Final Essay – Global Warming

Marielle –


Your analysis of the event is good, but you lack a focus on how we know about the event. This is more a summary and narrative than an analysis using class concepts.


Thesis: Between December 2nd and 15th, the United Nations Climate Change Conference was held in Katowice. Concerns were raised on the need to speed up the control of the escalating global warming; these events have been influenced by scientific reports which states that the past five years have been the hottest period in history, therefore, there is an urgent need for the world to embrace ways to reduce the impact of global warming by 2030. By creating a deadline for implementation, the scientific report seeks to employ an emotional appeal to the world. This is amidst laxity of other countries such as Brazil on the fight against climate change on the claim that it is a strategy of “Marxists” to stifle the economic growth of capitalist democracies.

Global warming is becoming a common phenomenon in the 21st century, its effects are evident and several scientific reports have demonstrated that there is need for the global citizens and nations to pull resources and fight the climate change. World leaders have been convening meetings of all kinds, to find a common ground to fight the looming danger for humanity. Despite the years of meetings and conventions, there is nothing conclusive that has been made. Nations are becoming tired and some of them are already pulling out of the UN’s Climate Change movement. Between December 2nd and 15th, the United Nations Climate Change Conference was held in Katowice. Concerns were raised on the need to speed up the control of the escalating global warming; these events have been influenced by scientific reports which states that the past five years have been the hottest period in history, therefore, there is an urgent need for the world to embrace ways to reduce the impact of global warming by 2030. By creating a deadline for implementation, the scientific report seeks to employ an emotional appeal to the world. This is amidst laxity of other countries such as Brazil on the fight against climate change on the claim that it is a strategy of “Marxists” to stifle the economic growth of capitalist democracies.

Despite the constant warnings on the challenges of climate change, there are still nations that believe climate change is being politicized to benefit a small fraction of the globe. The pulling out of Brazil from hosting the 2019 United Nation’s Climate Conference should be a cause for alarm to the world. It indicates that we are already losing the war against the menace threatening our livelihoods. What is even more shocking is the fact that the pullout by Brazil came after scientists made shocking discoveries that there is an urgent need to implement policies on climate change. According to a report documented by the British Broadcasting Corporation, scientist warn that the world has a very short time to reverse global warming (BBC). This article documents the warnings given by scientists on the issue of climate change. According to the scientists, there is need for a massive and urgent interventions to reverse the changes of climate change. The report took three years to compile, and from the findings, there has been a rise in temperatures and maintaining it below 1.5°C would need a rapid change in implementation and quick response. The report also serves as a call for world leaders to institute necessary measures to control the climate change.


The Katowice meeting was a result of these worrying revelations that raised a red flag and the time needed to reverse the global warming. However, the politicization of the idea of global warming continues to pose a threat to this fight. A number of nations who do not believe in the climate change tend to influence the others through politicization. The United States has been accused of sabotaging the progress of climate change mitigation. Ralph Regenvanu, the foreign minister of Vanuatu singled out America as among the major emitters as a stumbling block. He says,

“It pains me deeply to have watched the people of the United States and other developed countries across the globe suffering the devastating impacts of climate-induced tragedies, while their professional negotiators are here at COP24 putting red lines through any mention of loss and damage in the Paris guidelines and square brackets around any possibility for truthfully and accurately reporting progress against humanity’s most existential threat” (Doherty).

Being the world leader in a wide range of issues, the United States may have a great influence in the developing nations. The blocking and criticizing the climate change strategies was a means to discredit the scientific discoveries. There is a probability that the incoming government of Brazil may have been influenced by the United States. A New York Times article has compared Brazil’s new president as strikingly similar in policies as Donald Trump. “Their next president Jair Bolsonaro, a far-right lawmaker who is unabashedly pro-American and strikingly similar to President Trump in temperament, tactics and style” (Londoño and Darlington). They both have a similar perspective of climate change.

There is the need for the world leaders to differentiate politics and serious issues that not only affect a section, but also the general global environment. The politicization of the global warming fight saw Brazil developing cold feet, despite years of support. According to the New York Times Magazine, Brazil has been on the forefront in the fight against global warming (Londono and Friedman). This will serve as a derailment of one of their strongest members in the fight against climate change. According to the article, Brazil depicts the fight against climate change as an economic sabotage to benefit other states. Politicians are having a different notion about climate change, “Ernesto Araújo, a career diplomat, has called the movement to reduce global warming a plot by “Marxists” to stifle the economic growth of capitalist democracies while lifting China” (Londono and Friedman). A number of materials argue that politics is the major inhibitor of the advancement of global warming. According to a book examining the science and politics of the world’s climate change, political barriers curtails the fight against global warming (Dresser et. al 4). The book implies that politics prevents the implementations of different aspects of controlling the escalation of the greenhouse gases. Politicians may want to fulfill their campaign promises, and a change in policies on climate change may hinder their promises. Brazil’s withdrawal came at a moment when the country was undergoing a power shift, and possibly different campaign promises. Another example is the United States, Obama’s administration had policies aligning to climate change mitigation, but with the coming of Donald Trump to the presidency, Obama’s legacy was no longer a priority in his bucket list.

Climate change is a global threat, and therefore, when other nations begin to politicize the situation, then it worries a lot. Instead of fighting against each other, the world’s states should come together and address the change together. The divisions being experienced with the move by Brazil to pull itself out of hosting the United Nations Conference would only impact the relationships negatively. Fighting a common war would need a lot of resources, but with the pooling of resources, it would make it easier to fight the war.

Work Cited

BBC. “Climate Change: Scientists Warn ‘Urgent Change Needed’ To Reverse Warming – CBBC Newsround”. Bbc.Co.Uk, 2018,

Dessler, Andrew E, and Edward A Parson. The Science And Politics Of Global Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, 2011.

Doherty, Ben. “US Accused Of Obstructing Talks At UN Climate Change Summit”. The Guardian, 2018,

Londono, Ernesto, and Lisa Friedman. “Brazil Backs Out Of Hosting 2019 Climate Change Meeting”. Nytimes.Com, 2019,

Londono, Ernesto, and Shasta Darlington. “U.S. And Brazil Chose Similar Leaders. It May Lead To Smoother Relations.”. Nytimes.Com, 2018,


Thesis Draft 2 – Marielle Cohen

Marielle –

Focusing on the report is fine. However, your thesis needs to be about how we know about the report. What rhetoric is used, how is the report disseminated, perhaps who supports or rejects the report and what rhetoric do they use? Is secrecy involved in any way?


You are on the right track. Just revise the thesis and check back with me.


Between December 2nd and 15th, the United Nations Climate Change Conference was held in Katowice. Concerns were raised on the need to speed up the control of the escalating global warming; these events have been influenced by scientific report which states that the past five years have been the hottest period in history, therefore, there is an urgent need for the world to embrace ways to reduce the impact of global warming by 2030.

Thesis Draft – Marielle Cohen



The topic is interesting, but a bit broad and is more a statement of fact than something disputable. You might try to focus on a congressperson, or group of them, and perhaps their use of social media. For example, some articles have looked at the media usage of Ocasio-Cortez.

There are claims that the new US congress is the most divisive in the history of United States and it not clear how the politics of the superpower will affect the rest of the world amid the political strife in the country since news outlets have varying opinions.

Assignment 3 Marielle Cohen


Very insightful analysis of your experience. Good job making connections to Deresiewicz. Overall, writing is good, but could be improved with tighter editing. 


Two days without a phone and access to news seemed like an eternity. I could not believe how much I was addicted to social life until the blackout. The fear of missing out the news was continually running through my mind. I could not think that there was such a time when people used to live without relying on technology. I also learned that I was not patient because I could not wait for the 48 hours to be over so that I can return to normal life where I had access to my phone and news. Using “I” in this assignment is OK, but 5 in one sentence is probably too many. A possible revision:

Unable to wait 48 hours and return to a normal life with phone and news, I learned that I lacked patience.

I was sure that I was missing something important in my life.

Waking up without having to check on notifications and listen to the new is the worst kind of solitude I can imagine. The day was much longer, and I could not believe how much time I could have if there were no internet or the news. Interesting. In the first day, I was not sure which activities would make me busy except cooking (favorite hobby) and eating because of the anxiety I had. It was the most boring time of my life. However, on the positive side, it was a real eye-opener of to how much time I waste looking at my phone which is insane.

During the news blackout, I could not help but think how much I fit in the description of Deresiewicz about celebrities. I was confident that my absence from social media would raise a lot of questions since people are used to my numerous photos and posts. It was a eureka effect to find out that I am also a celebrity in a way because I maintain an active social media presence (Deresiewicz, 2009). Missing out on social media plus no news for 48 hours made me uncomfortable because I felt as though an essential part of my life was missing.

It is also exciting to fond find? that I could survive for 48 hours without access to news and the internet. Retrospectively, I was anxious about the idea of not using my phone for a whole day. It seemed like an eternity because the world was going on without me. Now, I know that staying without a phone and no access to news is the worst kind of solitude.

Having a lot of time to spend on other things away from the news and the internet is not as interesting as I had imagined. Since I had become accustomed to regularly checking on the internet for social life and news, living without such privileges induced more solitude, engaging in activities such as reading a book and drawing may seem like fun activities but living in a world that depends on the internet and news can be distracting. Now, I am certain, that everyone is used to listening to the news and using the internet it is almost impossible to socialize with other people when one does not know how the world works. Good insight. Going off the information grid does make it harder to connect with others.

Assignment 2 Marielle Cohen Team 1

Marielle –

An interesting examination of McLuhan’s idea of the medium is the message. You did a fine job making the connection to critical perspective. Overall, your writing is good, but sometimes suffers from a lack of clarity. A few sentences left me puzzled. For example, when you write:

“He further identifies the different forms of media and describing how they are an explanation of one another…”

Are you referring to his argument that the content of new forms of media are old forms? If so, that is an excellent observation often missed. But your wording made it difficult to know what you were getting at.

Make sure to spend sufficient time editing. Watch for plural/singular, possessives, and other grammatical niggles. Consider reading aloud, or to a friend or teammate. The ear is a good judge.


McLuhan notes that there are different assumptions typically held of various media forms. One such assumption is that the content of media or message affects the society more than the means of media used in conveying the message. Such assumptions according to McLuhan ignores ignore the fact that every form of media is an explanation of another media form in content. Not sure what you mean here. Thus, he provides an attempt at explaining what is wrong with the assumptions held against about media. He further identifies the different forms of media and describing describes how they are an explanation (?) of one another and ultimately highlights the various forms of criticism against the same media means. The multiple media forms analyzed by McLuhan comprise; comprise the written and spoken word, weapons, games, and even television.

Every one of these forms of media according to McLuhan is an expression of their inherent meaning. Such expression of meaning is through the form. This aspect entails the analysis of what is wrong with the social assumption held against media. The expressed inherent meaning of media is through the form. For example, one media type is a film. The purpose of the film is entrenched in its ability to express human life in its dynamic state. The print media, on the other hand, conveys political authority despite the many assumptions held regarding its primary roles.

McLuhan uses critical theory effectively in deconstructing the notion that people emphasize the content of the message offered by the different different what?. Instead, the society should collectively emphasize the means used to deliver the message to determine the inherent meaning and expression of the media. Thus, McLuhan expands the debate on the role role of what? and media interpretation with an attempt to change the societal perception of that which is essential between the media form or the content being delivered. The society believes that the inherent meaning in media is the message which is more important than the media used to deliver. Besides highlighting what is wrong with the assumptions about the media and its message, he offers an alternative explanation to what is pragmatic and vital to the society. In McLuhan’s contention, the medium of the message is the primary means of effecting the change in media and not the fundamental importance of the content.

Therefore, McLuhan main objective is to identify the limiting aspect of media as an essential aspect of human life. Furthermore, he equally provides means of overcoming the assumptions by shifting the thinking system of the society and placing emphasis on what is essential. The overall result is the betterment of society. If the society needs to move into the future progressively, McLuhan advises embracing a on the embracement of the new thought system. As such, he uses critical perspectives and admonishes the society. The society according to McLuhan is influenced by the media form. Society is most influenced by the form of media. However, the content being conveyed by the media has a minimal substantive effect on the people. The identification of a societal problem, using a different approach to debunk the same problem and then identifying alternatives to overcome the problem denotes how McLuhan effectively uses critical perspective.

Assignment 1 Marielle Cohen Team 1

Overall, quite good. You get right to the analysis and make strong, cogent arguments. Your writing is good. Watch your plurals (corrections in bold) and consider shorter sentences for greater impact.

In their article, Chabris and Simons appeal to their audience by first providing examples of cases where relying on one’s memory appeared erroneous. The case of Dr. Tyson, former President George Bush, and former First Lady Hillary Clinton are the primary examples. The logical appeal in these cases highlights the practical scenarios which try to convince the reader that the question about memory being erroneous to portend some truth. (The real-life cases provide a logical appeal to convince the reader) For instance, in Dr. Tyson’s case, whatever he heard President Bush note about religious bigotry was part of another speech delivered by the former president. Thus, in their article, “Why Our Memory Fails Us” Chabris and Simmons convince the audience that reliance on memory can result in incorrect outcomes. The authors attain this objective by employing a didactic tone, logical evidence, and common ground to make the reader part of the issue. Excellent.

Chabris and Simons note that the problem with relying on one’s memory is because the element of overconfidence in the same memories creates lack of accuracy in recalling what happened. Although the authors rely on much evidence and facts like the problem of erroneous witness recollection, they equally appeal to the readers’ pity. For instance, Dr. Tyson’s apology and the mere fact that in all cases where there is the memory, the fault isn’t based on the individual lying motivates the readers to believe that the issue under investigation is accurate. Very good.

The authors also employ a didactic tone which makes their appeal to the readers more realistic owing to the academic diction employed through the work. Chabris and Simons use the academic diction to separate the topic in question, the evidence tabled and the reader which effectively makes the work more academic and non-personal. Thus, the same appeal emanates from their professional knowledge and experience. (Need to identify ethos as the mode here)

(Need a new paragraph here) In the top readers’ comments, Keith Dow input on 2nd December 2014 (don’t need the dates here) also entails different appeals. Specifically, Keith argues that contention by Chabris and Simons that Bush was an intelligent person is faulty. Dow employed logic through evidence of various occasions when Bush uttered different words which seem unintelligent. Beyond that she (I believe Keith is a he) doesn’t provide any appeal towards her arguments, as it lacks any ethical connotation and doesn’t evoke emotions of pity or even sadness.

The second reader comment is from Jacob Sommer made on 2nd December 2014. Jacob Sommer reinforces his statement by logical facts, like for instance, such as the times he’s seen people make honest memory mistakes. Sommer’s contention that people who suffer from the problem highlighted by Chabris and Simons usually attribute the same question to malice isn’t supported by tangible evidence but simple logic. Additionally, there is no appeal to ethos and pathos within the same argument. The last reader comment is that of Prometheus. Prometheus notes that the authors should not have used former President Bush as an example to reinforce their point. Instead, they needed to have taken another person. Such sentiments are only stated with logical connotation and lack appeal to ethical and pathos orientation of the audience.