48-hour News Blackout

Thesis: Medium has created a blackout in our solidarity.

The article, “The End of Solitude”, suggests that the camera has enabled the celebrity culture. The idea of celebrity culture is the desire for the outside world to desperately be part of a celebrity’s world by being fixated on their every move.  The computer creates connectivity which when both are combined, we get what is notably known as social media.  This new conversion feeds into our desire to be connected, visible and relatable. Our validation now comes from the idea of being known. The idea of being alone has become something much fear, taking a negative connotation.  People try to avoid solitude by using fillers to take away the feeling of aloneness.
Deresiewicz argues that media is taking away our ability to be alone. It substitutes the loneliness by making us busy and consumed. Deresiewicz describes privacy and one’s ability to be alone as our riches. He supports his idea of the value of being alone by using examples of historical people who have had divine encounters during their period of aloneness. Contributing that while we are in a state of isolation our inner being/soul is trying to reach out from what is slowly becoming a ghost in a shell. He later states “For the still, small voice speaks only in the silence” when we are alone with ourselves, we allow our senses to be utilized. We allow time for our own ideas to be formulated and our thought process to function.
We detoxify ourselves from a virtual reality and get a visible glimpse of our own reality which is exactly what occurred to me during the 48-hour blackout. I was confronted with the fact that I depend on the medium more than I care to admit. I found myself trying to stay busy by doing other activities that will take my mind off the desire to read the news or go on social media. The first day I was a bit anxious, I would unconsciously search for news or social media and would have to stop myself from going to the site which got me thinking, have I been focused on connecting on the extensions of my human abilities instead?
I also realized, that many of the conversations I usually engage with my peers are connected to the news or things that are happening around the world. Countless times I would have to stop them from sharing some insight on a story. One the second day, however, the anxiousness was diminishing. There were times I would get the urge to read a news article but for the most part, the ease of not having the burden of keeping up with all this information was refreshing.
Avoiding news is very difficult, especially when its news about a tragedy that has hit home. Which leads me to the next argument, the news is vital because it gives us an awareness of what is going on around us and how it affecting us. This shows that news is indeed a necessary intrusion to our solitude. However, it is valid that news can create more solitude by making us think for ourselves. What we do with the information we receive through news can definitely provoke us to create our own opinion on the facts given. Making us reflect on what we just saw or read.

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TRUMP: Bet or Fold?

Good work, please come through with a really good conclusion and include images that support your text. 

The recent summit between President Trump and Dictator Kim Jong Un regarding North Korea’s nuclear disarmament did not result in a settlement. Various media outlets presented both biased and unbiased views of this meeting, creating the uneasy concept that this second failed attempt at reconciling may be pushing towards a possible World War III.  

            Under President Trump’s leadership, many citizens of the United States have questioned his decision-making skills. With a sensitive subject such as having a potential World War III, Donald Trump refuses to settle for less in regards to North Korea denuclearizing. According to Congressional Research Service, the Trump administration responded to their hostility by adopting a  “maximum pressure” policy that sought to coerce Pyongyang into changing its behavior through economic and diplomatic measures. This specific section of this CRS Report clarifies its intentions and attempts with North Korea through the country’s allies and southern region’s involvement. The information provides a comprehensive timeline from an unbiased perspective. The Congressional Research Service uses an informational approach when covering The United States’ relationship with North Korea. In regards to the most recent summit event in hopes of achieving North Korea’s disarmament, a person can formulate a clear understanding, and be more knowledgeable about the event beyond news coverage, due to this chronologically organized spectrum of affairs.  

            It is no theory that there is secrecy between the U.S government and its’ people. The controversial argument is, what the many factors are in considering before informing the public of the current events happening in regards to their security and safety.  Authors Rubin and Cummings examine how the media portrays the message of “news” to the public. They refined this study with a few factors to consider. If the significance of the stories were deflected by journalists; whether the stories were used as vehicles by the journalists to challenge government policy in the nuclear arena; whether in covering these stories journalists found appropriate and effective images to represent the effects of the nuclear war and lastly, the quality of the coverage.  With the help of Marshall McLuhan, identifying how these stories were delivered to the public is effortless. The mediums include news channels, major newspapers, news magazines, and specialized journals. Following their analysis of the coverage, many aspects influence the message. Among major news networks such as CBS and NBC, ABC shared the story differently in terms of the time frame. That’s how media controls what the people know and how they know it. For example, NBC covered four different stories on the Nuclear Winter Article for a total of 5 minutes and twenty seconds.  ABC covered the same story three times for a total of two minutes and forty seconds. Within the time frame that is chosen to be dedicated to certain topics, it is easier to create a biased conclusion. While many stand behind the Freedom of Information Act, it is clear that networks refuse to engage more than they do when it comes to a potential nuclear war because it is “too politically divisive and too frightening to the audience to be ‘newsworthy’, television may be a ‘silent willing partner of the government in keeping nuclear issues below the threshold of national consciousness”.

Nagasaki Bomb

TIME is a popular global magazine that covers every single topic and aspect that fulfills the curiosity. In order to reach the largest audience, the person who delivers an article’s message must write from an unbiased perspective. In regards to President Trump and Kim Jong Un, Laignee Barron writes of the recent summit and its’ unsuccessful results in obtaining North Korea’s sign off on denuclearization. The columnist emphasizes President Trump’s intentions by simply not interjecting their own. Many others covering the same story placed their own opinions or used specific words to include their own point of view. The strategy potentially causes a reader to be conflicted when the truth is twisted and warped to someone else’s agenda. In addition to writing from an impartial position, Barron also authoritatively encourage the readers to “Watch the Press Conference” in the article’s title. 

Final draft – Gaby Gabino – Group 22

Excellent work Gaby,  just add images in places that support the text and you’re good to go!

 

Over the past couple of months, discussions about sexual assault allegations made against the R&B artist, R. Kelly, and talk of the new docu-series “Surviving R. Kelly” have flooded both social and news media, changing the lives of many and ultimately leading to the arrest and indictment of the singer. The R. Kelly case is the latest of many sexual harassment cases that have been fueled by the media. This case in particular was brought to the attention of the public through the six-part Lifetime documentary called “Surviving R. Kelly”.(Fortin) From there, talk of the documentary flooded into social media platforms, such as twitter, where people were discussing the accuracy of the testimonies, previous allegations towards R. Kelly, and what consequences, if any, should Kelly face in the future. This talk on social media also reignited the #MeToo movement. News media quickly caught on to the story as well and began reporting about it soon after the documentary aired. Overall, you would have had to try extremely hard to avoid hearing about this case because it has been talked about on so many media platforms.

There are many ways in this information could have been influenced or suppressed from people being paid to talk to people being paid keep quiet. Unlike in a court room, what was said in that documentary does not have to be the full truth. There is no way to know whether these women are exaggerating or stretching the truth in the documentary because there are no rules against it. (Kahlor) On social media, there are absolutely no regulations regarding the truthfulness of what is posted. Anyone is allowed to post what they believe and their opinions on the case which could lead to confusion regarding what is factual content and what is an opinion. These days, people will post anything for attention, specifically on twitter. You will see a range of things, from people posting false sob stories to people preforming dangerous stunts, only to attract attention and retweets. Therefore, it is fairly easy to manipulate information regarding the R. Kelly case on social media platforms without having much of a consequence. On the other hand, R. Kelly has been suppressing allegations like these for nearly two decades. In the past he has been accused of crimes such as, sex with minors, child pornography, physical abuse, and sexual abuse. Even then, he has not faced any jail time and only one of the many accusations ever made it to trial. Because of the amount of media coverage in this day and age, R. Kelly is finding it harder to sweep accusations like these under the rug because, unlike in the past, the entire public knows about it.

In almost every article I have read on this case, no matter which side they are defending, pathos is the main rhetorical element. The authors of articles defending R. Kelly appeal to the audience’s emotions by showing how his life has been turned upside down and by emphasizing how much he has already lost even though he has not yet been proven guilty, they are only allegations. On the other hand, media that defends the women who are claiming they were sexually assaulted or harassed by R. Kelly appeal to the emotions of the audience by having these women speak out and be vulnerable, causing the audience to feel for them. The main objective of both sides is to paint one party as the bad guy and create sympathy for the other party.  Another rhetorical element used in most of the media regarding this case is logos. Mainly in the arguments against R. Kelly, media sources have used evidence of R. Kelly’s past, such as previous accusations and previous charges, to create the image of him as a monster.

In this particular case, the main people keeping secrets are the victims. They have kept these stories about their experiences with R. Kelly under wraps for various reasons, and now they are able to share them with the public through media platforms, specifically social media. In recent years, social media has become a huge aid for victims of sexual assault or harassment. For many people speaking about their experiences with sexual abuse is extremely hard, especially when it is on a huge platform, like twitter for example, where thousands of people may see it. However, over the past year with things such as the #MeToo movement, social media has become a sort of safe space for these victims. (“History & Vision”, 2006) As this article explains, “Posts, likes and retweets are all things that tell ordinary citizens not only that their voices are being heard, but that their fellow citizens are marching alongside them”. (Slaughter 6) Seeing others posts and how others react to their post about sexual abuse gives these victims a sense of solidarity and empowerment.

Secrecy and revelation played a significant role in this event. The revelation of the accusations against R. Kelly on such a large scale changed a lot of lives. The lives of the victims are forever changed as their faces are now known and their names recognizable. Just as there is a nice supportive side of social media, there is a nasty and negative side that they now have to deal with. (Moriarty) For R. Kelly life has also completely changed as all this media attention has led to his being investigated by police. Ultimately, lectures such as the one about secrecy, have framed the way I examined this event because it gave me a different lens to analyze information with.

Montoya, Krystal Team 17

Excellent work Krystal, just add images or video and insert them in the places that best support the text. 

Third-wave Feminism is on the rise; however, many third world countries have taken to it differently than other countries. Ethiopia was a country that for many years had taken Feminism into their own hands, adapting it based on their own culture. Only recently has Ethiopia started looking towards equal rights of the genders; due to having a primarily conservative culture, it has taken them longer to get there. It’s small steps like these that can make a change in the country. The election of Meaza Ashenafi as the new president of the Ethiopian Supreme Court was caused by the uprising of feminist movements across the world and launched Ethiopia into its own Feminist revolution.

            The media coverage of this event has been very minimal in the United States, primarily due to the fact that it does not directly relate to us or any of our allies. The only people that fully comprehend the magnitude of this event are the people that are globally aware. This means that many of our news broadcasts can manipulate the information in any way they want to fit their own political views. For example, a primarily conservative news channel such as FOX News could manipulate the event in a way to make their audience support the conservative side more. The audience would not be able to receive the information in a fully unbiased manner. One of the sources that I used to get more information on this specific event was The Washington Post. This primarily left-leaning news channel controls the way that the news is presented to their audience to fit left-leaning viewpoints. However, despite any bias The Washington Post may have, this was one of the few, if not the only, American website to report on this story.

Globally, many other news sites can be doing the same, implementing their bias into their stories and affecting the way their readers view the event itself. Most news sites nowadays are all biased, leaning towards a specific side of the political spectrum. They all either lean towards the conservative side or they lean towards the more liberal side. It is rare to find a site that is a mix of both because society has split itself into two different points of view. So, the public look towards the websites that they relate to the most because it confirms their beliefs. Conservatives look at conservative websites because it confirms their beliefs and makes them feel that it is correct. This is a form of the Echo Chamber Effect. The only information we absorb are seen our own perspective, further validating our beliefs instead of challenging them.

However, locally in Ethiopia, they have been slowly getting used to a Feminist reformation that was catapulted by the election of Meaza Ashenafi. The local news has made Ashenafi a household name, so she was able to gather a following. One local newspaper even detailed why Ashenafi was the best fit for the position, showing the growth that the country has made towards gender equality. Many other sectors of politics in Ethiopia have also been taken over by women, including the presidency. News sites are the primary source of information in any country, so the fact that a local newspaper detailed why Ashenafi deserved her position can help sway anyone that was skeptical of her background. It can affect people differently hearing it from someone in their own country, especially since the reporters and the news sites take the culture into consideration when it comes to reporting.

            On a global level, this event and the coverage that it has received forces the event to only be a local event. This event is something that should make international news because it shows the growth that a country is making; however, the coverage is very minimal due to the fact that Ethiopia is a smaller country. It doesn’t have a high standing globally in any sense either politically or economically, causing news like this to get brushed under the rug compared to the news in bigger countries such as the United States or France. However, the news sites that did report on this event focused on the fact that this is a major step for the country towards gender equality. They utilized ethos to show that she was more deserving of her position than her male counterparts. In many African countries, roles of power are often saved just for the men; so, the fact that Ashenafi was elected by a male to fill this position swayed many people to being more accepting of what women can do outside of homemaking.

            Along with that, many other countries in the same political and economic situation as Ethiopia have begun their own Feminist revolutions as well. This can create pressure for Ethiopia to catch up with everyone else and become more accepting of women in power. This proves itself to be incredibly important because some countries may not be as willing to do any sort of business with them if they do not share similar beliefs. It has been proven time-and-time again that countries with differing beliefs tend to have some sort of conflict. At some point, Ethiopia had to conform to what was becoming the new norm for that region.

            The election of Meaza Ashenafi as the new president of the Federal Supreme Court of Ethiopia was a result of Feminist revolutions in the neighboring countries that pressured Ethiopia to adapt. This pressure created a desirable change for the country, possibly inspiring other countries that are in similar situations. Sometimes it only takes one country to inspire a change for its allies. The coverage for this event in local news has made this decision seem more positive than negative and putting change in a positive light can draw more countries in to make the change. Ultimately, it all comes down to the news channels and the way that they report on events to create a chain reaction of change for other countries.

Erin Keenan: Annotated Bibliography (Team #18)

Hi Erin,

Excellent!  Good sources, and good annotations, well-done!

Erin Keenan

HWKWWK: Thesis and Annotated Bibliography

IDS 3309

 

Thesis:

As immigration becomes an intense topic in our country, the crisis of the Mexican Border is more concerning than ever before. The mental and physical conditions of the immigrants who do not make it passed border control and are put into detention centers are horrific. Specifically, the El Paso, Texas detention center is overflowing with internal health issues, secrecy, and obvious neglection which is causing deaths to many of these migrant travelers.

 

Annotated Bibliography:

1.Book

Urrea, Luis Alberto. Adult Book Club Kit for Luis Alberto Urrea’s The Devil’s Highway. Fayetteville Public Library, 2011.

  • This book is a true story based off a 26 year old man’s journey across the Mexican Border through the Arizona desert known to migrant travelers as The Devil’s HIghway. He travels with a group of people. Twelve succeed reaching the other side and the other fourteen become victims to the U.S. Border Patrol, Mexican Federales, and American Citizens who take the law of immigration into their own hands. The book sets the scene of what it is like to be a migrant traveler and the extreme hardships they take on to reach freedom.

2. Journal Article in a Scholarly Journal

Infante, César, et al. “Violence Committed Against Migrants in Transit: Experiences on the Northern Mexican Border.” Journal of Immigrant & Minority Health, vol. 14, no. 3, June 2012, pp. 449–459. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1007/s10903-011-9489-y.

  • Migrants who are in transit to the United States are known to be vulnerable due to their lack of access to health care and legal assistance. In this scholarly article, a study backed up by charts, shows evidence on the violent related consequences that migrants experience during their journey. It talks about arbitrary detention centers, verbal abuse, death threats, and other types of violent experiences.

3. Article In A Popular Or Trade Magazine

Anderson, George M. “At the Mexican Border.” America, vol. 176, no. 15, May 1997, pp. 3–4. EBSCOhost, ezproxy.fiu.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=9705305892&site=ehost-live&scope=site.

  • This article specifically talks about the El Paso Service Processing Center. This is one of the nine detention centers that are in the United States. Touches upon the matters of who is in the detention center, where the detainees are from, and what they do while there.

 

4.  Newspaper Article Published In The Country Of The Topic (Online Newspaper)

Borunda, Daniel. “U.S. Immigration Policy That Separates Immigrant Children Angers Border, El Paso.” El Paso Times, El Paso Times, 6 June 2018, www.elpasotimes.com/story/news/immigration/2018/06/06/trump-immigration-policy-separating-immigrant-children-outrage-border-el-paso/662154002/.

  • Currently, immigration laws are under the global microscope. President Donald Trump hard stance on immigration is a difficult escalation that is affecting many people. Therefore, immigrants are advocating due to the separation of children and families.

5. A Good Website

By: The Associated Press. “ICE Halts Force-Feeding of Immigrant Detainees in Texas.” 7NEWS, 16 Feb. 2019, www.thedenverchannel.com/news/u-s-world/ice-halts-force-feeding-of-immigrant-detainees-in-texas.

  • I chose this website and article to touch upon the secrecy that surround the immigration detention center. In this article, it states the matter of the center stopping to force feed detainees that went on a hunger strike. Statements are made by the ICE and the detainees themselves.

 

6. One Good Source Of My Choice

“El Paso Pediatrician Discusses Medical Needs Of Migrant Children In Detention Centers.” NPR, NPR, 11 Jan. 2019, www.npr.org/2019/01/11/684610264/el-paso-pediatrician-discusses-medical-needs-of-migrant-children-in-detention-ce.

  • Interview with an El Paso pediatrician discussing the medical needs of migrant children in detention centers. Concerns remain that migrants, especially children remain at risk in this U.S. detention center based off of obvious health related red flags.

Erin Keenan: Annotated Bibliography (Team #18)

Hi Erin,

Excellent! Good sources and good annotations!

 

Erin Keenan

HWKWWK: Thesis and Annotated Bibliography

IDS 3309

 

Thesis:

As immigration becomes an intense topic in our country, the crisis of the Mexican Border is more concerning than ever before. The mental and physical conditions of the immigrants who do not make it passed border control and are put into detention centers are horrific. Specifically, the El Paso, Texas detention center is overflowing with internal health issues, secrecy, and obvious neglection which is causing deaths to many of these migrant travelers.

 

Annotated Bibliography:

1.Book

Urrea, Luis Alberto. Adult Book Club Kit for Luis Alberto Urrea’s The Devil’s Highway. Fayetteville Public Library, 2011.

  • This book is a true story based off a 26 year old man’s journey across the Mexican Border through the Arizona desert known to migrant travelers as The Devil’s HIghway. He travels with a group of people. Twelve succeed reaching the other side and the other fourteen become victims to the U.S. Border Patrol, Mexican Federales, and American Citizens who take the law of immigration into their own hands. The book sets the scene of what it is like to be a migrant traveler and the extreme hardships they take on to reach freedom.

2. Journal Article in a Scholarly Journal

Infante, César, et al. “Violence Committed Against Migrants in Transit: Experiences on the Northern Mexican Border.” Journal of Immigrant & Minority Health, vol. 14, no. 3, June 2012, pp. 449–459. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1007/s10903-011-9489-y.

  • Migrants who are in transit to the United States are known to be vulnerable due to their lack of access to health care and legal assistance. In this scholarly article, a study backed up by charts, shows evidence on the violent related consequences that migrants experience during their journey. It talks about arbitrary detention centers, verbal abuse, death threats, and other types of violent experiences.

3. Article In A Popular Or Trade Magazine

Anderson, George M. “At the Mexican Border.” America, vol. 176, no. 15, May 1997, pp. 3–4. EBSCOhost, ezproxy.fiu.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=9705305892&site=ehost-live&scope=site.

  • This article specifically talks about the El Paso Service Processing Center. This is one of the nine detention centers that are in the United States. Touches upon the matters of who is in the detention center, where the detainees are from, and what they do while there.

 

4.  Newspaper Article Published In The Country Of The Topic (Online Newspaper)

Borunda, Daniel. “U.S. Immigration Policy That Separates Immigrant Children Angers Border, El Paso.” El Paso Times, El Paso Times, 6 June 2018, www.elpasotimes.com/story/news/immigration/2018/06/06/trump-immigration-policy-separating-immigrant-children-outrage-border-el-paso/662154002/.

  • Currently, immigration laws are under the global microscope. President Donald Trump hard stance on immigration is a difficult escalation that is affecting many people. Therefore, immigrants are advocating due to the separation of children and families.

5. A Good Website

By: The Associated Press. “ICE Halts Force-Feeding of Immigrant Detainees in Texas.” 7NEWS, 16 Feb. 2019, www.thedenverchannel.com/news/u-s-world/ice-halts-force-feeding-of-immigrant-detainees-in-texas.

  • I chose this website and article to touch upon the secrecy that surround the immigration detention center. In this article, it states the matter of the center stopping to force feed detainees that went on a hunger strike. Statements are made by the ICE and the detainees themselves.

 

6. One Good Source Of My Choice

“El Paso Pediatrician Discusses Medical Needs Of Migrant Children In Detention Centers.” NPR, NPR, 11 Jan. 2019, www.npr.org/2019/01/11/684610264/el-paso-pediatrician-discusses-medical-needs-of-migrant-children-in-detention-ce.

  • Interview with an El Paso pediatrician discussing the medical needs of migrant children in detention centers. Concerns remain that migrants, especially children remain at risk in this U.S. detention center based off of obvious health related red flags.

Tiffany Bolanos- Team 21- Final Essay Draft.

Good work Tiffany! Please add images and you need a stronger conclusion.  Feel free to resend if you like!

 

The measles outbreak that occurred on December 20th2018, re-sparked a controversial topic that has been relevant since the 19thcentury: the argument with child vaccinations and the resistance against them. The use of rhetorical statements from the CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention), social media, lawmakers, and news sources are used to persuade and inform the public on the beneficial effects of vaccinations while the anti-vaccination supporters oppose the use of these substances. 

Leading health organizations like the CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention) use logos to respond and correct the misinformation released on social media platforms to show the public vaccines are proven to be safe and effective. In the research articleCorrecting Misinformation by Health Organizations during Measles Outbreaks: A Controlled Experiment,organizations are known to invest in financial and human resources to close the gaps of misinformation leads from the public. These organizations also address these false statements as “myths” (Gesser-Edelsburg, Ana 4). Anti-vaccine supporters and others that are still hesitant with the use of vaccines although these health organizations have provided society with credible information. In fact, these studies reported a “backfire effect:” vaccine skeptics formed even stronger negative opinions about vaccinations after being given information intended to undermine the supposed connection between vaccinations and autism (Gesser-Edelsburg, Ana 4). For example, the measles outbreak that occurred in Minnesota in August 2017 ignited the Minnesota Vaccine Freedom Coalition. This coalition had spread false information of vaccines and was active in anti-vaccine activity.

The Washington Postuses both pathos and logos to address health crisis of the measles outbreak as well. There has been rumors that have caused havoc on medical efforts to keep the outbreaks from diseases low. In this case, the measles outbreak stirred up controversial issues about vaccines. This led to the release of false information that vaccines can lead to autism and other negative health effects. Even with increased attention to the disease’s dangers, the anti-vaccine groups “definitely are upping their outreach on the political spectrum” (Sun, Lena H. 1). Somali American children in Minnesota had a vaccination rate of 92 percent in 2004, higher than the state average, but the rate plummeted to 42 percent by 2014. (Sun, Lena H. 1). In efforts to showcase the effects of parents not vaccinating their children. The Washington Post recorded that there has a been 79 measles cases in the year of 2017. With the release of this information, the amount of vaccines in Minnesota increased from 2,562 to 8,324 that were administered by 12 clinics. (Sun, Lena H. 1)

Facebook and other social media sites like Pinterest have used their platform to inform the public about these falsehoods. The Independent addressed this issue stating Facebook and their efforts to broadcast correct information. We are exploring ways to give people more accurate information from expert organizations about vaccines at the top of results for related searches (Cuthbertson, Anthony 1). Social media users mainly obtain they’re information from these applications so with the revision of the falsely claimed information becoming non-existent, the more likely people will support and follow through with giving their children vaccinations. Repetition of information, even if false, can often be mistaken for accuracy, and exposure to anti-vaccine content via social media may negatively shape user attitudes towards vaccination. (Cuthbertson, Anthony 1).

TIME magazine uses ethos to clarify that there are cases to the release of false information about vaccines. They have released multiple statements of supporting he effects and benefits of vaccines throughout their posts. They have also released information on the effects of lawmakers and their opinions and decisions on anti-vaccine groups and parents. A Republican governor stated that he would not sign three bills passed by the Arizona state legislature designed to complicate and weaken state vaccine protocol (Davies, Wilder.1). With his statement released, made an impact to parents whom have been hesitant on vaccinating their children in the state. As the measles case spread, more lawmakers expressed their opinion through large social media platforms like Facebook to share their views. Lawmakers used their own credibility to express and influence the views of many others. A lawmaker from Arizona known as KellyTownsendclaimedthat mandatory vaccine laws are “Communist” and expressed dismay that the people of Arizona. (Davies, Wilder.1). She also stated the problem is causing so much injury and the problem is the vaccines being used. (Davies, Wilder.1) Lawmakers also used a source of pathos to express their views especially sympathetic stories that will compliment them. For instance, after Townsend released her statement, a Republican expressed their anti-vaccine views in an interview. The representative stated  that attributing health problems experienced by her 22-year-old daughter to vaccines she was given as an infant(Davies, Wilder.1).