Erin Keenan: Final Essay (Team 18)

Hi Erin,

Nice work on your essay!  Good images and writing style. Overall a solid job on this assignment. I would have liked to have seen a bit more specifics incorporating class concepts in the paper, but truly well-done. 


As immigration becomes an intense topic in our country, the crisis at the United States and Mexican Border is more concerning than ever before. The mental and physical conditions of the immigrants who do not make it pass border control and are put into detention centers that are horrific. Specifically, the El Paso, Texas detention center is overflowing with internal health issues, secrecy and obvious neglect to the immigrant of which is causing deaths to many of these migrants.

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The Mexican border crisis has been an American global issues for some time now. The events that take place before and after immigrants reach our free country is nothing new to our understanding. Their intent to make the dangerous journey to America could be for freedom, to get by committing crimes, or reasons we can not relate to. However, the bias we have when they are captured is what is reflecting in a negative light all over the media. How do we know this? News stories, books, interviews, and scholarly articles are all written in order to inform people about the Mexican border crisis.

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However what most people do not talk about, until recently, is what happens to the immigrants who barely survive the miles and miles they travel, but then are caught by border control. The media and higher officials portray most of these refuges as criminals, yet most should not be categorized to that social group. Most of these individuals have gone through extremely tough times in their home countries and they still make the dangerous journey to America. As time progresses we hear more and more about the deprivation of some of these brave individuals, some even write about their experiences or tell the media.  For example, Luis Alberto Urrea, author of The Devil’s Highway, wrote a true story based off a man’s journey through the Arizona desert in search for freedom. Through this story one learns about the detailed struggles this man went through with border patrol and legal Americans who hunt to take the law into their own hands. He wrote, “If it was Border Patrol’s job to apprehend lawbreakers, it was equally their duty to save the lost and the dying” (Urrea, 2011).  The experiences they go through are hard enough, but in addition, stories have lately come to our attention about when one is captured and put into a detention center. Specifically, one of the nine detention centers in the United States, The El Paso Service Processing Center, is the facility that has been in the news recently.

Thanks to George M. Anderson in his article “At the Mexican Border”, he touches upon the matters of who is in the detention center, where the detainees are from, and what they experience while being held there (Anderson, 1997).  It is hard to discuss the detail on how we know about the issues that go on inside because there is so much secrecy held within and around the detention center. The facility has kept lies and held secrets about the health conditions of the traveled individuals who are usually suffering from and illness or are experiencing starvation after their journey that was cut short. Even though they are illegal, action should be taken on the matter and these certain actions are not being taken into account in these detention centers. The neglect of their hygiene, health, and hunger, all take an incredible toll on the immigrants. In class we spoke about secrecy and how it is the intentional concealment that overlaps with the term privacy. There has even been recent deaths lately in the detention center. Before The Washington Post reported on the matter this passed December we would not have known about this terrible issue. The protection of the institutes name, thoughts, and actions of the center have all been shielded by secrecy. Carlos Holguin, general counsel for the Center for Human Rights & Constitutional Law, mentions in The Washington Post article that the government has an obligation to care for the immigrants and not let them die in federal custody. He states, “The longer the custody extends, the greater the government’s responsibility” (Holguin, 2018). Health-care professionals were contacted and reported that the Border Patrol’s El Paso sector will now order immediate medical assessment on all 700 children that it is holding. The two deaths in the past three months have shaken Border Patrol agents in the detention center and have started to  re-evaluate their actions on the immigrants that come into the center.

In addition to the tragic deaths, The Denver Channel 7 News reported two of the detainees even went on a hunger strike. The news article included the experience of a Texas Democratic Representative, Veronica Escobar. She mentioned that she toured the El Paso Processing Center and met with the men who decided to go on a hunger strike.  The article quotes her saying that she found the hunger strikers “deeply traumatized and frail” (7NEWS, 2019). The ends for these individuals are usually to be held there or in jails for most of their lives. However, most of them would rather die in these facilities then go back to their treacherous home countries.

Looking at the border crisis from a real world perspective, there are many controversial aspects about the topic and the series of issues that come with it. The El Paso Processing Center has held secrecy and lies throughout the past few years. If it wasn’t for the media and individuals speaking up the public would have never have known about the neglect the immigrants experience on a daily basis. When the media speaks or publishes about this issue, there are a few rhetorical appeals that come to mind. Viewers and readers have expressed their opinions on how they feel about the level morality the processing center and the laws of the country obtain. When people are thrown into the detention centers, most of the time families are split apart. In the past year, there have been activist who have protested on the grounds of the El Paso Processing Center. In an online article by Lauren Caruba, a former immigration paralegal spoke about why she was there to protest. Amber Ramirez stated that “she wanted to help the families be reunited and influence change to the country’s immigration policies (mySA, 2018). When one sees the photos and protest signs of the people affected in the El Paso center, there is an emotional appeal to the viewers. Immigration is a sensitive topic, however, when it comes to lies, secrecy, and essentially torture, one cannot help but feel saddened for these people. Fortunately, individuals who have been trying to have their voices be heard have additional protests of federal immigration policies currently being planned until they see a change.

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More than 1,000 people march on an immigration center in El Paso. 


As a result of the media and people speaking up about the Mexican border and El Paso processing center, the citizens of the U.S. and beyond are now aware of the matter and now know about the secrecy behind closed doors. In recent years, the media has had received backlash on how they present and what information they present to the public. However, in this case, the event needed to be announced for the country to hear. With activist and modifications to the protocol in the center, hopefully there will be evident change and more liability given to the center’s leaders.



Anderson, George M. “At the Mexican Border.” America, vol. 176, no. 15, May 1997, pp. 3–4. EBSCOhost,

Borunda, Daniel. “U.S. Immigration Policy That Separates Immigrant Children Angers Border, El Paso.” El Paso Times, El Paso Times, 6 June 2018,

By: The Associated Press. “ICE Halts Force-Feeding of Immigrant Detainees in Texas.” 7NEWS, 16 Feb. 2019,

“El Paso Pediatrician Discusses Medical Needs Of Migrant Children In Detention Centers.” NPR, NPR, 11 Jan. 2019,

Infante, César, et al. “Violence Committed Against Migrants in Transit: Experiences on the Northern Mexican Border.” Journal of Immigrant & Minority Health, vol. 14, no. 3, June 2012, pp. 449–459. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1007/s10903-011-9489-y.

Sacchetti, M., & Moore, R. (2018, December 26). After 2nd child dies in U.S. custody, Nielsen expands medical screenings, will head to border. Retrieved from

Urrea, Luis Alberto. Adult Book Club Kit for Luis Alberto Urrea’s The Devil’s Highway. Fayetteville Public Library, 2011.



Yesenia Montenotte Team 16-Final Paper

Hi Yesenia,

Wonderful and explicit images! You tackled a complex topic and really investigated the cause of the event.  Well-done!  Good writing style, good incorporation of class concepts, and excellent work.  I am so pleased that you did so well on this assignment.  Good intro and conclusion, good body of essay. 

one note: anti-government not antigovernment



When Nicolás Maduro was reelected as the President of Venezuela, despite the country being in a major financial and humanitarian crisis, it was reported that the election was rigged. Many believed that the election proved that there was a power vacuum within the country and constituted for the National Assembly Leader to step in. Due to this, Juan Guaidó declared himself president of Venezuela in an attempt to bring democracy to the country and improve the quality of life for all citizens (Specia). Delivering the news is important because the outlet’s perspective is the main factor that influences how that information is portrayed. When the Venezuelan presidential crisis occurred, and Juan Guaidó declared himself the interim president, the presentation of this news around the world through social media and major news broadcasts was noticeably influenced by whether the country is opposed to systems resembling communism, their perception on basic human rights, and future plans that would benefit their country’s agenda.

Many countries, including the United States and Russia, have given their opinion on the Venezuelan presidential crisis. The main difference that distinguishing all of the countries positions is the country’s governmental system that is currently employed. The United States, for example, is a democracy and is in favor of Juan Guaidó, while Russia, who has more of a dictatorship, is supporting Nicolás Maduro. The United States and Russia have been the countries most involved in the crisis, but for what reason?

The United States and Venezuela established diplomatic relations in 1835. They had a very healthy relationship, especially since Venezuela has the largest oil reserves and was a source of oil for the United States. However, once the Cold War was on the brink of ending, their relations began to wither (Corrales, Romero). Once Hugo Chavez came into power to Venezuela in 1999, the relationship between the two countries worsened as the international environment was also changing (Corrales, Romero). Their relations have since then have not improved and continue to be strained despite the United States supporting the people of Venezuela. This strain has caused the United States to support Juan Guaidó during the current presidential crisis in hopes of improving the issues that Venezuelan citizens are currently experiencing. The United States’ involvement has caused countries such as Russia and China to step in and support Nicolás Maduro, the president in which many democracies do not support.

It appears as though the countries that support either Nicolás Maduro or Juan Guaidó choose sides depending on if their own current governmental system resembles communism or not. Other factors such as their perception on basic human rights and the country’s future plans that would benefit their country’s agenda are also taken into account when they announce whom they support.

However, the issue with this is the deliverance of information. Many individuals in the United States were under the impression that Nicolás Maduro burned a convoy that was filled with aid for the millions of citizens who were suffering from illness and hunger in Venezuela. This news was distributed in major news outlets and social media within the United States, but footage obtained by The New York Times claims that the information was entirely false (Casey et al). Based on the information obtained by The New York Times, they came to the conclusion that an antigovernment protestor accidentally set fire to the convoy with a Molotov cocktail. This situation is a perfect example of the course How We Know What We Know and how important it is to ensure that the information that we are given is as accurate as possible.

Russia has been very influential in Venezuela since the diminishing of the relations with the United States. In order to have influence in the country today, Russia has invested money, military weaponry, implemented aggressive foreign policies, and promoting anti-Washington governments in not just Venezuela, but many countries in Latin America (Sanchez). Russia has done this in order to cause the United States to have very limited, if any, influence in the country to their own advantage.

Countries present the news around the world through social media and major news broadcasts with their perception of the crisis based on their environments. In a TIME magazine titled “Venezuela’s Crossroads,” Ciara Nugent describes the issue from the stance of not supporting Nicolás Maduro. Nugent writes the article with both logos and pathos. Nugent is capable of providing statistics that prove her stance is not solely based on emotion. In the article it mentioned that Guaidó “appears to have given Venezuela its first real chance to restore democracy since its socialist experiment collapsed” (Nugent). The article is written from the perspective of an individual who does not support governmental systems opposite of democracies.

A Chinese website, China Daily, looks at the presidential crisis from a completely different perspective. The article is written from the perspective of an individual who believes Guaidó is in the wrong for declaring himself as president. The article states that Venezuela’s future should be decided by its own people, not outside powers” (Xiaowei). Xiaowei believes that the United States is only involving itself within the presidential crisis so that they may install a government that is US-friendly like it once was. The author also claims that Russia does not want to be involved in any other current affairs, but is only involving themselves because the United States has.

The crisis in Venezuela has escalated to the point where countries like Russia have made threats to the United States. The article written by Ana Vanessa Herrero and Neil MacFarquhar shows the severity of the situation due to their use of ethos. The authors do not take a side in their article; they are just explaining what is going with China, Russia, Venezuela, and the United States. Within the article it is said that after the military leader in Venezuela gave his support to Maduro, Putin and Russia “dispatched a small group of aircraft to Venezuela in a show of solidarity with Mr. Maduro, including two Tu-160 nuclear-capable bombers that flew more than 6,000 miles” (Herrero, MacFarquhar). Russia used their aircrafts as a message to the United States saying their military also supports Maduro so it they should not intervene using any military forced of their own.

In conclusion, countries involved in the Venezuelan presidential crisis take sides that will benefit their country’s agenda in the long run. Each country has a different take on the issue because of their own governmental system and this translates into how that information is disseminated.

Casey, Nicholas, et al. “Footage Contradicts U.S. Claim That Nicolás Maduro Burned Aid Convoy.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 10 Mar. 2019 

Corrales, Javier, and Carlos A Romero. U.S.-Venezuela Relations Since the 1990s: Coping with Midlevel Security Threats. Routledge, 2013.

Sanchez, W.Alejandr. “Russia and Latin America at the Dawn of the Twenty-First Century.” Journal of Transatlantic Studies (Routledge), vol. 8, no. 4, Winter 2010, pp. 362–384. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/14794012.2010.522355.

Nugent, Ciara. “Venezuela’s Crossroads.” Time, vol. 193, no. 6/7, Feb. 2019, pp. 42–47. EBSCOhost.

Herrero, Ana Vanessa, and Neil Macfarquhar. “Russia Warns U.S. Not to Intervene in Venezuela as Military Backs Maduro.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 24 Jan. 2019.

Xiaowei, Wang. “Intervention Won’t Resolve Venezuela Crisis.” China Daily, China Daily, 9 Mar. 2019.

Specia, Megan. “What Is Happening in Venezuela? How It Got Here and Why It Matters.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 24 Jan. 2019.

Final Paper

Taylor –


Overall, a good paper. Selection of media was excellent, but could have used analysis specific to each image. Essay should focus on analysis of what we know, not what we should do. However, the rhetorical analysis was on point, with good citations providing evidence.


Taylor Wells

One of the biggest threats affecting humanity as the 21st century continues to move along is the threat of climate change. One of the countries that will be affected most by climate change is the United States. The United States is the leader of the world in almost every aspect and needs to wake up and start tackling the issues of global warming and climate change head-on. Unfortunately, due to the current political environment, the issue of climate change has become a partisan issue. A great deal of that is due to how traditional media has played a role in framing the conversation. The traditional mainstream media apparatus and the general public need to wake up and start to educate themselves on the real challenges facing the country in the years to come. How we know what we know is due in part to a government report issued by the White House detailing how climate change will affect America’s financial as well as national security.

Image result for climate change fox news

“A major scientific report issued by 13 federal agencies on Friday presents the starkest warnings to date of the consequences of climate change for the United States, predicting that if significant steps are not taken to rein in global warming, the damage will knock as much as 10 percent off the size of the American economy by century’s end” (Davenport, Coral, and Kendra Pierre-Louis). One of the biggest problems with the media is the way that information is conveyed. Currently, in the United States, it is liberals who have taken up the mantle of climate change while Conservatives are on the sidelines. The way that climate change needs to be framed and directed to Conservatives is through focusing on using the rhetoric of ethos and logos. Currently, the country places more emphasis on national security than on climate change as seen in the Pacific Journalism Review “The 2018 Make America Secure Appropriations Act is the latest United States federal policy which prioritizes funds for defense projects at the expense of climate change adaption planning in the Marianas Archipelago.” (FRAIN, SYLVIA C.) 

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What could happen if climate change could be framed as the biggest national security threat facing the country? This is the role that national media and few forms of technology will play in relaying the message. Change in public attitude can be framed by the new modes of technology like Marshal McLuhan said by focusing on climate change through the systematic use of things such as social media and smartphones. Journalists can highlight things such as the report by the United Nations on how climate change will affect our economy. “Climate change is occurring, predominantly driven by human activities, and harming people in ways we can see today that will only get worse without further action. One number you probably saw grabbing headlines is that warming could clobber the nation’s economy by 10%. (Jina, Amir.)

Image result for climate change
Image result for cnn climate change 12 years

By focusing on Conservative news outlets and normalizing practical solutions to climate change real progress can be made. Currently, two different worlds live in distinct echo chambers when it comes to the media people watch. People are consumed with confirmation bias and feeling right but what if there was an overlapping topic which both sides could agree on? Media as well as having the power to divide also has the power to unite and if the American news apparatus could unite on the issue of climate change public perception could be mobilized into action. “Moreover, the media’s ability to shape public perceptions may be tempered by active audiences who look for media viewpoints that are consistent with their existing beliefs developing a deeper understanding of how the public perceives climate change requires moving beyond secondary research to in-person research”(Corbett, Julia B.)

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Once this barrier of partisan issues has been broken the media can then begin to focus on promoting all three aspects of rhetoric with ethos, pathos, and logos to help cover and promote the facts about climate change. It is a fact that changes in the environment will affect issues that are important to both Democrats and Republicans. Increased temperatures will lead to droughts across Latin America and places like Mexico increasing immigration into the country. Climate change will also pose a significant threat to coastal cities increasing sea levels and drastically changing the layout of where Americans live fundamentally changing the demographics of cities and regions. Unfortunately, currently Climate change is framed from a partisan matter on both sides Conservative outlet Fox news uses pathos and logos in a negative frame to mock climate change advocates “Ocasio-Cortez dismissed cost concerns as sounding like “Dr. Evil.” “They wave this wand and they say, ‘Oh, it’s going to cost a bazillion dollars — like they sound like Dr. Evil, ‘$100 million.” (Dorman, Sam.) On the left liberal outlets like CNN also frame climate change from a partisan lens and use pathos and logos to report on it for example “”history will record what the Trump administration is doing right now: These are crimes against humanity,” he told CNN. “Many people are dying as a result of this. And it’s not a sufficient defense to say, ‘I don’t believe it.’ (Sutter, John)

Image result for partisan news outlets

The United States and the world are in an amazing position where access to information is so readily accessible that real goals to change public perception are attainable and possible. The media holds responsibility in reporting the truth and creating lasting change, but the media is no longer just the media. The everyday citizen is the media, and anyone who shares on social media is engaged in the exchange of information. “The medium is the message,” and it has never been easier to help spread the message to combat climate change.

In conclusion, it is not too late for Americans to change their minds; everyone is far too divided and needs something in which to unite. Americans can unite behind combatting climate change, and with this change, America can help lead the world in helping to save the earth.


Corbett, Julia B. “Media Power and Climate Change.” Nature News, Nature Publishing Group, 25 Mar. 2015,

Davenport, Coral, and Kendra Pierre-louis. “U.S. Climate Report Warns of Damaged Environment and Shrinking Economy.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 23 Nov. 2018,

Dorman, Sam. “AOC Narrates Video from Future in Which Her ‘Green New Deal’ Saves US from Environmental Catastrophe.” Fox News, FOX News Network,

FRAIN, SYLVIA C. “‘Make America Secure’: Media, Militarism, and Climate Change in the Marianas Archipelago.” Pacific Journalism Review, vol. 24, no. 2, Nov. 2018, pp. 218–240. EBSCOhost, doi:10.24135/pjr.v24i2.407.

Jina, Amir. “Will Global Warming Shrink U.S. GDP 10%? It’s Complicated, Says The Person Who Made The Estimate.” Forbes, Forbes Magazine, 5 Dec. 2018,

Sutter, John. “’Planetary Emergency:’ Still Arguing Basics of Climate Science.” CNN, Cable News Network, 16 Dec. 2018,

Temple, James, and James Temple. “Cutting Emissions Could Prevent Tens of Thousands of Heat Deaths Annually.” MIT Technology Review, MIT Technology Review, 28 Nov. 2018,

Final Essay

Brittany –


Excellent paper. Your analysis of the rhetoric was spot on. Good use of secrecy. Sources were the minimal number, but solid. Excellent use of cited evidence to back up your arguments.

Great job!


The tragic news that thousands of detained migrant children have been sexually assaulted as far back as 2015 was just released. It was made public by representative Ted Deutch before a congressional hearing on the Trump administration’s policy of separating migrant families (Zero-tolerance policy). This information was kept secret by the Trump administration for as long as possible. In characterizing the sexual assault of children, ethos, logos and pathos were all used as modes of rhetoric by opponents of the policy of separation. 

Image result for migrant children at border

On February 26th, 2019, a House Judiciary Committee was held to foresee the Trump Administration’s Family Separation Policy. During the hearing democratic congressman Ted Deutch released official documents from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services exposing the extent of sexual assault cases of children in their custody. There has been almost 5,000 sexual abuse and harassment complaints coming from migrant children that have been held at U.S. custody over the past three years. The extremity of the reports ranges from staff members having relationships with the children, showing them porn, to forcible touching. On this day, Trump announced his zero-tolerance policy which orders prosecution of all individuals who illegally enter the united states. The announcement of this policy was what drove the documents to being released and had caused controversy between parties. During the hearing Commander White refuted Deutch’s claim by saying “those are not HHS staff in any of those allegations” (Congressmsan TedDeutch, 2:34). Deutch’s then claimed that were thousands of papers stacked amongst each other of sexual abuse allegations if not by HHS staff then by the people that HHA staff oversees. (Congressman TedDeutch, 2:59).

The main source, Ted Deutch, released three official documents: HHS document with tables of the number of sexual abuse allegations reported to Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) and the Department of Justice (DOJ) from February 2015 to February 2018, HHS document detailing sexual abuse allegations referred to DOJ, and ORR’S policy on responding to allegations of sexual abuse. All three of these documents came from official sources which can be trusted more than the words of Commander White who wanted to keep the situation in secrecy. The press release documents as well as the video of the hearing were two strong uses of logos for, they are reliable references and proof of the sexual abuse allegations over the past three years. Logos goes hand in hand with ethos in this case. “Ethos must supplement ethical standards” (Arran). It is ethically expected for these abuse cases to be heard of and fixed. Deutch created a strong foundation between himself and the public which establishes trustworthiness and provides credibility. As for the Trump administration, it was unethical to try and keep these allegations a secret from the public. Doing so diminishes the trust that was ever there between the public and Trump administration and leaves them with less credibility and trustworthiness.

Image result for deutch court hearing

Shortly after the hearing, many news outlets began to release their stories on the actions that were being done at the border. The rhetoric that was used to grab the public’s attention was pathos. There is no denying that the sexual allegations of these children arouse the emotions. The news was shocking as well as provoking and began to spread quickly. In a report done by Lyndon Haviland and published by USA Today, she had said that “these children may have entered the country illegally, but it doesn’t mean they forfeit their rights to being treated with dignity and respect. And it certainly doesn’t entitle those entrusted with their protection the right to commit unspeakable crimes against helpless minors under their care and supervision” (Haviland). Her use of pathos was able to catch the attention of readers and not only make them aware of the present standing of the situation but how it will affect the children in the long run as well. She titled one of her sections as “Abuse has lifelong mental, physical effects” which not only appeals to pathos but logos because it does in fact have a huge impact on victims. The impact of separating children from their families has a severe effect on the children’s future and how they go about life. “The practice of forcibly separating children from their parents at the border may cause additional trauma for families seeking asylum who are already fleeing traumatic circumstances in their countries of origin, and transitional foster care programs are struggling to adapt their model to meet the needs of the youngest of these children” (Roth et al. 44-45). Through the usage of pathos, the news was spread to a bigger audience and formed a deeper and emotional connection.  

The situation as a whole of the released information of sexual allegations appealed to pathos specifically when it came to various news outlets unleashing the emotional story. The evidence that supports the allegations which are the three press release documents released by Ted Deutch as well as the court hearing are forms of logos for, they provide factual and reliable evidence that can prove the situation as factual. Deutch’s also had a strong usage of ethos when it came to him revealing the news because it was ethical of him to release these documents no matter how bad it would make the government look. This formed a stronger desire to trust the information that he was releasing rather than Trump’s administration who stayed quiet about the allegations up until the judiciary hearing. 

Arran Caza, et al. “Ethics and Ethos: The Buffering and Amplifying Effects of Ethical Behavior and Virtuousness.” Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 52, no. 2, 2004, p. 169. EBSCOhost,

Database: JSTOR Journals

CongressmanTedDeutch. YouTube, YouTube, 26 Feb. 2019,

“Deutch Releases Data Showing Sexual Assault of Unaccompanied Minors in HHS Custody.” US Congressman Ted Deutch, 26 Feb. 2019, 

Haviland, Lyndon. “Nielsen Resignation Doesn’t Change Fact Child Sexual Abuse at Border Is Real Emergency.” USA Today, Gannett Satellite Information Network, 9 Apr. 2019,

Roth, Benjamin J. .., et al. “Detached and Afraid: U.S. Immigration Policy and the Practice of Forcibly Separating Parents and Young Children at the Border.” Child Welfare, vol. 96, no. 5, Sept. 2018, pp. 29–49. EBSCOhost,

Database: Education Source

Joey Hernandez Final Paper Group #1

Joey –

Overall, a good rhetorical analysis. However, you need more evidence (with citations) to back up some of your assertions. The bunny episode was an excellent example of protest using satire, bbut again needed sourcing.


Media has helped inform the public of what is happening in the world. The situation that is happening in Venezuela with President Nicolas Maduro has been heard all around the world thanks to the media. President Maduro has been in power for about 7 years and within these 7 years, he has been able to trick his people into his economic and political system. He has made numerous speeches in which he promised, like any other politician, that Venezuela will come out of the hole and that the economic situation in Venezuela will come to an end. These speeches demonstrate the ineffectiveness of pathos, ethos, and logos from the president.

News of the barricade made by the President on Venezuela’s border with Colombia was spread quickly around the world. Social media was responsible for spreading this news worldwide in such a short period of time. Social media is a powerful tool that can be very useful. Many people use social media as a news provider. In fact, the majority of people of this generation don’t watch news channels anymore. All of the information they receive is only through social media.

Resultado de imagen para venezuela barricade

The news of this barricade is a good example of how the president of Venezuela uses ineffectively the three rhetorical appeals which are ethos, pathos, and logos. People in Venezuela are currently dying of hunger and there is a huge demand of food and medical aid. The president created this barricade to block exactly those two valuable things that the people in Venezuela mostly need. Thousands of volunteers gathered at Venezuela’s border with Colombia to help them get tons of food and medicine into their country. The president increased border security to block the aid, claiming that it is a pretext for a U.S. invasion. Nicolas Maduro stated that the United States’ help was a “rotten gift” and that their intention was to take over their resources. This shows the lack of logos from the president. He attempted to persuade the audience by the use of arguments that they will perceive as logical, but it does not make any sense the decision he made. His own people from Venezuela are dying and basically because of his ego he did not let the supply come in.

Resultado de imagen para venezuela hunger

Maduro has lost credibility with many Venezuelans. He talks about Venezuela as if there is no problem whatsoever. He lives in a bubble in which he doesn’t care about what is going on to his people in Venezuela. The only thing that he really cares about is that he and his family are doing well. All of the speeches in which he speaks he talks about some other Venezuela that people do not know. He talks about a Venezuela where people are free and happy, which is completely the opposite from the Venezuela that everybody knows. How do people know that Venezuela is in chaos and not like President Maduro paints it? Because of media, especially social media. This gives access to the core of what is happening over there. Many people post pictures of destruction, extensive lines to get food, people very skinny that have not eaten in days, and even videos of people crying of hunger and police brutality against their own citizens. This is exactly why people do not believe any word in which president Maduro says because it is perceived by the audience as not credible. This is considered as lack of ethos. He uses ethos as President, but it is ineffective rhetorically because people see a different image on social media.

Because of the president’s ineffectiveness using ethos and logos, it is very hard for him to persuade people and gain their support. People already know his roots and his true intentions so it is very hard for him to be successful with pathos. There is no way that he can convince his people because of the things he has already done. He often uses arguments that make the people feel emotional, which is the goal of every politician, but still almost nobody will actually believe him because of all the lies he’s said to the public.

            There was a speech in which President Maduro was talking about the lack of food supply in Venezuela and he came up with the idea of “Plan Rabbit”. This was a campaign created to convince Venezuelans to eat rabbits. He said that rabbits could make an excellent source of protein for the large number of people who don’t have access to red meat or chicken as the result of the country’s economic collapse. During the rabbit plan project, baby bunnies were distributed to families in poor neighborhoods with the intention of breeding the bunnies so they could later eat them. As a form of protest, some people responded by tying bows around the rabbits’ necks, giving them cute names, and treating them as pets.

            Thanks to social media, people know what is really going on with Venezuela. Social media has been a key factor to expose what Maduro is doing to his own people. It has served to open the eyes of the public and uncover what Maduro is really doing with his political power. Social media also showed how President Nicolas Maduro lacks the three rhetorical appeals. People lack complete credibility from him, he is unable to persuade any audience because of the lack of credibility that he already has, and his decisions and actions have no logic to the public whatsoever.

Resultado de imagen para venezuela barricade

Work cited:

“Ethos-Pathos-Logos-The-3-Rhetorical-Appeals.” Dr. Williams : USC Upstate : English Program / Ethos-Pathos-Logos-The-3-Rhetorical-Appeals,

Reeves, Philip. “Let Them Eat Rabbit Is Venezuelan President’s Response To Food Shortages.” NPR, NPR, 14 Sept. 2017,

“TV crew held after Maduro ‘is asked about food scavengers’.” London Evening Standard[London, England], 26 Feb. 2019, p. 22. General OneFile

“Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro Closes Country’s Brazilian Border.” All Things Considered, 21 Feb. 2019. Literature Resource Center


Final Essay – Global Warming

Marielle –


Your analysis of the event is good, but you lack a focus on how we know about the event. This is more a summary and narrative than an analysis using class concepts.


Thesis: Between December 2nd and 15th, the United Nations Climate Change Conference was held in Katowice. Concerns were raised on the need to speed up the control of the escalating global warming; these events have been influenced by scientific reports which states that the past five years have been the hottest period in history, therefore, there is an urgent need for the world to embrace ways to reduce the impact of global warming by 2030. By creating a deadline for implementation, the scientific report seeks to employ an emotional appeal to the world. This is amidst laxity of other countries such as Brazil on the fight against climate change on the claim that it is a strategy of “Marxists” to stifle the economic growth of capitalist democracies.

Global warming is becoming a common phenomenon in the 21st century, its effects are evident and several scientific reports have demonstrated that there is need for the global citizens and nations to pull resources and fight the climate change. World leaders have been convening meetings of all kinds, to find a common ground to fight the looming danger for humanity. Despite the years of meetings and conventions, there is nothing conclusive that has been made. Nations are becoming tired and some of them are already pulling out of the UN’s Climate Change movement. Between December 2nd and 15th, the United Nations Climate Change Conference was held in Katowice. Concerns were raised on the need to speed up the control of the escalating global warming; these events have been influenced by scientific reports which states that the past five years have been the hottest period in history, therefore, there is an urgent need for the world to embrace ways to reduce the impact of global warming by 2030. By creating a deadline for implementation, the scientific report seeks to employ an emotional appeal to the world. This is amidst laxity of other countries such as Brazil on the fight against climate change on the claim that it is a strategy of “Marxists” to stifle the economic growth of capitalist democracies.

Despite the constant warnings on the challenges of climate change, there are still nations that believe climate change is being politicized to benefit a small fraction of the globe. The pulling out of Brazil from hosting the 2019 United Nation’s Climate Conference should be a cause for alarm to the world. It indicates that we are already losing the war against the menace threatening our livelihoods. What is even more shocking is the fact that the pullout by Brazil came after scientists made shocking discoveries that there is an urgent need to implement policies on climate change. According to a report documented by the British Broadcasting Corporation, scientist warn that the world has a very short time to reverse global warming (BBC). This article documents the warnings given by scientists on the issue of climate change. According to the scientists, there is need for a massive and urgent interventions to reverse the changes of climate change. The report took three years to compile, and from the findings, there has been a rise in temperatures and maintaining it below 1.5°C would need a rapid change in implementation and quick response. The report also serves as a call for world leaders to institute necessary measures to control the climate change.


The Katowice meeting was a result of these worrying revelations that raised a red flag and the time needed to reverse the global warming. However, the politicization of the idea of global warming continues to pose a threat to this fight. A number of nations who do not believe in the climate change tend to influence the others through politicization. The United States has been accused of sabotaging the progress of climate change mitigation. Ralph Regenvanu, the foreign minister of Vanuatu singled out America as among the major emitters as a stumbling block. He says,

“It pains me deeply to have watched the people of the United States and other developed countries across the globe suffering the devastating impacts of climate-induced tragedies, while their professional negotiators are here at COP24 putting red lines through any mention of loss and damage in the Paris guidelines and square brackets around any possibility for truthfully and accurately reporting progress against humanity’s most existential threat” (Doherty).

Being the world leader in a wide range of issues, the United States may have a great influence in the developing nations. The blocking and criticizing the climate change strategies was a means to discredit the scientific discoveries. There is a probability that the incoming government of Brazil may have been influenced by the United States. A New York Times article has compared Brazil’s new president as strikingly similar in policies as Donald Trump. “Their next president Jair Bolsonaro, a far-right lawmaker who is unabashedly pro-American and strikingly similar to President Trump in temperament, tactics and style” (Londoño and Darlington). They both have a similar perspective of climate change.

There is the need for the world leaders to differentiate politics and serious issues that not only affect a section, but also the general global environment. The politicization of the global warming fight saw Brazil developing cold feet, despite years of support. According to the New York Times Magazine, Brazil has been on the forefront in the fight against global warming (Londono and Friedman). This will serve as a derailment of one of their strongest members in the fight against climate change. According to the article, Brazil depicts the fight against climate change as an economic sabotage to benefit other states. Politicians are having a different notion about climate change, “Ernesto Araújo, a career diplomat, has called the movement to reduce global warming a plot by “Marxists” to stifle the economic growth of capitalist democracies while lifting China” (Londono and Friedman). A number of materials argue that politics is the major inhibitor of the advancement of global warming. According to a book examining the science and politics of the world’s climate change, political barriers curtails the fight against global warming (Dresser et. al 4). The book implies that politics prevents the implementations of different aspects of controlling the escalation of the greenhouse gases. Politicians may want to fulfill their campaign promises, and a change in policies on climate change may hinder their promises. Brazil’s withdrawal came at a moment when the country was undergoing a power shift, and possibly different campaign promises. Another example is the United States, Obama’s administration had policies aligning to climate change mitigation, but with the coming of Donald Trump to the presidency, Obama’s legacy was no longer a priority in his bucket list.

Climate change is a global threat, and therefore, when other nations begin to politicize the situation, then it worries a lot. Instead of fighting against each other, the world’s states should come together and address the change together. The divisions being experienced with the move by Brazil to pull itself out of hosting the United Nations Conference would only impact the relationships negatively. Fighting a common war would need a lot of resources, but with the pooling of resources, it would make it easier to fight the war.

Work Cited

BBC. “Climate Change: Scientists Warn ‘Urgent Change Needed’ To Reverse Warming – CBBC Newsround”. Bbc.Co.Uk, 2018,

Dessler, Andrew E, and Edward A Parson. The Science And Politics Of Global Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, 2011.

Doherty, Ben. “US Accused Of Obstructing Talks At UN Climate Change Summit”. The Guardian, 2018,

Londono, Ernesto, and Lisa Friedman. “Brazil Backs Out Of Hosting 2019 Climate Change Meeting”. Nytimes.Com, 2019,

Londono, Ernesto, and Shasta Darlington. “U.S. And Brazil Chose Similar Leaders. It May Lead To Smoother Relations.”. Nytimes.Com, 2018,

Final essay: The conversation of sexual assault has reached a new level of publicity by Joshua Phillips (team 15)

As a result of the #MeToo movement, sexual harassment and abuse has recently gained a great deal of attention. Recently, Pope Francis publicly acknowledged the problem of sexual abuse of nuns by priests in the Roman Catholic church. The International Union of Superiors urged nuns to report abuse by religious leaders to law enforcement as well as denounced the “culture of silence and secrecy”. This information has been hidden for many years by those in high positions in the church in order to protect the papal image and secure the legacy of this religious institution. Not only has this occurred in the church, but this “culture of silence and secrecy” has been applied to many different victims of sexual assault by any individual in any form of higher power.

In most cases, the perpetrators are often people in authority over the victims, but they can sometimes be people whom the victims love and trust. The perpetrators in the church can, in many ways, use some of Aristotle’s rhetorical appeals that may persuade the people to believe that they cannot do wrong. For example, a priest may use ethos to persuade his people that he or she is a man or woman of God and there is no way anything like that can happen in the presence of the lord, or the priest can take another route and use logos to influence them that it does not make sense for he or she to sexually harass anyone just because they are a priest. Which then makes the victim lose hope in the sense that no one will believe them or go against such type of person.

In a podcast from the New York Times, Pope Francis relies on the rhetorical appeals to convey his message. Foremost, because of his papal image, he holds credibility and authority around the world which serves to validate his message through ethos. Further, pathos is a strong theme throughout his words. He employs euphemism to downplay the severity of the actions of the priests and bishops throughout Catholic churches by stating things such as: “ there have been some clerics” and “some cultures a little more strongly than others” and “it’s not that everyone does this”. While Pope Francis acknowledges that this cruel act has been happening in multiple churches on multiple occasions, he also acknowledges that it is a process and that these priests and bishops have committed acts that they have and will continue to be punished for.

The persistence of the elephant in the room and the mute victims in churches, temples, and places of worship does not stop on the inside. The victim usually carries that painful secret with them, and in some cases the rest of their life without saying anything or doing anything about it. As evidenced by the New York Times article “Pope Acknowledges Nuns Were Sexually Abused by Priests and Bishops”, victims as well as other communication platform have recently begun to speak out about the issue: “Catholic nuns have accused clerics of sexual abuse in recent years in India, Africa, Latin America and in Italy, and a Vatican magazine last week mentioned nuns having abortions or giving birth to the children of priests”. So, not only is it occuring in Catholic churches in Europe, but there are reports of instances around the world. As previously mentioned about Pope Francis’ papal image, priests and bishops also hold a certain level of status that will make it seem impossible for them to commit an act such as rape or other forms of sexual abuse and assault. Which then never solves nor stops the problem at hand but rather continues to allow it to grow and affect the lives of many other people. Often times when victims of sexual harassment and abuse come forward, the accusations are invalidated and these victims may be called liars by judges, peers, their assaulters, or other people close to them.

Through the help of growing and the advancements of technology, social media and news platforms grew into a huge global community. You can find out information on almost anything. With the help of this global social media community, the Me Too movement grew into a viral hashtag (#MeToo) that gave victims a voice and a place where they feel like they are not alone. With this movement coming arise, it brought to attention the much needed conversation world wide, giving victims of sexual assault an outlet to get help them with their problems. The Me Too moment’s initial plan was to build a community of advocates, driven by survivors of sexual assault to create solutions to interrupt sexual violence in their communities. Recently, the Me Too movement gave voice to victims of singer R. Kelly and sprouted the creation of another movement called #NunsToo. The Me Too movement acted as a diffuser, and is a voice for victims worldwide.

In an article edited by Lucetta Scaraffia in the official Vatican daily, she also depends on ethos to convey her message of the effects of the ability of women to speak out against their abusers. She states that the painful memories of these women are at the hands of “all-powerful priesthood” which implies that the voices of the victims are muffled by authority. The victims tend to feel guilty for “seducing a holy man into committing a sin”, because that is what they have been taught. A pattern throughout the lives of victims is that their abusers simply possess too much power. Power that is much louder than their cries will ever be.

Sexual assault is an ongoing problem that has been hidden or kept under wraps for many years. The status of abusers only makes it more difficult for victims to come forward. It has recently gained the right attention and has been acknowledged by many people with high status. This is a step in the right direction but there is much more needed to be done to potentially solve the problem.

Well-done Joshua!!!  Nicely written and good images, good use of class concepts. Good coverage of material and excellent use of quotes too!



Work cited:

Poggioli, Sylvia. “After Years Of Abuse By Priests, #NunsToo Are Speaking Out.” NPR, NPR, 18 Mar. 2019,

Sherwood, Harriet. “Credibility of Catholic Church at Stake in Sexual Abuse Summit.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 18 Feb. 2019,

Horowitz, Jason, and Elizabeth Dias. “Pope Acknowledges Nuns Were Sexually Abused by Priests and Bishops.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 5 Feb. 2019,

“About.” You Are Not Alone,

RACHLIN, BENJAMIN. “Who to Believe.” New Republic, vol. 249, no. 12, Dec. 2018, pp. 36–45. EBSCOhost,