Assignment 2- McLuhan

Saige Raymond

Team 12

Excellent image, excellent essay.  See email for any further notes.  I enjoyed your essay.

 

One link to a video about Marshall McLuhan or his ideas:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ImaH51F4HBw

 

One image illustrating McLuhan or his ideas:

Link to a web page about McLuhan or his ideas:

http://web.mit.edu/allanmc/www/mcluhan.mediummessage.pdf.

 

“The medium is the message,” the famous saying and philosophical food for thought coined by Mr. Marshall McLuhan. The philosopher uses the critical perspective to bring to the forefront an idea that is practical but subjective. He reinforces his idea through the use of vivid examples and historical references like Gutenberg’s printing press and more. McLuhan expands the bounds of debate by confidently stating a perspective backed by accurate historical chronology with an obvious interest for the widespread understanding of his idea for the overall positive development of society.

McLuhan’s famous quote has been debated for centuries about its accuracy and value to society. Upon making this statement he threw the proverbial curveball and offered new insight into the power of a message and its method of delivery. By raking such muck McLuhan created controversy over commonly held assumptions making his idea vital to society. Before him, no one had considered that content shared or created was anything more than just that. His statement sparked huge global ponderance and created a platform for open debate on a relatively undiscussed issue.

“But the ability to perceive media-induced extensions of man, once the province of the artist, is now being expanded as the new environment of electric information makes possible a new degree of perception and critical awareness by non-artists.”(McLuhan, 1969) Here he notes how society has developed and transitioned from a place where artists were once the only members who focused on the way that their message/media was delivered. Now, for the betterment of society leading to some greater evolution, a new degree of awareness must be embraced. This forward-thinking idea has been a topic defended by McLuhan and surely one worthy of debate.

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McLuhan and the Critical Perspective

Lozano, Daniela
September 17, 2018
Panther ID #: 4892016
IDS 33009 – Pearson
GROUP #: 11
Excellent essay Daniela.  Well-written, clear and concise use of language. Your points are vividly rendered. I enjoyed reading it. Good image too!
                                        McLuhan and the Critical Perspective
Marshall McLuhan’s writing is so heavily critical of man’s inability to perceive the impact of media on society that it would be almost absurd to claim that he does not the employ critical perspective.  While his writing is often difficult to decipher, his use of critical perspective is clear in The Playboy Interview: Marshall McLuhan, where McLuhan answers questions in a manner that is strikingly similar to his written text and illustrates his famous claim that “the medium is the message.” (good intro)
McLuhan ironically raises more questions than he is being asked in the Playboy interview.  After discussing the fact that television ended the “visual supremacy” inherent in other technology and being asked whether television is a visual medium, McLuhan responds by saying that it is quite the opposite. McLuhan states that this is actually a huge misconception.  He utilizes the critical perspective by questioning our interpretation of media. Television is commonly considered a visual medium comprised of moving images that are continuously viewed.  McLuhan raises the question of whether we have accurately interpreted this form of media. He goes on to stress that “the TV image is a mosaic mesh not only of horizontal lines but of millions of tiny dots, of which the viewer is physiologically able to pick up only 50 or 60 from which he shapes the image; thus he is constantly filling in vague and blurry images, bringing himself into in-depth involvement with the screen.”  McLuhan criticizes the common assumption that television is strictly a visual medium spoon-feeding images into our brains and argues that it in fact forces us to form our own images to fill in the gaps of its limitations.  He argues that humans are only able to process a small portion of what is actually seen on screen and stimulates our imaginations by forcing us to fill in the missing parts. By challenging common assumptions and misconceptions, McLuhan is using the critical prospective to show that the message does not lie in what the media shows, but rather in the vessel in which it is being sent.  He argues that the effect that the media has is far more groundbreaking and socially significant than the message being transmitted. (well-put!)
It is clear that McLuhan is aiming for the betterment of society in his response to questions regarding education and the “TV child.”  His criticism of administrators and parents who refuse to acknowledge that they have failed is rooted in his desire for a better future.  McLuhan’s argument that children who have watched “as much as 4000 hours of television” before kindergarten have already been exposed to adult problems including crime and the Vietnam War. His use of the critical perspective argues that society should learn from its mistakes in order to educate future generations more fruitfully and “start fresh with new techniques and values.”
From the interview in Playboy, it is clear that McLuhan’s use of the critical perspective convincingly presents his idea that the media itself is often more powerful than the message portrayed therein.
One link to a web page about McLuhan or his ideas: https://www.marshallmcluhan.com/
 
One link to a video about Marshall McLuhan or his ideas: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t1axnba_Ueg
 
One image illustrating McLuhan or his ideas:
Image result for mcluhan medium is the message
Lozano, Daniela
GROUP #11
09/17/18
10:32AM

Logical and fair New York Time articles are more credible then emotionally driven ones.

Roger, the paragraph I have highlighted below in red is excellent. You

concisely identify all the important elements of Chabris and Simons’

article.

 

Roger Sanchez

IDS 3309

Prof.Pearson

Team 8

Logical and fair New York Time articles are more credible then emotionally driven ones.

After reading “Why our memories fail us” by  Christopher F. Chabris and Daniel J. Simons its safe to say that we shouldn’t rely on memory as much as we would like to. The detailed op-ed goes into depth to explain how our own biases affect our recollection and how we perceive the past. The authors of the article use a variety of elements from the rhetorical triangle but none as much as the element of “Ethos”. The authors come across as fair and reliable in their diagnosis of the situation. For example one of the authors states “ I reacted on the spot, making a note for possible later reference in my public discourse”(Chabris, Simons) it can be noted that this article is a primary source and the authors can be trusted in their research and questions presented to Neille de Grasse Tyson. The writers of the article also use a wide variety of subjects ranging from past American presidents as well as world-renowned pop culture scientists to show that anyone can be affected by faulty memory. Other elements which were used in this opinion piece were “logos” facts, as well as statistics, were used in the article to help explain why relying on memory isn’t the best option.  The writers cite a study on false memory and mistaken identification conducted by National Academy of Sciences which Daniel Simons also served on as evidence to prove their point. As well as studies they also cite work from cognitive psychologist Henry L. Roediger and his experiments on people confidence level and how it affects their recollection of certain words. All in all their comprehensive breakdown is a healthy mix of logos and ethos.

When reading over the article “Comment is King” by Virginia Heffernan we are taken down a rabbit hole into the mind and logic of the comments section in regards to the works of Anne Applebaum. The author of the article uses Applebaum as an example of how the comments section tends to have its own logic and circadian rhythm when it comes to criticizing Applebaum’s work. When it comes to dissecting the article the writer uses all three elements of “ethos”, “pathos”, as well as “logos” to hammer in her point of view on the matter. She uses “logos” when discrediting the opinions of commentators who believe she is a Zionist Jewish by referencing Applebaum’s references to her celebrating Christmas. She uses “pathos” during the first half of the article to make fun and laugh at the commentators and their delusions towards the author and her articles. The bulk of the article and the most productive is found in the second half as Heffernan uses “logos” and  “ethos” to describe the ecosystem of the comments section and what it means to journalists. Heffernan goes on to explain the circadian rhythms as well as the complexity of how comment sections change depending on the time zone and the mood in which people are in.

Assignment 1: Rhetorical analysis of a New York Times’ article

You MUST put your name and team number on top.

 

You went considerably over the 500 word limit.  Remove unnecessary words. Write clear and concise sentences.  More analysis.

The article, “Why Our Memory Fails Us,” by Chabris and Simons is filled with rhetorical appeals. For instance, they use a tremendous amount of ethos by mentioning astrophysicists, scientists, psychologists, and politicians which give the reader plenty of reliable sources. Also, pathos is seen when the authors are speaking to the reader on how we should be more understanding of the mistakes on memory distortion of others or even ourselves. And last but not least, logos are spotted throughout the whole article as facts and logical reasoning by the authors. Chabris and Simons fully convinced me with this article on how our memory can fail us through their great use of rhetorical appeals.

To begin with, Chabris and Simons build their case around real occurrences and events that depict the way memory can be distorted in real life situations. This proves that there is a big problem in being overly confident in one’s own memory. For example, in the beginning of the article, they mention the development of events in which Dr. Tyson demonstrates this phenomenon. He confidently “repeated” a section of president Bush’s speech to congress after the 9/11 terrorist attacks, “Our God is the God who named the stars.” Dr. Tyson implied that president Bush was prejudiced against Islam. But in fact, it was Tyson who was making the mistake. President Bush never said that sentence as it is, Dr. Tyson fused two memories of president Bush’s speeches and made himself believe that he in fact said this erroneous sentence. This is proof that even the most educated and intelligent people have gaps in memory, or better said, distortions.

Moreover, I believe that throughout the article there was a balance between emotions and actual facts and studies. Chabris and Simons continuously used logos to support their opinion on why our memory could fail us. In particular, it was stated “Nearly a century ago, the psychologist Sir Frederic Charles Bartlett conducted a series of experiments that mimicked the “telephone” game…” Not only are Chabris and Simons giving the reader logos, a well into depth explanation of how the game works. But also, a reliable source, in other words ethos, the psychologist named Sir Frederic Charles Bartlett.

Furthermore, Chabris and Simons speak to the reader with pathos. At the end of the article, they referenced Dr. Tyson’s case, Dr. Tyson completely understood and afterwards, was aware of the error he had made. It was stated that he realized his memory had conflated two separate memories of president Bush’s speeches and because of that, publicly apologized. Chabris and Simons idea of applying pathos invokes feelings of guilt for all the times the reader didn’t admit fault. And invites feelings of humbleness, to accept that our memory does in fact, fail us. 

To conclude, in the article, “Why Our Memory Fails us,” Chabris and Simons tone had its share between informal and formal. The two authors spoke to the readers as if they were friends but also had some serious facts and history to support their opinion on memory. The article was infused with plenty of rhetorical appeals which made it not only more resourceful but authentic. Their way of using logos, pathos, and ethos helped not only me as a student but all readers grasp what they were trying to convey that our memory is indubitably imperfect.

Assignment 1

I will grade this when your name and team number are on the post.

 

Thesis: Today, the internet is a hub of almost everything. Information is posted online and the opinionated flock like birds of a feather. Some with negative, positive, or genuinely inquisitive remarks. The information at hand is an article on the importance of not relying solely on memory to make public address. In the following analysis I make claims to the type of appeals the authors and respondents hoped to achieve by posting their point of view online.

The opinion piece Why our memory fails us is written more objective than most opinion pieces I have read to date. The authors maintain a tone of objectivity genuinely rooted in informing the public about the dangers of relying solely on memory, even that of notable figures. The authors build their case by aligning the facts at hand in a basic coherent manner that could be comprehended easily leaving little for interpretation. This method of storytelling can prove a point and/or imply the existence of an error. These authors do very little if at all to play on the emotions of the reader but rather have their appeals rooted in logical reasoning (Logos) and credibility (Ethos) to back the logical unraveling of a real problem. The story does not once bash Dr. Tyson but rather emphasize his error and its correction; in publicizing both of these important elements, the authors establish fairness- an even deeper dive into an ethical appeal. The authors maintain this fairness as they highlight the error again in Hillary Clinton’s poor recollection of events. The authors do not accuse them of lying but rather use their mistakes as a reflection of the much greater issue at hand.

Next, the article being published online makes it public forum for people across the globe to give their two-cents and chime in on the issue addressed. One of the respondents being Neil deGrasse Tyson himself. In his comment he shares links to Facebook notes where he publicly apologizes to the President for his error and sheds light on the scrutiny he has faced because of his mistake. This hits readers as an appeal to logos and ethos. By sharing the links Dr. Tyson establishes his authority on the matter and shows readers that he is in fact trust worthy but made a mistake as we all do.

Respondent Keith Dow made the #2 comment. He bases his statements on his personal beliefs and feelings towards President Bush’s intelligence or lack there of. This is an appeal to pathos but he reinforces his statement with a link to quotes made by Bush, this gives the respondent a sense of competence and credibility. It’s no longer just an opinionated statement but an argument backed with sources. The tone of this comment is humorous and appeals emotionally in that way too. Getting a laugh out of people is one method to having them accept and share this respondents perspective.

Lastly, the #3 comment can be regarded as an ethical appeal that insinuates we all make mistakes and advanced scientist Neil deGrasse Tyson is no exception. This respondent’s appeal could also be to pathos as he hints we should be empathetic towards the human error that Dr. Tyson makes. The respondent uses real world examples to make his argument more relatable, like ordering a burger and having it come burnt or noticing a lower than usual tire pressure in your car. These are things that cannot be for sure tied to acts of malice but if we interpret them as so we would probably be stressing out way more than necessary. Overall his point is that we must accept the errors of humanity and keep moving rather than bask in the potential mal intent, it’s just not healthy.

So, is NY Times effective in the way they rank commentary on posts? I believe the Time’s algorithm is to bump up commentary that receives the most Recommends by the public. We naturally assume the general public is sane, therefore what is a top comment is probably accurate or likeable or relatable enough for a majority to agree. I believe this method is effective because it allows what is Recommended most to be a top-ranking post, this leaves the power in the hands of public consensus.

Rhetorical Analysis 1 – reposted

I will grade this when your name and team number are listed before your post.

 

Thesis: Today, the internet is a hub of almost everything. Information is posted online and the opinionated flock like birds of a feather. Some with negative, positive, or genuinely inquisitive remarks. The information at hand is an article on the importance of not relying solely on memory to make public address. In the following analysis I make claims to the type of appeals the authors and respondents hoped to achieve by posting their point of view online.

The opinion piece Why our memory fails us is written more objective than most opinion pieces I have read to date. The authors maintain a tone of objectivity genuinely rooted in informing the public about the dangers of relying solely on memory, even that of notable figures. The authors build their case by aligning the facts at hand in a basic coherent manner that could be comprehended easily leaving little for interpretation. This method of storytelling can prove a point and/or imply the existence of an error. These authors do very little if at all to play on the emotions of the reader but rather have their appeals rooted in logical reasoning (Logos) and credibility (Ethos) to back the logical unraveling of a real problem. The story does not once bash Dr. Tyson but rather emphasize his error and its correction; in publicizing both of these important elements, the authors establish fairness- an even deeper dive into an ethical appeal. The authors maintain this fairness as they highlight the error again in Hillary Clinton’s poor recollection of events. The authors do not accuse them of lying but rather use their mistakes as a reflection of the much greater issue at hand.

Next, the article being published online makes it public forum for people across the globe to give their two-cents and chime in on the issue addressed. One of the respondents being Neil deGrasse Tyson himself. In his comment he shares links to Facebook notes where he publicly apologizes to the President for his error and sheds light on the scrutiny he has faced because of his mistake. This hits readers as an appeal to logos and ethos. By sharing the links Dr. Tyson establishes his authority on the matter and shows readers that he is in fact trust worthy but made a mistake as we all do.

Respondent Keith Dow made the #2 comment. He bases his statements on his personal beliefs and feelings towards President Bush’s intelligence or lack there of. This is an appeal to pathos but he reinforces his statement with a link to quotes made by Bush, this gives the respondent a sense of competence and credibility. It’s no longer just an opinionated statement but an argument backed with sources. The tone of this comment is humorous and appeals emotionally in that way too. Getting a laugh out of people is one method to having them accept and share this respondents perspective.

Lastly, the #3 comment can be regarded as an ethical appeal that insinuates we all make mistakes and advanced scientist Neil deGrasse Tyson is no exception. This respondent’s appeal could also be to pathos as he hints we should be empathetic towards the human error that Dr. Tyson makes. The respondent uses real world examples to make his argument more relatable, like ordering a burger and having it come burnt or noticing a lower than usual tire pressure in your car. These are things that cannot be for sure tied to acts of malice but if we interpret them as so we would probably be stressing out way more than necessary. Overall his point is that we must accept the errors of humanity and keep moving rather than bask in the potential mal intent, it’s just not healthy.

So, is NY Times effective in the way they rank commentary on posts? I believe the Time’s algorithm is to bump up commentary that receives the most Recommends by the public. We naturally assume the general public is sane, therefore what is a top comment is probably accurate or likeable or relatable enough for a majority to agree. I believe this method is effective because it allows what is Recommended most to be a top-ranking post, this leaves the power in the hands of public consensus.

 

Rhetorical Analysis: Assignment 1

Neigine, your essay is excellent. The red section below is especially good. You cover all the main points.

You are obviously a good writer.The lines I crossed out are not bad. But I thought they were repetitive. In future essays for this class, you can get right into the facts and evidence. Write a topic sentence (main idea) and then get right into the facts and evidence. Don’t do a lot of repeating.

You are on Team 9. So from now on you can send your essays directly to category 9.

 

Neigine Petit-Frere

6027589

Group 9

Thesis statement: In the informative article, why our memory fails us, the authors effectively used the rhetorical appeals Logos, pathos, and ethos to build their case on the problems of relying merely on our memory.

 

A rhetorical analysis is an informative essay that breaks down an article into parts and then explains how the parts persuade, entertain or inform the audience. A rhetorical analysis shares key examples of those techniques, and the effectiveness of those techniques (if the technique worked or not. It is also written to explores the authors goals, the techniques (or appeals) used. This essay is rhetorically analyzing the article, “why our memory fails us”, written by the authors Chabris, and Simons. In the informative article, why our memory fails us, The authors effectively used the rhetorical appeals Logos, pathos, and ethos to build their case on the problems of relying merely on our memory.

As human beings our memory can so easily be tainted and changed over time. In the article, why our memories fail us, the authors used all the rhetorical appeals to make the article effective in informing the audience of this failing memory of ours. One of the techniques the authors used was logos. Logos is the use of citing facts and making logical arguments, overall it appeals to logic. In the article the authors used Dr. Tyson, and his false recall of information through his memory, as an example to show that our memory fails us, and that it can happen to any and everyone. The article cites various links that lead to the articles about the example Dr. Tyson (a form of logos). The authors also used pathos to inform readers, at the end of the article, in the conclusion, the authors try and be sympathetic towards Dr. Tyson. The authors mentioned how Dr. Tyson apologized, and how the audience should understand that people make mistakes, and if the person in the wrong apologizes to accept it. The use of pathos allowed the audience to connect and understand that everyone’s memory fails at times, this was an effective way to inform the readers, and close off the writing. Lastly, the author effectively used ethos to inform the audience. The authors used ethos to show that they were a credible source and capable of informing readers on why our memory fails us. In the end of the article its states that Chabris and Simons are both psychology professors at their university and has written another book on intuition. Psychology is the study of the minds unconscious and conscious behavior. The short information provided gives their article, and themselves as authors, credibility as they study the mind.

Overall, the article was effective in informing readers on “Why our Memories fails us.” The authors successfully used the rhetorical appeals to convince and inform thoroughly, with examples, on why our memory fails us. Using a very formal tone the authors, the authors relied heavily on facts, citing other articles. The authors focused on using Dr. Tyson has an example on how our memory fails us, throughout the whole article. The authors also used Hillary Clinton as an example of a false memory of something in the past. Finally, The authors also gave examples from studies by another psychologist.

Blackout assignment

Amanda-Victoria Gonzalez

Well-done, nicely written Amanda!

Team 11

5771018

After reading “The End of Solitude”, it’s crazy to see how much I and so many people I know resonate with Deresiwicz thoughts towards connectivity and celebrity. The camera and computer are some of the most popular and advanced forms of technology we obtain today, and we have somehow found a way to merge the two which not only creates new means of communicating which only leads to new sources of connecting as well as becoming known. I didn’t know how valid these points were until I actually got to analyze my own actions for a few days. I crave the recognition on social media. The likes, comments, views; they all satisfy me in their own ways. It’s sad to believe any type of technology could hold a sense of a validity of a person with it, but I am not shocked that it is the reality we live in today.

A few days ago, I committed to my own blackout experiment. It’s only a measure of what cutting off all types of social media looks like, but I did, and it did make a difference in my actions. Even those close to me noticed a difference in my behavior.   I was experiencing solitude as well as a sense of anxiety. I already struggle with anxiety, so this experiment basically just added to it. I hated the idea of not knowing much about what’s going on the world. It was also disheartening when I was already following stories in the news that were currently unraveling (the Kavanaugh story). For incoming information to just stop all of a sudden really took its toll on me and I ended up taking it out on the people around me. I began to realize the constant draw I had to my phone. It almost felt like a battle within my mind when I would continuously unlock my phone to see if there was anything new to read and just not being able to. I was frustrated and I all of a sudden felt the need to be with friends and this was definitely my solitude kicking in. I wanted to do things that it didn’t involve a camera or my phone. I asked my friends to go with me to see the sunrise at the beach and to go to the movies. I ended up doing both by myself and it was a realization moment for me.

After the blackout, I realized that there is a certain beauty that comes with being alone. The only connectivity I was really trying to be in tune with was my own with myself. I don’t think people spend enough time by themselves which is sad because our own self is all we have in the end and there’s nothing wrong with taking some time for ourselves to escape from our phones and the pressures that they encompass.  With that being said, news is important though. I think there is a need for people to be in the know on current events and that goes without saying. Life is all about balance and if we just learn to make time to read about the news, but also make time for ourselves and we will be just fine. (Excellent!!!) 

Ghost In The Shell (1995) assignment

Individual Assignment 3: 48-hour news blackout

Amber Einhorn/ 5445713/ Team 14

Nicely written Amber. I like how you analyzed this reading and how it affected you.

Many millennials to this day like to pretend our reliance on social media isn’t as great as it is until we are challenged to go long periods of time completely disconnected from the world. As for myself, I didn’t grow up overly exposed to technology in the way some younger kids today are playing with tablets rather than with toys. I know how to leave my phone at home without worrying but I can’t imagine my life completely without instant knowledge of everything I would ever want to know at the tip of my fingers. With that said, I wasn’t sure how a 48- hour news blackout would affect me. But I went in confident anyways.

After reading “The End of Solitude” by William Deresiewicz, I was worried loneliness would take over my entire being without warning. I was only initially annoyed at the fact I could tell I was experiencing a slight internet withdrawal, but then after a conscious effort to keep myself busy, the withdrawal symptoms began to disappear. Then suddenly what initially felt like loneliness and exclusion from the world actually became a relaxing, self-reflective bliss. I found myself being able to pick up some old hobbies I gave up because I thought I didn’t have enough time for them. It made me realize how long 24 hours truly is, and how much can really get done.

I wondered if time passes by faster for people living with technology due to the constant stimulation. As much as I learned to appreciate the quiet and stillness of my new life I did miss being able to know what was on the news. Even with that, I didn’t feel the level of loneliness that William Deresiewicz so adamantly said, people my age would feel. I  inspected again his paper and noticed it was written in 2009, due to that I realized why I didn’t relate to what he wrote.

So much can change in nine years, and this decades 20-year-olds aren’t the same ones that were newly introduced to technology in the early 2000s or even the ones from 9 years ago. People my age today were slowly introduced into our new technology-filled lives, and know nothing other than it. The young adults back then did know a life before all the major tech came out thus having a point of comparison. Suddenly, if someone was lonely in the past they would no longer need to feel so with the world in their palms. It makes sense that Deresiewicz wrote how the 20-year-olds of that time would feel intense loneliness without technology because once introduced to a solution, why would someone want to give it up?

I realized that my overly-interconnected generation might have been raised on the internet which has its ups and downs. It is because of that, that we have a bigger voice than others our age ever had the chance to have, and if we choose to use it, we could change the world.

The insider team assignment

Very good, but I don’t know who answered which questions on your team. I have Amber, Maria, Martina, Ashley and Agustina who all get individual grades plus a team grade. Please send me example who did what please?

Currently, the highest grade is 50. 0 – 45 for team and 0 – 5 for individual’s

These answers are very thorough and your analysis is well-stated. The images are terrific!  I am giving you full credit for the essay and two extra points for the images.  Did all of you work on this post in some way or another?  Send answer(s) to my email. For now, since I am entering grades in grade book I am giving your team a 47.

  1. The mainstream media often face enormous challenges in trying to give audiences an accurate picture of the world. For individual journalists, there are extraordinary pressures and obstacles to getting at the truth and telling the stories audiences want and need. You may select Jeffrey Wigand, 60 Minutes host Mike Wallace, producer Lowell Bergman, executive producer Don Hewitt, the Wall Street Journal editor who helped stop the smear or the NY Times reporter who exposed the inside story on how CBS handled the Wigand affair. All of these people had significant personal and institutional pressures, some more than others. Please do not select your character because you believe everyone will write about that person. No team can analyze this case the same as someone else unless they cheat.

Your essay should focus on how the principles and values of concealment and revelation apply to the tobacco case or the case at CBS News. 500 words.*

 

Jeffrey Wigand by far had the most pressures and obstacles to go through when trying to share the truth about big tobacco and the people who run it. Even though everyone else also shared intense pressure, it is Wigand and his family who were stalked and threatened repeatedly. At one point in the movie, Wigand was being obviously stalked at his golf course, then later he found an unknown footprint in his backyard at night. Wigand and his family also received a threatening email saying they would kill his family, and then soon after that Wigand found a bullet in his mailbox. The threats and stalking were an attempt to prevent Wigand’s testimony of highly confidential information. Wigand had immense pressure to not go through with sharing the truth about big tobacco, but he still went ahead and did it. Unfortunately, he paid the price for it, and Wigand suffered big consequences. His honorable actions cost him his job, wife, and children. Although these are horrible consequences when interviewed he stated “Would I do it again, do I think it’s worth it? Yeah, I think it’s worth it” Wingand knew the dangers of secrecy and knew that if he didn’t reveal the truth regardless of what consequences might occur, more people would get hurt because of it. Jeffrey Wigand was a man of integrity and took a risk revealing that secret in hopes that it would benefit the people.

In parallel, Mike Wallace only faced the fear of potentially losing his job, and faced the pressure of somewhat forcing Wigand to come forward and speak even though of the backlash that would occur. In the beginning, the whole reason Wigand lost his job was because he stood up to his bosses and strongly expressed his disapproval about formulating nicotine to be more addictive. After the shock of losing his job and having to downgrade his life, he seemed very depressed and didn’t want to speak to anyone about the matter, due to the fact he had signed a confidentiality agreement before he left big tobacco. A confidentiality agreement can put an immense amount of pressure on the person and Mike Wallace is a prime example of that. With persistence, Mike Wallace convinced Wigand to talk and assured him confidentiality and safety. Even throughout all the threats against him and his family, and his wife eventually divorcing him, he chose not to be afraid and share the truth with the world.

 

Imagen relacionada

The picture shows Jeffrey Wigand about to be interviewed on CBS’s 60 Minutes where he reveals the truth about Nicotine being highly addictive in cigarettes   

 

  1. How does Jeffrey Wigand’s non-disclosure agreement (NDA) affect the flow of information in The Insider? What legitimate argument, if any, could Brown and Williamson (B&W) make in support of the agreement? What NDAs have recently been used in the public sector? Using the critical perspective, what are the implications of NDAs for government employees? 300 words.  

Jeffrey Wigand signed an agreement with his ex-company Brown and Williamson in which he agreed to not reveal any information about the company secrets to anyone, in exchange this agreement will keep giving him health care that he needed for his family specifically one of his daughters that had been suffering from asthma and required constant medical attention. When CBS contacted him about the case of the tobacco company, Wigand tried to avoid them. He was very interested in keeping the benefits of the agreement. He knew that B&W was not following the health protocol, and their cigarettes were hurting people by putting nicotine on it, making it more addictive and damaging the health of smokers. Wigand came into the company thinking he would make cigarettes healthier, and noting that the company was doing the opposite, agreed to blow the whistle. Because of Wigand NDA, B&W could sue CBS for “tortious interference.” This affected the reporting strongly on TV, airing not the complete interview of Wigand.

B&W could support the agreement by one, the agreement did not say that nicotine is addictive and two, there was no proof or science that smoking kills, another reason was that the seven tobacco companies have declared they were not addictive. Wigard, of course, did not agree on this but he still signed it because of the tie with his health care and severance package.

One prominent example of an NDA used in the public sector is the case of Stormy Daniels; she signed an NDA with Donald Trump’s lawyer Michael Cohen just before the 2016 elections. Stormy got paid $130,000 to keep silence regarding an affair with Trump. Daniels could own $20 million for breaking the agreement.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stormy_Daniels%E2%80%93Donald_Trump_scandal

Most of the consequences of breaking a  non-disclosure agreement will always be money; they would not put anyone in jail. Instead, they will charge whoever broke the agreement several amounts of money. Employees inside the government who break any NDA inside their job can get higher consequences than just owning money. They can get their whole life destroyed, no opportunities for other jobs, etc.  The government can control their life, and put their employees in a betrayed position in front of the public.

 

Resultado de imagen para b&w tobacco company and seven companies

The picture above presents the seven tobacco companies claiming their product is not addictive.

 

  1. John Scanlon and Terry Lenzner were hired by B&W to attack Wigand’s reputation. Jack Palladino and his team of investigators were hired by Richard Scruggs to counter their allegations. Using McLuhan as a lens, analyze the forms of media used by both Scanlon/Lenzner and Palladino. If this war over Wigand’s reputation had occurred in 2018, would today’s media have made things different? If so, how?

The film can be interpreted by McLuhan’s idea that the medium is the message. The way that Scanlon/Lenzner   Palladino portrayed the information about Wigand was more important than the information itself. That’s why he stresses the importance that the medium is the message, rather than the content. In this case, if we pay more attention to the content and barely any on the medium, then we lose the chance of perceiving the influence and impact of the information that we receive. Scanlon and Lenzner were hired by B&W to attack Wigand’s reputation; undoubtedly causing the information to be influenced by the medium. Portraying Wigand as a liar and a crook, B&W leaked information that later was found to be demonstrably untrue or contradictory evidence. Palladino used Richard Scruggs medium to counter their allegations in revealing the actual truth. The Insider is a good reminder of what happens when the media ceases to function as an instrument heavily influenced by the government. It exemplifies the power that money and reputation can have over the media and how a story is filtered before it reaches the general public. It makes you wonder; how many stories don’t reveal the unfiltered and transparent truth? How are we supposed to trust what the press is telling us? Well, the only truth is: we can’t. However, unlike in the war over Wigand’s reputation, in today’s media, we have immediacy, the information would be immediate to the public. In an increasingly fast-paced world, there is little need to wait for anything. The audience, which was once passive, is now cast in a more central and influential role than ever before. Having access to so much information, there is now the possibility to discover and seek for ourselves what is the real truth.

Resultado de imagen para wigand and his lawyers

 

  1. In the film, Bergman, Wallace, and Hewitt attend a meeting with CBS Corporate.  CBS general counsel Helen Caperelli informs them of “tortious interference” and its implications for the 60 Minutes Wigand piece. Provide a detailed analysis of the rhetoric used by the participants in the meeting. For each speaker, who is their intended audience, and how do they use the modes of rhetoric?

In the film, Bergman, Wallace, and Hewitt attended a meeting, in which CBS counsel Helen Caperelli informs them about “tortious interference”. She explains that if  “two people have an agreement, such as a confidentiality agreement and one of them brakes it because they are induced by a third party, the third party can be sued for damages of interfering”. They are unaware of the consequences they might face and continued to debate against Caparelli’s suggestions towards exposing Wigand’s truth about the tobacco company wanting to reveal how they were making the nicotine more addictive so that their company would supply and demand more rapidly. Being that Brown and Williamson’s company was a  big success at selling their product they were also hiding the truth about the long-term effects nicotine can create. Bergman uses rhetoric by convincing the rest of the participants and himself that it is a news organization and people are always telling them things they shouldn’t. I believe that with all the risks they may take they also know how big of a news story it would be if they went against Brown and Williamson and interviewed Wigand’s truth about the company and what they were hiding from the public. As well Bergman felt strongly about continuing with the story because it is his job as a reporter to expose stories and share them especially with something as big as this. Unfortunately, later on, they came to a conclusion that by leaking the truth about how harmful and extremely addictive nicotine can be it would be better to not expose the story. As much as they all agreed with Bergman in the beginning, they all sided with not exposing the story because they knew that by taking this risk of damage, Brown & Williamson could ultimately buy CBS.  

Resultado de imagen para tortious interference

 

Thesis- Uroosa Ullah Team 16

Thesis

Uroosa Ullah – Team 16

I believe we worked on this and your thesis was accepted.

 

On Tuesday June 5th, the designer Kate Spade was found dead in her apartment in New York. She suffered from depression and anxiety due to her marriage. Spade commit suicide and hung herself and left a death note to her family. Discovering Spade’s death left individuals questioning what really led to this heartbreaking moment. The multiple status updates, numerous hashtags, shared posts on social media was chaotic. Individuals reactions were puzzled and distressed, why Spade had left this world without giving a reason to her beloved fans. Or that’s what the media wanted everyone to interpret.

Media Creates Culture Maria Uribe

Maria Uribe

Thank you Maria, I have adjusted your grade.

Team 17

Media Creates Culture 

Marshall McLuhan and his studies were pioneers in the field of communication and the influence of new media and technology in modern society. The work of the so-called “media theorist,” was a passion for writing, and at the same time for communication. McLuhan opened a debate that persists on the influence of modern media in society. His work is written mostly in the form of short fragments and almost always with humor. One of McLuhan’s most important works was “the medium is the message” which aimed to explain the potential of the media in society.

In March 1969, an exciting interview with Marshall McLuhan was made in the famous and controversial American magazine, Playboy. In the interview, McLuhan highlighted his singular method of research: Exploration. He argued that his work had the purpose of contributing to the understanding of the various technological environments and their repercussions in the psychological and social fields. In this interview, McLuhan confirmed that the medium is the message, and how the critical perspective of people is affected by everything that is around them primarily by the media.

MacLuhan was able to express in this interview how is the impact of the media in the cultural environment, he explains why and how the media functions. The media become an extension or amplification of the organs, senses or functions of man, this phenomenon is called “hypnosis” or “Narcosis.”

McLuhan warns the public of the importance of being aware of how technology affects us. He proposes it as a survival strategy. But most people don’t know what technology can do good or bad.

If we understand the transformations caused by the media, we can anticipate and control them, but if we continue in the ignorance of how media affect us we will always be slaves to the technological effects, said McLuhan. For this reason, his work always revolved around the idea of revealing the impact of the media on society to people. When McLuhan spoke of means, he meant any technology that could function as extensions of the human body and senses, from clothes to computers. One of the examples presented in the interview was about all media, from the phonetic alphabet to the computer, are extensions of man that cause deep and lasting changes in it and transform its environment.

On the other hand, one can find in the interview a precise and straightforward explanation of what  McLuhan considers what is warm and cold communication.

 

McLuhan’s statements about the medium are truthful and realistic in today’s media and society.The medium tells message it has become a slogan of the communication sciences since it is the way of perceiving the reality. It is in direct relation with the structure and the form of reporting, and each means is related in turn with a part of the human psyche.

 

 

Image result for One image illustrating McLuhan or his ideas

https://www.smashingmagazine.com/2011/07/the-medium-is-the-message/

 

The Insider – Assignment

Denise Gonzalez-Abreu
Adriana Cano
Saige Mills
Gilberto Mendoza

Team 12

Good work! Extra points for video! I would like to grade this but I need to know who wrote which parts. Is Saige Mills  Saige Dexter Raymond???

 

The Insider AssignmentAll Posts

  1. The mainstream media often face enormous challenges in trying to give audiences an accurate picture of the world. For individual journalists, there are extraordinary pressures and obstacles to getting at the truth and telling the stories audiences want and need.

You may select Jeffrey Wigand, 60 Minutes host Mike Wallace, producer Lowell Bergman, executive producer Don Hewitt, the Wall Street Journal editor who helped stop the smear or the NY Times reporter who exposed the inside story on how CBS handled the Wigand affair.

All of these people had significant personal and institutional pressures, some more than others. Please do not select your character because you believe everyone will write about that person. No team can analyze this case the same as someone else, unless they cheat.

Your essay should focus on how the principles and values of concealment and revelation apply to the tobacco case or the case at CBS News. 500 words.*

Most reporters are seen as sensationalist. Motivated by the pressure of being the first to tell the story, reporters are often recognized for publishing exaggerated, or even false, information. This “bad reputation” does not apply, however, to CBS reporter Lowell Bergman. Bergman’s motivation for every action he committed, throughout the film, was to prove and defend his integrity.  

           In the film, Bergman meets Jeffrey Wigand for the purpose of discussing Wigand’s expertise on some documents. During their meeting, Bergman is quick to inform Wigand that when “he talks to people in confidence, it stays that way.” Bergman defends his reputation for integrity.

           Bergman’s relationship with Wigand takes a dramatic shift after the discovery of Wigand’s classified knowledge about Tobacco Company, Brown & Williamson.

           In a conversation with CBS, Bergman demonstrates his understanding of the power behind the Wigand’s story. “He’s only the key witness in the biggest public health reform issue, maybe the biggest, most-expensive corporate-malfeasance case in U.S. history.” However, in the film, Bergman proves that the reputation of his integrity far outweighs the need to out the story. In a fit of rage, he defends his integrity once again by telling Wigand, “story, no story, I don’t burn people.”

           He leaves the decision to leak the story completely in Wigand’s hands. Lowell informs Wigand, “If you got vital, insider stuff the American people for their welfare really do need to know and you feel impelled to disclose it and violate your agreement in doing so, that’s one thing. On the other hand, if you want to honor this agreement, then that’s simple. You do so. You say nothing. You do nothing. There’s only one guy who can figure that out for you. And that’s you. All by yourself.”

           After CBS’s refusal to air Wigand’s story, Bergman chooses to leak the story to the New York Times, informing them of Wigand’s knowledge and CBS’s refusal. The Times’ piece ultimately portrays CBS as cowards, informing the public that they “caved to corporate interest.”

           In leaking the story, Bergman surrenders his credit and ownership of the piece to the New York Times. Lowell Bergman proves that the main motivation to leak the story was to protect his reputation for integrity.

           Disclosing his knowledge of Brown and Williamson Tobacco Company forced Wigand to face lawsuits, lose his family, and have his reputation destroyed. CBS’s refusal to air the story made no difference to Lowell Bergman. Bergman wasn’t about to leave Wigand hanging from a limb. As promised before, Bergman doesn’t “burn people.”

           The greatest display of Bergman’s integrity is seen at the end of the film. Bergman chooses to quit the CBS Corporation. Bergman believes that CBS, and the way they handled the Wigand incident, has compromised his integrity. He states, “What do I tell a source on the next tough story? Hang in with us. You’ll be fine…maybe?”

           Bergman, unlike other reporters, values his integrity, and the trust he forms with his subjects, over any corporation.  

 

  1. How does Jeffrey Wigand’s non-disclosure agreement (NDA) affect the flow of information in The Insider? What legitimate argument, if any, could Brown and Williamson (B&W) make in support of the agreement? What NDAs have recently been used in the public sector? Using the critical perspective, what are the implications of NDAs for government employees? 300 words.

Jeffery Wigand’s non-disclosure agreement affected the flow of information in The Insider because he could not reveal critical parts of information that would have pulled together the story better. Brown and Williamson could not have made the legitimate argument because of the credible information being released. The NDA recently used in the public sector is President Donald Trump’s against Omarosa Manigault Newman. President Donald Trump’s campaign filed an arbitration action against Omarosa Manigault Newman, alleging that the former White House aide, who just published a tell-all book, had broken a 2016 confidentiality agreement. Non-disclosure agreements for government employees implicate that they do not reveal information that might affect the safety of the people or may cause an uproar from the people.

  1. John Scanlon and Terry Lenzner were hired by B&W to attack Wigand’s reputation. Jack Palladino and his team of investigators were hired by Richard Scruggs to counter their allegations. Using McLuhan as a lens, analyze the forms of media used by both Scanlon/Lenzner and Palladino. If this war over Wigand’s reputation had occurred in 2018, would today’s media have made things different? If so, how? 300 words.

Scanlon and Lenzner tried to divert the emphasis of the issue at hand to place Jeffrey Wigand in the limelight. In an attempt to nullify the allegations made against B&W, they brought forth information from the Wigand’s past. This method of media manipulation tries to kill the credibility of the messenger. The puerile attack on Wigand despite the allegations being true or false has nothing to do with the very intentional secrecy that Wigand was responsible for uncovering.  If this issue were to present itself today, Wigand’s reputation could have suffered. In the digital age, the past can never be erased. With the help of social media and the powerful memory of the internet, it would’ve been much easier for Scanlon and Lenzner to obtain information on Wigand. In turn, it would’ve been quite difficult for Palladino to maintain Wigand’s credibility and protect his reputation. 

Through the lens of McLuhan, the development of technology is a means to essentially evolve human senses to communicate better, faster and more often. The media in 2018 is obviously much different from that portrayed in the film. However, it is an evolved version of the same robust platform. Nowadays, the media is a powerful platform that breaks down into sub-categories such as social media. Information is spread instantly inciting conversation. It is where communities of equally opinionated like-minded people are built. These people along with TV media now fuel the existence of issues in the media. In 2018, audiences, who are left with processing and digesting the media, would take sides and more than likely side with the more utilitarian opposer. This generation though oddly apathetic empathizes with those doing what’s seen as right from a utilitarian worldview.

  1. In the film, Bergman, Wallace, and Hewitt attend a meeting with CBS Corporate.  CBS general counsel Helen Caperelli informs them of “tortious interference” and its implications for the 60 Minutes Wigand piece. Provide a detailed analysis of the rhetoric used by the participants in the meeting. For each speaker, who is their intended audience, and how do they use the modes of rhetoric? 300 words.

 

In the meeting with the CBS Corporate, Caperelli explains in detail the definition of “tortious interference” but her definition has a double meaning. She uses rhetoric in the way that she knows the segment of 60 Minutes is true, and if it’s true the company will get sued, but she wants the gentleman in the meeting to realize the risk they are throwing themselves at. With the limited information she says, she demands them to review the information that wants to be aired to avoid any problems. Her intended audience is the gentleman and the people who are involved with the 60 Minutes show, and the CBS Corporate given that there can be damages to both sides.

Bergman, on the other side, is aware of the information that Wigand is going to talk about in the interview and knows that the information about the Tobacco company is true, but he is trying to convince Caparelli that everything is fine. He does try to not air the segment because he is aware of the great risk it is. He wants to be safe and just record the segment and do the interview but not air it, since the more information Wigand says the more damage that will be done. His audience is Wallace, Hewitt, and Kluster.

Wallace uses rhetoric by creating a strong confidence in front of Caperelli that they always review the material before it goes on the air, and it is the reason why they have never lost a lawsuit. His audience is Caperelli and Kluster. Last but not least, Hewitt uses rhetoric by making Caperelli aware they realize she is doubting their segment. He asks her if she thinks they have liability in the segment, with the purpose of looking tougher and more reliable with the information on the segment. His intended audience is Caperelli, Kluster and the CBS Corporate.

Article – Great Scene: “The Insider”

 

References

Myers, S. (2017). Great Scene: “The Insider” – Go Into The Story. [online] Go Into The Story. Available at: https://gointothestory.blcklst.com/great-scene-the-insider-7256ebd9d180 [Accessed 10 Oct. 2018].

“The Cat TOTALLY out of the Bag — and You’re Still DEBATING!” YouTube, YouTube, 2 Oct. 2008, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vJfyFoZcetY.