media platforms like Instagram or Snapchat, now give people, including celebrities the access to digitally modify themselves or their pictures. This article https://www.thisisinsider.com/celebrity-photoshop-fail-instagram-social-media-2017-5shows how easy it is to manipulate an image. Tools such as photoshop allow us to alter our own images to give others a false perception or what we look like or how we live. These same tools allow us to alter people’s physical frames, add/remove objects, change backgrounds. Heavily edited images like this can be used to coerce someone into believing that they were somewhere or did something that they didn’t do. With this technology, we can also affect people’s perceptions of others. When Cristiano Ronaldo was accused of raping a woman, headlines of this were on every tabloid with pictures as being portrayed as “evidence.”
https://lh5.googleusercontent.com/zB3ZZZ44wLRG76P9E8elPGWN8zGsZef8IfJyITJoEUAW29Uyt57hN-zvmrs5qmQRwY6ojSVazT1T6eeOi-l_u4clqQfbdTiAcXGbUj2Ui3zipgfioGo2K7ik5YPv4W_jR19zRdQi

Question 3:

  1. Despite being partially bionic, Major Kusanagi relies primarily on her mind for control. She keeps things to herself, shaping her soul, “ghost” as it is referred to in the film. She acts on her own will, despite being manufactured. She shows control even more so when she is in the water. Batou asks her how she feels whenever she is in the water and Major Kusanagi states she feels human-like emotions such as fear and loneliness. This is the only time she experiences complete solitude, allowing her to be at her complete free will. Comparing to what we know, technology typically cannot function when submerged below water. It can be interpreted that the water halts the technology that embodies her, allowing her to feel things that otherwise she would not be able to feel. She is worried about her own existence and who she is as a person so she relies on her small moments of solitude under water to reflect on what she could and should be. It is almost as if her fear of being completely submerged gives her hope that there may be more to her life than simply being a cyborg.
Image result for the ghost in the shell 1995
  • Deresiewicz is right when he says we are approaching a time when information technology makes solitude impossible because we are constantly connected. Our entire lives are online for everyone to view, making solitude impossible. We are never truly alone because when we are on our phones, there are millions of people we can talk to or that we are connected to. Along with that, people nowadays are reluctant to being in complete solitude if they are offered the opportunity. Information technology has made us dependent on the company of others, even if it is virtual. More and more people are constantly feeling a need to be on their phones in order to feel connected to others.The time of not being able to be in solitude has definitely occurred in the film. In the movie, everyone is constantly connected with different forms of technology completely integrated into their daily lives. It has even got to the point where technology is implanted into their bodies; there is no way for them to ever be alone because technology has become a part of them. With the creation of the “cyberbrain”, everyone can access the internet whenever they want to. This signifies how technology can infiltrate your life completely and turn into something that becomes a part of you, which seems to be something our society is steadily heading towards. 

Question 4

  1. According to Marshall McLuhan, different forms of media in history have had huge impacts on society and how we share, create, and use media. There have been many inventions throughout history that have had these impacts whether small or large. The first to have a noticeable impact was the invention of the movable type or the printing press. This invention led to an era of rapid cognitive development by allowing books to be printed in mass production. This production allowed books to be cheaper and available to a broader population who, beforehand, could not afford literature.The next form of media that had a great impact on society was the invention of the world wide web. This has revolutionized the way people in the world interact. The fact that we can instantaneously access any information we need makes things easier for anyone with access to it. Companies around the world are able to control trade and business by keeping track of things happening in different markets. Small businesses in all parts of the world now sell internationally instead of strictly locally. With the clicks of a few keys, the world wide web became the “global village” McLuhan spoke of.Moreover, the form of media that paved the way for the above mentioned is one that came thousands of years before any type of electronic or instantaneous media. The phonetic alphabet, according to McLuhan, had one of the greatest impacts on man. This form of media allowed people to communicate in an oral form and write with characters that each individually meant one thing, as opposed to hieroglyphics and other symbols used before, that were interpreted differently by different people around the world. The phonetic alphabet brought about the era of communication in which man could transmit messages on a much vaster scale. 
  • Today, the internet is an essential part of the information landscape and the educational infrastructure. The Internet grows exponentially since its public start on August 6, 1991. Billions of people are presently connected, although levels of efficiency, and bandwidth differ greatly from area to area. Since its start, the Internet has changed how our society functions. It has increased civic engagement, and sociability. In truth, the internet has restructured our social relationships on a basis of individual interest and values, with interactions nowadays beginning in cyberspace and transitioning to physical spaces. There are endless sites that allow you to connect with individuals from all over the world and potentially lead to in-person interactions. Today, social networking is the preferred means for socializing in personal lives and for business purposes. The internet is a new freedom and it daily transforms our day to day practices.
  • Society as a whole is more present online than in their physical form because of the excessive use of this medium. The danger in merging the two is what the movie demonstrates to the viewers. We see the make of individuals who are partly-to-all cybernetic, whose entire being and mind can be accessed online, because they have uploaded themselves into ghosts, a cranially stored computer. This is what gave the “the Puppet Master,” a master hacker, superior power over the characters. It is arguable that something similar could happen in present day. Taking into consideration that we input all of our private, personal information online, we could definitely be hacked, and someone could gain access to parts of us. As a matter of fact, we have had more than one mass hack in the United States alone. The difference in the film is that these cyborgs are more severely affected because they can have their memories permanently erased, altered, and basically be fully controlled by another being who doesn’t necessarily have to be human.

Credits:

Question answers were a group effort and contribution on behalf of:

Michael Eure

Maria De Los Angeles

Krystal Montoya

Adjany Kappen

Julia Thomas

Editing: Nathalie Bernal

Rhetorical Analysis- Nathalie Bernal- IDS3309

Thesis: In the New York Times articles “Comment is King” and “Why Our Memory Fails Us”, the respective authors use rhetoric to spell out the commonness of distorted memory and the brutal commentator’s perspectives that indubitably accompany the publishing of said memories. (Very good thesis)

Chabris and Simmons set out to prove how unforgiving people can be in their article “Why Our Memory Fails Us.” We are surrounded by pompous critics who remain concealed behind usernames that are inflated by voicing their skepticism and distrust of others. Chabris and Simons kick off the article by giving the example of Neil Degrasse Tyson, an astrophysicist and TV host, who made the mistake of misquoting former president George W. Bush in one of his stories. After receiving heavy reproach from a multitude of people, Dr. Tyson did admit to his mistake and apologized for his overconfidence.

Throughout this article, you will find that the authors used the triad of appeals. Right off the bat, they used ethos when describing Dr. Tyson. They used ethos again when speaking of Mr. Bush and again with Hillary Clinton. These are people that the majority see as educated, well-rounded, and of high regard. We are shown that even they can recall false memories and it is not always about twisting the truth or being a liar. The authors have us question ourselves, “do our heroes have memories of clay?” 

The authors used logos heavily when providing examples of different experiments and studies as well as the names of the psychologists and academies that were used for reference. They included a study that was conducted by cognitive psychologists Henry L. Roediger III and K. Andrew DeSoto. These two conducted an experiment to test how accurately people could recall words from list. It turned out that people were just as confident in both words on the list and words similar to them. 

A memory can be distorted each time you recall it. A report from the National Academy of Sciences strongly suggests relying on initial statements as opposed to courtroom proclamations and this is why. This fact can be seen as a logos, but it ties into pathos when the authors explain how false memories can sentence an innocent person to life in prison or the death penalty. The reader is bound to feel guilt and concern for society. The thought of people being sentenced to death alone is a thought that could stir a few emotions.

Then we dive into the reader’s comments which is basically scrolling onto the sea of opinions. Two comments that stood out the most to me were by Keith Dow and Jacob Sommer. It was very obvious that they article rubbed them in very different ways. Dow was totally submerged in the fact that the authors called George W. Bush an educated person and used logos when listing several examples on comments that the former president made during his time in office. Sommer, on the other hand, I believe used ethos when he demonstrated his agreeance to what was explained in the article about memory. He wanted to show the readers of his comments that he is very conscious of distorted memories including his own, that he generally assumes the best of people, and basically, we should all follow his lead. 

Hi Nathalie,

Excellent post! Good command of language and sentence structure. A good analysis and not just a summary overall. I enjoyed reading your post and look forward to working with you.