Final Essay Draft- Group 20 Deyanira Morgado

Hi Deyanira,

Be sure to add images! Good work, good analysis, good writing style. I enjoyed reading this and you did a good job with a challenging topic.


Journalist attacks and murders are prevalent in non-democratic countries and are now increasing in popularity in the United States, as observed on February 12, 2019 when a reporter from BBC news was attacked by a Trump supporter. On one hand, Trumps’ administration and Trump himself used rhetoric and social media to present the event as unexpected and safely controlled .On the other hand, among the journalists and news organizations who follow the critical perspective , the event was portrayed using social media, newsletter , articles, and television as dangerous to  the future of journalism and democracy in the United States.

Trump utilizes his presidential status as an appeal to ethos, mainly for his supporters, to present news organization, including the New York Times, as fake news and as a threat to Americans. He constantly questions and uses derogatory language to refer to the news by posting anti-journalist tweets, Instagram posts, and while giving speeches during his presidential campaigns. Moreover, in an interview with Sulzberger , when faced with questions about the effect this is having in the American society and global impact , Trump appeals to pathos by stating he is a victim of the press  and that the press has been tough on other politicians , but in his case it has been a lot worse. The White House press secretary Sarah Sanders also addresses the question by stating that Trump is the victim and uses words such as “tough” and “fighter” to defend Trumps actions. Moreover, she appeals to supporter’s pathos by using repetition in her public speeches to say that the president is constantly attacked and that he is simply fighting back because the American people chose a president that does not step back and take no action. Lastly, she denies Trump is initiating violence towards journalist. Moreover, Trump t appeals to logos and pathos by mentioning the negotiations he has done to prevent the United States form going to war with North Korea and falling to the hands of China for economic reasons. Lastly, to address the attack on BBC camera man, Trump simply confirmed the reporter was okay and applauded at the audience which was shouting TRUMP!   after the violent act on the journalist. Through this body language and choice of words, the president made the event seem insignificant and did not even bother to condemn violent acts against journalists. 

On the other hand, the news organizations and journalists have better and more valid arguments to prove and convince the American public that Trump’s anti-press rhetoric is increasing violence toward journalists not only in the United States but all around the world as well. For example, during the same interview, Sulzberger appeals to logos by providing examples around the world where dictators and tyrants are using the term fake news to ban the free press and justify the murder of journalists. Moreover, Sulzberger appeals to pathos by mentioning the fact that many journalists are risking their lives to show the world the truth, while Trump is encouraging  press violence  and putting the First Amendment at risk simply because Trump can’t handle the criticism and scrutiny that  comes with free press and freedom of speech, and a democratic society. 

Additionally, on an article written and posted by BBC news, the author  Jon Sopel  uses the metaphor “Ron was the media”, to emphasize that any journalist is prone to these attacks, no matter no matter how honest and hardworking they are because they represent  the media which Donald Trump Hates and attacks daily. He also appeals to logos by describing the lack of security and police intervention to convince the audience that this is an issue and it must be corrected. 

The journalists and organizations are following the critical perspective by questioning Trump’s statements and assumptions he uses to attract supporters. The news also works for the betterment of society by avoiding the oppression of the news and defending the freedom of speech and the security of journalists and reporters. Lastly, journalists expand the bounds of debate by providing the American society and the world with the debate whether Trump’s anti-press rhetoric is creating more violence against journalists. On the contrary, Trump and his administration do not follow the critical perspective because they continue using the term “fake news” to refer to the press and continue denying the global impact this is having. 

Overall, the news is more effective because they use more than written articles, tweets, and pictures. They have the ability to show films of Donald Trump and facts undermining Trump’s statements and presidency.


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