Thesis Annotated Bibliography

Natalie –

Excellent sources. Thesis is on the right track, but needs a bit of work. How about something like this:

Palau placed a ban on “reef toxic” sunscreen to protect its coral reefs. Although the actual effect of the ban is uncertain, it has garnered global attention in various news sources. Rhetoric used by supporters may generate public support which will lead to manufacturers and others countering with the virtues of sunscreen and the need for further research.

Some other articles of note:

Good job!

Thesis: Although Palau placed a ban on “reef toxic” sunscreen thinking it will protect its coral reefs, it may not be enough. Through more use of communication systems and tech-marketing, they would be able to make a bigger impact on not only their own island, but around the world.

  1. Woodley, Cheryl M., et al. Diseases of Coral. Wiley Blackwell, 2016.

This book published in 2016 talks about how the field of epizootiology is not advanced enough to talk about the deseases in coral reefs. Because of these diseases scientists will have to update their vocabulary, methods, and diagnostic techniques as well as train their tropical marine scientists in wildlife pathology if they plan on preserving the reefs. 

2. Raffa, Robert B., et al. “Sunscreen Bans: Coral Reefs and Skin Cancer.” Journal of Clinical Pharmacy & Therapeutics, vol. 44, no. 1, Feb. 2019, pp. 134–139. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1111/jcpt.12778.

This article focuses on Hawaii’s ban of certain popular sunscreen ingredients that will go into effect on January 1, 2021. It brings up the dilemma that banning certain popular sunscreen ingredients may have on skin cancers. Scientists have to weigh out the importance of both and possibly find an alternative to these important ingredients. 

3. “Sunscreen Ingredient Polluting Coral Reefs.” Chemistry in Australia, Mar. 2016, p. 6. EBSCOhost,

This article in Chemistry in Australia talks about the study of the toxicopathological effects of sunscreen to coral reefs. Oxybenzone in sunscreen causes deformities, damages to its DNA, and acts as an endocrine disruptor that leads to the death of coral planulae. This study was led by Dr. Craig Downs and was published in the “Archives of Environmental Contamination.”

4. Pojas, Rhealyn. “Palau Becomes the First to Ban ‘Reef-Toxic’ Sunscreens.” IslandTimes, 27 Dec. 2018,

This online newspaper from Palau announces their ban of sunscreen ingredients that are harmful to their reefs. They state how they are the first country to have such ban and how they are trailblazers in the protection of the world’s reefs. 

5. Perrigo, Billy. “Why the Pacific Island of Palau Is Banning Sunscreen.” Time, Time, 7 Nov. 2018,

This article in Time talks about the science behind the banning of certain ingredients in sunscreen that are harmful to coral reefs. It also talks about how the ban will work and when it will come into play. 

6. Guardian staff and agencies. “Pacific Island to Introduce World-First ‘Reef-Toxic’ Sunscreen Ban.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 2 Nov. 2018,

This Guardian article informs on Palau’s ban on “reef-toxic” sunscreens starting 2020. There are claims it is a world-first initiative to stop chemical pollution killing its famed corals. Starting January 2020 anyone importing or selling sunscreen containing any of 10 banned chemicals face a $1,000 fine and tourists who bring banned sunscreen into the country will have it confiscated.


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