Final Essay Draft- Group 20 Deyanira Morgado

Hi Deyanira,

Be sure to add images! Good work, good analysis, good writing style. I enjoyed reading this and you did a good job with a challenging topic.


Journalist attacks and murders are prevalent in non-democratic countries and are now increasing in popularity in the United States, as observed on February 12, 2019 when a reporter from BBC news was attacked by a Trump supporter. On one hand, Trumps’ administration and Trump himself used rhetoric and social media to present the event as unexpected and safely controlled .On the other hand, among the journalists and news organizations who follow the critical perspective , the event was portrayed using social media, newsletter , articles, and television as dangerous to  the future of journalism and democracy in the United States.

Trump utilizes his presidential status as an appeal to ethos, mainly for his supporters, to present news organization, including the New York Times, as fake news and as a threat to Americans. He constantly questions and uses derogatory language to refer to the news by posting anti-journalist tweets, Instagram posts, and while giving speeches during his presidential campaigns. Moreover, in an interview with Sulzberger , when faced with questions about the effect this is having in the American society and global impact , Trump appeals to pathos by stating he is a victim of the press  and that the press has been tough on other politicians , but in his case it has been a lot worse. The White House press secretary Sarah Sanders also addresses the question by stating that Trump is the victim and uses words such as “tough” and “fighter” to defend Trumps actions. Moreover, she appeals to supporter’s pathos by using repetition in her public speeches to say that the president is constantly attacked and that he is simply fighting back because the American people chose a president that does not step back and take no action. Lastly, she denies Trump is initiating violence towards journalist. Moreover, Trump t appeals to logos and pathos by mentioning the negotiations he has done to prevent the United States form going to war with North Korea and falling to the hands of China for economic reasons. Lastly, to address the attack on BBC camera man, Trump simply confirmed the reporter was okay and applauded at the audience which was shouting TRUMP!   after the violent act on the journalist. Through this body language and choice of words, the president made the event seem insignificant and did not even bother to condemn violent acts against journalists. 

On the other hand, the news organizations and journalists have better and more valid arguments to prove and convince the American public that Trump’s anti-press rhetoric is increasing violence toward journalists not only in the United States but all around the world as well. For example, during the same interview, Sulzberger appeals to logos by providing examples around the world where dictators and tyrants are using the term fake news to ban the free press and justify the murder of journalists. Moreover, Sulzberger appeals to pathos by mentioning the fact that many journalists are risking their lives to show the world the truth, while Trump is encouraging  press violence  and putting the First Amendment at risk simply because Trump can’t handle the criticism and scrutiny that  comes with free press and freedom of speech, and a democratic society. 

Additionally, on an article written and posted by BBC news, the author  Jon Sopel  uses the metaphor “Ron was the media”, to emphasize that any journalist is prone to these attacks, no matter no matter how honest and hardworking they are because they represent  the media which Donald Trump Hates and attacks daily. He also appeals to logos by describing the lack of security and police intervention to convince the audience that this is an issue and it must be corrected. 

The journalists and organizations are following the critical perspective by questioning Trump’s statements and assumptions he uses to attract supporters. The news also works for the betterment of society by avoiding the oppression of the news and defending the freedom of speech and the security of journalists and reporters. Lastly, journalists expand the bounds of debate by providing the American society and the world with the debate whether Trump’s anti-press rhetoric is creating more violence against journalists. On the contrary, Trump and his administration do not follow the critical perspective because they continue using the term “fake news” to refer to the press and continue denying the global impact this is having. 

Overall, the news is more effective because they use more than written articles, tweets, and pictures. They have the ability to show films of Donald Trump and facts undermining Trump’s statements and presidency.


Annotated Bibliography-Deyanira Morgado -group 20

Hi Deyanira,

Good job, good sources, good annotations too!

Approved Thesis:

Journalist attacks and murders are prevalent in non-democratic countries  and are now increasing in popularity in the United States, as observed on February 12, 2019 when a reporter from BBC news was attacked by a Trump supporter. On one hand, Trumps’ administration and Trump himself used rhetoric and social media to present the event as unexpected and safely controlled .On the other hand, among the journalists and news organizations who follow the critical perspective , the event was portrayed using social media, newsletter , articles, and television as dangerous to  the future of journalism and democracy in the United States.

Annotated Bibliography 

  1. Magra, Iliana. “BBC Cameraman Is Attacked at Trump Rally.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 12 Feb. 2019, 

Article describing and showing videos of the journalist being attached after earlier that night, Trump critiqued the media and news reporters. This is an example of how information of this event is presented in a bad light , in which Trump is to blame for his catchy phrase “Fake News”. The appeals to ethos, and pathos is widely used here since there are citing of people’s opinions and facts about trump that describe it is not the first time this happens.

This article includes evince about the rhetoric used by Trump to defend his case and image . However, the interviewer  also uses rhetoric to attack Trump’s image , and is much more effective in convincing the public that it is wrong what Trump is doing.  On one hand, Trump presents  himself as oblivious that his “anti-press rhetoric” is having such a negative effect, while the interviewer uses facts (logos), and proper language (ethos) to present his argument. 

This article shows how fake news is discussed among Americans,  Trump and his administration, and journalists . It is less based on Trump, and more on how fake news has been around for a long time before Trump. The article includes various viewpoints but leans towards Trump’s argument by using logos ( facts) when presenting facts about fake news. Gans, Herbert J. “Urban Sociology in Trump’s America and Beyond.” City & Community, vol. 16, no. 2, June 2017, pp. 127–130. 

  • BOIS, YVE-ALAIN. “Fake News and Alternative Facts: Three Antidotes from History.” October, no. 160, Spring 2017, pp. 127–130. E
  • Tutwane, Letshwiti B. “Fake News: The Trump Presidency and the Power of Emotional Capital.” Annual International Conference on Computer Science Education: Innovation & Technology, Jan. 2017, pp. 156–162. E

Assignment 4- Group 20- Deyanira Morgado

Journalist attacks and murders are prevalent in non-democratic countries  and are now increasing in popularity in the United States, as observed on February 12, 2019  when a reporter from BBC news was attacked by a Trump supporter. On one hand, Trumps’ administration and Trump himself used rhetoric and social media to present the event as unexpected and safely controlled .On the other hand, among the journalists and news organizations who follow the critical perspective , the event was portrayed  using social media, newsletter , articles, and television as dangerous to  the future of journalism and democracy in the United States. 


Individual Assignment 3- Media Blackout

Deyanira Morgado

Group 20

Hi Deyanira,

Good work! You wrote quite profoundly about your experience. I enjoyed reading your post very much. You analyzed the reading in an interesting and thoughtful manner. You provided deep insight into the assignment.  There were some grammatical errors but overall your sentence structure, word usage and clarity of thought was very good. I am pleased that you seemed to enjoy writing this post it appears to me that you spend some time writing it and it shows. Well-done!

Being a social media user since the 6thgrade, I have experienced the lack of solitude described by William Deresiewicz. Personally, using social media has been unsettling to the point where I have deleted all my social media accounts , to then re-open them because I was influenced by others around me , and the fact that I did not have social media made me feel isolated, strange, alone. These feelings relate to the  celebrity culture described by Deresiewicz, in which personal values have become quantitative rather than qualitative,  and in which solitude  is perceived as socially unacceptable and one as a social failure.  Not so long ago, I shared the celebrity culture mindset that I was more valued if I had more Facebook friends, Twitter followers, Instagram photo likes, and re-tweets.  My mindset changed completely once I started college and realized that being alone is not at all horrifying . I found freedom and relaxation in dedicating some time to myself, to reflect about my feelings and emotions, to understand me .  (good for you Deyanira, an excellent revelation to have!)

            I have been part of the social media Blackout for a few months now(period end of sentence)   since  I decided to erase  social media apps form from  my phone, (no comma needed) and only  access them a  few times a month, (period, end of sentece – no comma needed) because Theythey were too distracting, and the need to feel “visible”, “connected” and “recognized” became mentally draining and damaging. I recall recalled looking at my Instagram feed and seeing all the fun activities others were doing which made me think my life was boring and I was misusing my  time stressing about exams and studying .  The first week of blackout felt weird and I did experience anxiety as I would involuntarily unlock my phone as to open the apps and see who had messaged me, or who had followed me , or what my friends and famous people were positing on their stories.  These feeling, again, were a result of the addiction that social media creates by making an individual feel visible to many other users.

Although I am not completely cured from the celebrity culture influence, and I still find some discomfort in being alone for too long, my life is more meaningful now and I am happier than I was when I was constantly checking social media. However, the lack of new information , especially for the purposes of this course , has  made me feel uninformed, isolated, and  voiceless since I can’t share my opinions on national, global, or social issues. This class , however, is making me re-gain ( one word – regain)that sense  of community and education since I now read the New York times, and learn about social and global issues through the professors and assignments. (that’s terrific! ) Overall, the news is not necessarily an intrusion of solitude, especially when delivered through articles in which reading and interpretation by the individual are necessary. The social media that includes pictures, videos, and messages is , however, an intruder of solitude  and can make us feel surrounded by people until the screen is turned off and we find ourselves in solitude again.  





Please put Assignment #, Name and  Team # in ‘Enter title here” .  It is very important!!! I see way too much quoting in your essay and not enough of your thoughts and analysis of the reading. Your writing style is acceptable.  Please keep this in mind for future assignments since that is a large portion of these readings and, in fact, all of the material in this course.

Deyanira Morgado 

McLuhan and the Critical Perspective

Throughout the interview from Playboy, Marshall  McLuhan utilizes Critical Theory to emancipate people from the “numbing” effect of the message. His ideas aim for the betterment of society by making his audience perceive the world from a completely different angle of vision, which is by critically thinking about how the medium affects them   and  stop focusing only on the message which makes them  unaware of the control that human inventions and innovations  exert. For example, McLuhan uses imagery and similes to  clearly show this when he states, “ Such an extension is an intensification, an amplification of an organ, sense of function, and whenever it takes place, the central nervous system appears to institute a self-protective numbing of the affected area, insulating and anesthetizing it from conscious awareness of what’s happening to it”.  He then makes the audience reflect on the history of mankind as a way to be able to reflect on the present,  when describing how the phonetic alphabet created a detached human environment because people stopped  depending only on speech and sounds as means of communication (6).  He then (repetitive!) describes how the printing press   created social uniformity and ultimately lead led (be consistent with tenses) to united languages and ultimately nationalism .  

McLuhan’s ideas  are “…aimed at decreasing domination and increasing freedom…” ( Critical theory, 2005)because they  make  the audience realize  how certain  institutions and people in the world that  know how to control societies with the message by using the  medium . For example,  the marketing experts know exactly what message to portray on TV to attract customers  that are oblivious of all the rhetorical tools enclosed in the message that are constructed , like a weapon,  to target  and control their minds and actions.  To support this, he  states that most people “ are still blissfully ignorant of what the media do to them; unaware that because of their pervasive effect on man, it is the medium itself that is the message, not the content…” .  He also provides the means of solving this problem by  becoming aware of the “dynamics” of the media and how it transforms us. 

 Additionally, McLuhan questions  commonly held assumptions by describing how “…we are always one step behind in our view of the world”, and  expressing that  human “survival”, “happiness”, and “comfort”  are not determined by wealth,  health, medicine,  a united family, etcetera,  but rather they depend on “understanding the nature of our new environment…” that is constantly and immediately transformed by the electric media.  Lastly, McLuhan expands the bounds of debate by allowing the audience to make their own conclusions, and stating that he has “… no fixed point of view, no commitment to any theory” , not even his own because theories and ideas must be flexible enough to  explain new problems and change. 


“Critical Theory.” 8 Mar. 2005.

he Playboy Interview: Marshall McLuhan, Playboy Magazine,   1969.

Rhetorical Analysis: Why Our Memory Fails Us.

Deyanira Morgado

Thesis Statement: Throughout the article “Why Our Memory Fails Us” published on in the New York Times , psychology professors Christopher F. Chabris and Daniel J. Simmons effectively inform the audience about memory distortion and persuade the audience to consider this phenomenon when judging others’ memory mistakes in the future by utilizing  a mixture of logos, ethos, pathos, imagery and anaphora. (Good!!)

The article begins as informative as Christopher F. Chabris and Daniel J. Simmons  introduce the main topic , (I would consider maybe putting a hypen here) which is the reality of distorted memories and their effect . Throughput the essay, however,  the authors adopt an informal writing style as they state opinions about how people should react to false memories by using words such as “we”, “our” and “us”. The informal  and simplified writing is also utilized by the authors in  order to expand their audience and  effectively communicate  their opinions and ideas. For example the authors state, “Our memories tend to morph to match our beliefs about ourselves and our world” (Chabris and Simons, 2014) as to show the audience that this happens to everyone even phycologists that are aware of distortion of memory. 

 The authors use ethos throughout the essay to prove the ideas of  false memories and distortion of memory  when briefly describing the findings of the National Academy of Sciences on false memory and the application of these findings on legal processes, as well as several research studies conducted by psychologists Henry L. Roediger and K. Andrew DeSoto,  and Sir Frederic Charles Bartlett. Moreover,  when describing the findings of psychologist Frederic Charles, the authors include imagery and logos  by describing the experiment with the analogy of the telephone game to visualize and understand how memories are distorted  in a logical way.  Moreover,  the authors aim to increase their ethos by presenting the events in which former president Bush  and politician Hillary Rodham Clinton experienced distortion of memory .

Additionally, the authors appeal to the emotions of the audience (pathos) when incorporating the 9/11 event  and what Bush mistakenly said about the event to prove that the effects of memory distortion can be drastic and can even lead to conspiracy theories and harmful critics . For example the authors used imagery  once again to show distortion of memory  when they mentioned, “ …on  more than one occasion Mr. Bush recollected having seen the first plane hit the north tower of the World Trade Center before he entered a classroom in Florida” (Chabris and Simons, 2014) .  This statement also appeals to higher emotions of those who  know about the event , especially the audience that was affected by it. Then,  the authors show the result of Bush’s public mistake by stating , “ … some Bush critics concluded that he was inadvertently leaking the truth, and must have known about the attacks in advance”  (Chabris and Simons, 2014). Lastly,  Chabris and Simmons highlight the importance of understanding false memories,  and persuade the  audience to apologize when their memory fails and forgive others when this happens by using   anaphora and concluding the article with the following statement : “ We should be more understanding of mistakes by others, and credit them when they admit they were wrong. We are all fabulists, and we must all get used to it”.

The authors  of the top three comments were chosen by the readers because they are constructive and supported by evidence and quotes(logos) , as well as personal experiences with false me memories(pathos).


Chabris, C. and Simons, D. (2014). Opinion | Why Our Memory Fails Us.  

Hi Deyanira, You make excellent points and have a good grasp of the material. I enjoyed reading your post. Keep up the good work. Nice thesis too!